Immune Mechanisms in Plants 2.0

A special issue of Vaccines (ISSN 2076-393X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 4026

Special Issue Editors

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Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy
Interests: essential oils; bioactive phytochemicals; ethnopharmacology; antimicrobial resistance; one health; food security
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In their environment, plants have to cope with a plethora of biotic stresses, including pathogens, pests and weeds; in addition, these sessile organisms are not able to escape from an hostile environment. Therefore, plants have evolved a complex defense system consisting of a network of constitutive or inducible physical and chemical barriers. In these terms, plants are able to discriminate between self and nonself as well as to recognize different types of elicitors (exogenous and endogenous non specific or general elicitors, and specific or race-specific elicitors) by pattern recognition receptors or R (resistance) gene products. Noteworthy, triggering the plants’ own defense mechanisms by selected agrochemicals (i.e. elicitors and plant activators) represents an innovative and environmentally-friendly strategy to reduce the burden of conventional agrochemicals in crop protection.

Prof. Dr. Marcello Iriti
Prof. Dr. Sara Vitalini
Guest Editors

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  • plant innate immunity
  • one health
  • host resistance
  • non-host resistance
  • gene-for-gene interaction
  • systemic acquired resistance (SAR)
  • pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)
  • microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)
  • herbivore-associate molecular pattern (HAMP)
  • damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP)
  • pathogen recognition receptors (PPP)
  • avirulence (avr) genes
  • resistance (R) genes
  • elicitors
  • plant activators
  • priming
  • phytoalexins
  • pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins

Published Papers (1 paper)

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27 pages, 12700 KiB  
Modulation of Expression of PVYNTN RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (NIb) and Heat Shock Cognate Host Protein HSC70 in Susceptible and Hypersensitive Potato Cultivars
by Edmund Kozieł, Przemysław Surowiecki, Agnieszka Przewodowska, Józef J. Bujarski and Katarzyna Otulak-Kozieł
Vaccines 2021, 9(11), 1254; - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3026
Potato virus Y (PVY) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is considered to be one of the most harmful and important plant pathogens. Its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is known as nuclear inclusion protein b (NIb). The recent findings show that the genome [...] Read more.
Potato virus Y (PVY) belongs to the genus Potyvirus and is considered to be one of the most harmful and important plant pathogens. Its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is known as nuclear inclusion protein b (NIb). The recent findings show that the genome of PVY replicates in the cytoplasm of the plant cell by binding the virus replication complex to the membranous structures of different organelles. In some potyviruses, NIb has been found to be localized in the nucleus and associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Moreover, NIb has been shown to interact with other host proteins that are particularly involved in promoting the virus infection cycle, such as the heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSP70 is the most conserved among the five major HSP families that are known to affect the plant–pathogen interactions. Some plant viruses can induce the production of HSP70 during the development of infection. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactive response to PVYNTN (necrotic tuber necrosis strain of PVY), the present study focused on StHSC70-8 and PVYNTN-NIb gene expression via localization of HSC70 and NIb proteins during compatible (susceptible) and incompatible (hypersensitive) potato–PVYNTN interactions. Our results demonstrate that NIb and HSC70 are involved in the response to PVYNTN infections and probably cooperate at some stages of the virus infection cycle. Enhanced deposition of HSC70 proteins during the infection cycle was associated with the dynamic induction of PVYNTN-NIb gene expression and NIb localization during susceptible infections. In hypersensitive response (HR), a significant increase in HSC70 expression was observed up to 3 days post-inoculation (dpi) in the nucleus and chloroplasts. Thereafter, between 3 and 21 dpi, the deposition of NIb decreased, which can be attributed to a reduction in the levels of both virus accumulation and PVYNTN-NIb gene expression. Therefore, we postulate that increase in the expression of both StHSC70-8 and PVYNTN-NIb induces the PVY infection during susceptible infections. In contrast, during HRs, HSC70 cooperates with PVYNTN only at the early stages of interaction and mediates the defense response signaling pathway at the later stages of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Mechanisms in Plants 2.0)
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