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Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 36120

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The worldwide clinical demand for bone regeneration is a problematic issue in orthopaedic and maxillofacial surgery. The application of autologous bone is still the standard in bone transplantation. Due to the limited quantity of bone available for harvest and the poor quality of bone transplants—especially in elderly patients, due to bone diseases such as osteoporosis—surgeons are looking for alternatives such as bone substitute materials. The ideal grafting material enables the regeneration of bony defects up to the condition of a restitutio ad integrum, and should combine the basic mechanism of fracture healing, namely osteogenesis, osteoinduction and osteoconduction. In the last few decades, a variety of bone substitute materials with different physicochemical properties have been developed and analysed to optimize the process of bone regeneration. Furthermore, various different growth factors, cytokines and antibiotics have been incorporated into bone substitutes and matrices as so-called “composite bone grafts” in order to enhance bone healing. Moreover, different tissue engineering strategies, such as combinations with extracellular matrix proteins and/or different cell types (e.g., osteoblasts, mesenchymal stem cells or endothelial cells) have been developed with the aim of improving the regenerative properties of bone substitute materials. However, no alternative to autologous bone has been found; thus, there is a need for ongoing research to develop a composite bone graft that combines osteogenesis with inductive and conductive properties. In this context, preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as clinical trials analysing fundamental molecular processes, are crucial to define the regeneration mechanisms of new materials and tissue engineering concepts.

This Special Issue focuses on the various aspects of interactions of bone substitutes with cells and tissues. Thus, we invite contributions of reviews and original papers reporting new results in the field of bone substitute development and bone tissue engineering concepts, including in vitro and in vivo analyses as well as clinical studies, with a focus on new molecular insights.

Dr. Mike Barbeck
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • bone tissue regeneration
  • bone substitute
  • bone tissue engineering
  • tissue reactions
  • biomaterial

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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22 pages, 3421 KiB  
Article
Towards Controlling the Local Bone Tissue Remodeling—Multifunctional Injectable Composites for Osteoporosis Treatment
by Joanna Klara, Sylwia Onak, Andrzej Kowalczyk, Wojciech Horak, Kinga Wójcik and Joanna Lewandowska-Łańcucka
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4959; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054959 - 04 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Alendronate (ALN) is the most commonly prescribed oral nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate for osteoporosis therapy. However, its administration is associated with serious side effects. Therefore, the drug delivery systems (DDS) enabling local administration and localized action of that drug are still of great importance. Herein, [...] Read more.
Alendronate (ALN) is the most commonly prescribed oral nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate for osteoporosis therapy. However, its administration is associated with serious side effects. Therefore, the drug delivery systems (DDS) enabling local administration and localized action of that drug are still of great importance. Herein, a novel multifunctional DDS system based on the hydroxyapatite-decorated mesoporous silica particles (MSP-NH2-HAp-ALN) embedded into collagen/chitosan/chondroitin sulfate hydrogel for simultaneous osteoporosis treatment and bone regeneration is proposed. In such a system, the hydrogel serves as a carrier for the controlled delivery of ALN at the site of implantation, thus limiting potential adverse effects. The involvement of MSP-NH2-HAp-ALN in the crosslinking process was established, as well as the ability of hybrids to be used as injectable systems. We have shown that the attachment of MSP-NH2-HAp-ALN to the polymeric matrix provides a prolonged ALN release (up to 20 days) and minimizes the initial burst effect. It was revealed that obtained composites are effective osteoconductive materials capable of supporting the osteoblast-like cell (MG-63) functions and inhibiting osteoclast-like cell (J7741.A) proliferation in vitro. The purposely selected biomimetic composition of these materials (biopolymer hydrogel enriched with the mineral phase) allows their biointegration (in vitro study in the simulated body fluid) and delivers the desired physicochemical features (mechanical, wettability, swellability). Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the composites in in vitro experiments was also demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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13 pages, 1393 KiB  
Article
Suitability of R. pulmo Jellyfish-Collagen-Coated Well Plates for Cytocompatibility Analyses of Biomaterials
by Yanru Ren, Luo Liu, Xin Xiong, Rumen Krastev, Ralf Smeets, Denis Rimashevskiy, Reinhard Schnettler, Said Alkildani, Steffen Emmert, Ole Jung and Mike Barbeck
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24033007 - 03 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Cytocompatibility analyses of new implant materials or biomaterials are not only prescribed by the Medical Device Regulation (MDR), as defined in the DIN ISO Norm 10993-5 and -12, but are also increasingly replacing animal testing. In this context, jellyfish collagen has already been [...] Read more.
Cytocompatibility analyses of new implant materials or biomaterials are not only prescribed by the Medical Device Regulation (MDR), as defined in the DIN ISO Norm 10993-5 and -12, but are also increasingly replacing animal testing. In this context, jellyfish collagen has already been established as an alternative to mammalian collagen in different cell culture conditions, but a lack of knowledge exists about its applicability for cytocompatibility analyses of biomaterials. Thus, the present study was conducted to compare well plates coated with collagen type 0 derived from Rhizostoma pulmo with plates coated with bovine and porcine collagen. The coated well plates were analysed in vitro for their cytocompatibility, according to EN ISO 10993-5/−12, using both L929 fibroblasts and MC3T3 pre-osteoblasts. Thereby, the coated well plates were compared, using established materials as positive controls and a cytotoxic material, RM-A, as a negative control. L929 cells exhibited a significantly higher viability (#### p < 0.0001), proliferation (## p < 0.01), and a lower cytotoxicity (## p < 0.01 and # p < 0.05)) in the Jellagen® group compared to the bovine and porcine collagen groups. MC3T3 cells showed similar viability and acceptable proliferation and cytotoxicity in all collagen groups. The results of the present study revealed that the coating of well plates with collagen Type 0 derived from R. pulmo leads to comparable results to the case of well plates coated with mammalian collagens. Therefore, it is fully suitable for the in vitro analyses of the cytocompatibility of biomaterials or medical devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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14 pages, 5670 KiB  
Article
Effect of Octacalcium Phosphate Crystals on the Osteogenic Differentiation of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells In Vitro
by Xianchen Liu, Yukari Shiwaku, Ryo Hamai, Kaori Tsuchiya, Tetsu Takahashi and Osamu Suzuki
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021235 - 08 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1384
Abstract
Synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP) activates bone tissue-related cells, such as osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and vascular endothelial cells. However, the effect of OCP on tendon-related cell activation remains unknown. This study examined the response of rat tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) to OCP and related calcium [...] Read more.
Synthetic octacalcium phosphate (OCP) activates bone tissue-related cells, such as osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and vascular endothelial cells. However, the effect of OCP on tendon-related cell activation remains unknown. This study examined the response of rat tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) to OCP and related calcium phosphate crystals in vitro. TSPCs were cultured with OCP and Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) obtained from the original OCP hydrolysis to assess the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. Compared with CDHA, the effect of OCP on promoting the osteogenic differentiation of TSPCs was apparent: the ALP activity and mRNA expression of RUNX2, Col1a1, OCN, and OPN were higher in OCP than in CDHA. To estimate the changes in the chemical environment caused by OCP and CDHA, we measured the calcium ion (Ca2+) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) ion concentrations and pH values of the TSPCs medium. The results suggest that the difference in the osteogenic differentiation of the TSPCs is related to the ionic environment induced by OCP and CDHA, which could be related to the progress of OCP hydrolysis into CDHA. These results support the previous in vivo observation that OCP has the healing function of rabbit rotator cuff tendon in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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17 pages, 7473 KiB  
Article
Bacterial Cellulose Hybrid Composites with Calcium Phosphate for Bone Tissue Regeneration
by Cristina Busuioc, Gabriela Isopencu, Adela Banciu, Daniel-Dumitru Banciu, Ovidiu Oprea, Alexandra Mocanu, Iuliana Deleanu, Mihaela Zăuleţ, Laura Popescu, Rodica Tănăsuică, Mihai Vasilescu and Anicuţa Stoica-Guzun
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416180 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1759
Abstract
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a unique microbial biopolymer with a huge number of significant applications in the biomedical field, including bone tissue engineering. The present study proposes to obtain and characterize BC hybrid composites with calcium phosphate as biocompatible and bioactive membranes for [...] Read more.
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a unique microbial biopolymer with a huge number of significant applications in the biomedical field, including bone tissue engineering. The present study proposes to obtain and characterize BC hybrid composites with calcium phosphate as biocompatible and bioactive membranes for bone tissue engineering. BC precursor membranes were obtained in static culture fermentation, and after purification, were oxidized to obtain 2,3-dialdehyde bacterial cellulose (DABC). Calcium phosphate-BC oxidized membranes were produced by successive immersion in precursor solutions under ultrasonic irradiation. The samples were characterized for their physicochemical properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13C NMR), and complex thermal analysis. In vitro cell studies were also performed to evaluate the influence of modified morphological characteristics on cell adhesion and proliferation. The results showed an increase in porosity and biodegradability for DABC hybrid composites compared with BC. In vitro cell studies have revealed that both hybrid composites favor cell adhesion to the surface. The new BC and DABC hybrid composites with calcium phosphate could be considered promising materials for bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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16 pages, 2805 KiB  
Article
Use of CGF in Oral and Implant Surgery: From Laboratory Evidence to Clinical Evaluation
by Andrea Palermo, Laura Giannotti, Benedetta Di Chiara Stanca, Franco Ferrante, Antonio Gnoni, Paola Nitti, Nadia Calabriso, Christian Demitri, Fabrizio Damiano, Tiziano Batani, Massimo Lungherini, Maria Annunziata Carluccio, Biagio Rapone, Erda Qorri, Antonio Scarano, Luisa Siculella, Eleonora Stanca and Alessio Rochira
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 15164; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232315164 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2670
Abstract
Edentulism is the condition of having lost natural teeth, and has serious social, psychological, and emotional consequences. The need for implant services in edentulous patients has dramatically increased during the last decades. In this study, the effects of concentrated growth factor (CGF), an [...] Read more.
Edentulism is the condition of having lost natural teeth, and has serious social, psychological, and emotional consequences. The need for implant services in edentulous patients has dramatically increased during the last decades. In this study, the effects of concentrated growth factor (CGF), an autologous blood-derived biomaterial, in improving the process of osseointegration of dental implants have been evaluated. Here, permeation of dental implants with CGF has been obtained by using a Round up device. These CGF-coated dental implants retained a complex internal structure capable of releasing growth factors (VEGF, TGF-β1, and BMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) over time. The CGF-permeated implants induced the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSC) as confirmed by matrix mineralization and the expression of osteogenic differentiation markers. Moreover, CGF provided dental implants with a biocompatible and biologically active surface that significantly improved adhesion of endothelial cells on CGF-coated implants compared to control implants (without CGF). Finally, data obtained from surgical interventions with CGF-permeated dental implants presented better results in terms of optimal osseointegration and reduced post-surgical complications. These data, taken together, highlight new and interesting perspectives in the use of CGF in the dental implantology field to improve osseointegration and promote the healing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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23 pages, 3940 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Angiogenesis-Based Scaffold of MesoporousBioactive Glass Nanofiber on Osteogenesis
by Weijia Zheng, Zhenzu Bai, Shan Huang, Kai Jiang, Long Liu and Xiaoyan Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(20), 12670; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232012670 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1837
Abstract
There is still an urgent need for more efficient biological scaffolds to promote the healing of bone defects. Vessels can accelerate bone growth and regeneration by transporting nutrients, which is an excellent method to jointly increase osteogenesis and angiogenesis in bone regeneration. Therefore, [...] Read more.
There is still an urgent need for more efficient biological scaffolds to promote the healing of bone defects. Vessels can accelerate bone growth and regeneration by transporting nutrients, which is an excellent method to jointly increase osteogenesis and angiogenesis in bone regeneration. Therefore, we aimed to prepare a composite scaffold that could promote osteogenesis with angiogenesis to enhance bone defect repair. Here, we report that scaffolds were prepared by coaxial electrospinning with mesoporous bioactive glass modified with amino (MBG-NH2) adsorbing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as the core and silk fibroin (SF) adsorbing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as the shell. These scaffolds were named MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF and might be used as repair materials to promote bone defect repair. Interestingly, we found that the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds had nano-scale morphology and high porosity, as well as enough mechanical strength to support the tissue. Moreover, MBG-NH2 could sustain the release of IGF-1 to achieve long-term repair. Additionally, the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds could significantly promote the mRNA expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and the protein expression levels of Bmp2 and Runx2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Meanwhile, the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds promoted osteogenesis by simulating Runx2 transcription activity through the phosphorylated Erk1/2-activated pathway. Intriguingly, the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds could also significantly promote the mRNA expression level of angiogenesis marker genes and the protein expression level of CD31. Furthermore, RNA sequencing verified that the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds had excellent performance in promoting bone defect repair and angiogenesis. Consistent with these observations, we found that the MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds demonstrated a good repair effect on a critical skull defect in mice in vivo, which not only promoted the formation of blood vessels in the haversian canal but also accelerated the bone repair process. We concluded that these MBG-NH2/IGF@SF/VEGF scaffolds could promote bone defect repair under accelerating angiogenesis. Our finding provides a new potential biomaterial for bone tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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17 pages, 7516 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Analysis of the Regeneration Capacity and Immune Response to Xenogeneic and Synthetic Bone Substitute Materials
by James Bielenstein, Milena Radenković, Stevo Najman, Luo Liu, Yanru Ren, Baoyi Cai, Florian Beuer, Denis Rimashevskiy, Reinhard Schnettler, Said Alkildani, Ole Jung, Franziska Schmidt and Mike Barbeck
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(18), 10636; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231810636 - 13 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Although various studies have investigated differences in the tissue reaction pattern to synthetic and xenogeneic bone substitute materials (BSMs), a lack of knowledge exists regarding the classification of both materials based on the DIN ISO 10993-6 scoring system, as well as the histomorphometrical [...] Read more.
Although various studies have investigated differences in the tissue reaction pattern to synthetic and xenogeneic bone substitute materials (BSMs), a lack of knowledge exists regarding the classification of both materials based on the DIN ISO 10993-6 scoring system, as well as the histomorphometrical measurement of macrophage subtypes within their implantation beds. Thus, the present study was conducted to analyze in vivo responses to both xenogeneic and synthetic bone substitute granules. A standardized calvaria implantation model in Wistar rats, in combination with established scoring, histological, histopathological, and histomorphometrical methods, was conducted to analyze the influence of both biomaterials on bone regeneration and the immune response. The results showed that the application of the synthetic BSM maxresorb® induced a higher pro-inflammatory tissue response, while the xenogeneic BSM cerabone® induced a higher anti-inflammatory reaction. Additionally, comparable bone regeneration amounts were found in both study groups. Histopathological scoring revealed that the synthetic BSM exhibited non-irritant scores at all timepoints using the xenogeneic BSM as control. Overall, the results demonstrated the biocompatibility of synthetic BSM maxresorb® and support the conclusion that this material class is a suitable alternative to natural BSM, such as the analyzed xenogeneic material cerabone®, for a broad range of indications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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15 pages, 7639 KiB  
Article
Properties of New Composite Materials Based on Hydroxyapatite Ceramic and Cross-Linked Gelatin for Biomedical Applications
by Michał Bartmański, Magda Rościszewska, Marcin Wekwejt, Anna Ronowska, Małgorzata Nadolska-Dawidowska and Aleksandra Mielewczyk-Gryń
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(16), 9083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169083 - 13 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
The main aim of the research was to develop a new biocompatible and injectable composite with the potential for application as a bone-to-implant bonding material or as a bone substitute. A composite based on hydroxyapatite, gelatin, and two various types of commercially available [...] Read more.
The main aim of the research was to develop a new biocompatible and injectable composite with the potential for application as a bone-to-implant bonding material or as a bone substitute. A composite based on hydroxyapatite, gelatin, and two various types of commercially available transglutaminase (TgBDF/TgSNF), as a cross-linking agent, was proposed. To evaluate the impacts of composite content and processing parameters on various properties of the material, the following research was performed: the morphology was examined by SEM microscopy, the chemical structure by FTIR spectroscopy, the degradation behavior was examined in simulated body fluid, the injectability test was performed using an automatic syringe pump, the mechanical properties using a nanoindentation technique, the surface wettability was examined by an optical tensiometer, and the cell viability was assayed by MTT and LDH. In all cases, a composite paste was successfully obtained. Injectability varied between 8 and 15 min. The type of transglutaminase did not significantly affect the surface topography or chemical composition. All samples demonstrated proper nanomechanical properties with Young’s modulus and the hardness close to the values of natural bone. BDF demonstrated better hydrophilic properties and structural stability over 7 days in comparison with SNF. In all cases, the transglutaminase did not lead to cell necrosis, but cellular proliferation was significantly inhibited, especially for the BDF agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 9128 KiB  
Review
The Use of Collagen-Based Materials in Bone Tissue Engineering
by Lu Fan, Yanru Ren, Steffen Emmert, Ivica Vučković, Sanja Stojanovic, Stevo Najman, Reinhard Schnettler, Mike Barbeck, Katja Schenke-Layland and Xin Xiong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3744; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043744 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4616
Abstract
Synthetic bone substitute materials (BSMs) are becoming the general trend, replacing autologous grafting for bone tissue engineering (BTE) in orthopedic research and clinical practice. As the main component of bone matrix, collagen type I has played a critical role in the construction of [...] Read more.
Synthetic bone substitute materials (BSMs) are becoming the general trend, replacing autologous grafting for bone tissue engineering (BTE) in orthopedic research and clinical practice. As the main component of bone matrix, collagen type I has played a critical role in the construction of ideal synthetic BSMs for decades. Significant strides have been made in the field of collagen research, including the exploration of various collagen types, structures, and sources, the optimization of preparation techniques, modification technologies, and the manufacture of various collagen-based materials. However, the poor mechanical properties, fast degradation, and lack of osteoconductive activity of collagen-based materials caused inefficient bone replacement and limited their translation into clinical reality. In the area of BTE, so far, attempts have focused on the preparation of collagen-based biomimetic BSMs, along with other inorganic materials and bioactive substances. By reviewing the approved products on the market, this manuscript updates the latest applications of collagen-based materials in bone regeneration and highlights the potential for further development in the field of BTE over the next ten years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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21 pages, 2044 KiB  
Review
Recent Developments in Polymer Nanocomposites for Bone Regeneration
by Mohamed Abbas, Mohammed S. Alqahtani and Roaa Alhifzi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3312; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043312 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Most people who suffer acute injuries in accidents have fractured bones. Many of the basic processes that take place during embryonic skeletal development are replicated throughout the regeneration process that occurs during this time. Bruises and bone fractures, for example, serve as excellent [...] Read more.
Most people who suffer acute injuries in accidents have fractured bones. Many of the basic processes that take place during embryonic skeletal development are replicated throughout the regeneration process that occurs during this time. Bruises and bone fractures, for example, serve as excellent examples. It almost always results in a successful recovery and restoration of the structural integrity and strength of the broken bone. After a fracture, the body begins to regenerate bone. Bone formation is a complex physiological process that requires meticulous planning and execution. A normal healing procedure for a fracture might reveal how the bone is constantly rebuilding as an adult. Bone regeneration is becoming more dependent on polymer nanocomposites, which are composites made up of a polymer matrix and a nanomaterial. This study will review polymer nanocomposites that are employed in bone regeneration to stimulate bone regeneration. As a result, we will introduce the role of bone regeneration nanocomposite scaffolds, and the nanocomposite ceramics and biomaterials that play a role in bone regeneration. Aside from that, recent advances in polymer nanocomposites might be used in a variety of industrial processes to help people with bone defects overcome their challenges will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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21 pages, 3319 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on Silk Fibroin as a Persuasive Biomaterial for Bone Tissue Engineering
by Minghui Li, Jiaqian You, Qiuyue Qin, Manxuan Liu, Yixin Yang, Kewen Jia, Yidi Zhang and Yanmin Zhou
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2660; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032660 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3074
Abstract
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) utilizes a special mix of scaffolds, cells, and bioactive factors to regulate the microenvironment of bone regeneration and form a three-dimensional bone simulation structure to regenerate bone tissue. Silk fibroin (SF) is perhaps the most encouraging material for BTE [...] Read more.
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) utilizes a special mix of scaffolds, cells, and bioactive factors to regulate the microenvironment of bone regeneration and form a three-dimensional bone simulation structure to regenerate bone tissue. Silk fibroin (SF) is perhaps the most encouraging material for BTE given its tunable mechanical properties, controllable biodegradability, and excellent biocompatibility. Numerous studies have confirmed the significance of SF for stimulating bone formation. In this review, we start by introducing the structure and characteristics of SF. After that, the immunological mechanism of SF for osteogenesis is summarized, and various forms of SF biomaterials and the latest development prospects of SF in BTE are emphatically introduced. Biomaterials based on SF have great potential in bone tissue engineering, and this review will serve as a resource for future design and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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14 pages, 806 KiB  
Review
Existing and Novel Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering
by Paweł Dec, Andrzej Modrzejewski and Andrzej Pawlik
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010529 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3361
Abstract
The treatment of bone defects remains one of the major challenges in modern clinical practice. Nowadays, with the increased incidence of bone disease in an aging population, the demand for materials to repair bone defects continues to grow. Recent advances in the development [...] Read more.
The treatment of bone defects remains one of the major challenges in modern clinical practice. Nowadays, with the increased incidence of bone disease in an aging population, the demand for materials to repair bone defects continues to grow. Recent advances in the development of biomaterials offer new possibilities for exploring modern bone tissue engineering strategies. Both natural and synthetic biomaterials have been used for tissue repair. A variety of porous structures that promote cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation enable better implant integration with increasingly better physical properties. The selection of a suitable biomaterial on which the patient’s new tissue will grow is one of the key issues when designing a modern tissue scaffold and planning the entire treatment process. The purpose of this article is to present a comprehensive literature review of existing and novel biomaterials used in the surgical treatment of bone tissue defects. The materials described are divided into three groups—organic, inorganic, and synthetic polymers—taking into account current trends. This review highlights different types of existing and novel natural and synthetic materials used in bone tissue engineering and their advantages and disadvantages for bone defects regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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30 pages, 2749 KiB  
Review
Advanced 3D Magnetic Scaffolds for Tumor-Related Bone Defects
by Florina-Daniela Cojocaru, Vera Balan and Liliana Verestiuc
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 16190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232416190 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2034
Abstract
The need for bone substitutes is a major challenge as the incidence of serious bone disorders is massively increasing, mainly attributed to modern world problems, such as obesity, aging of the global population, and cancer incidence. Bone cancer represents one of the most [...] Read more.
The need for bone substitutes is a major challenge as the incidence of serious bone disorders is massively increasing, mainly attributed to modern world problems, such as obesity, aging of the global population, and cancer incidence. Bone cancer represents one of the most significant causes of bone defects, with reserved prognosis regarding the effectiveness of treatments and survival rate. Modern therapies, such as hyperthermia, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and magnetic therapy, seem to bring hope for cancer treatment in general, and bone cancer in particular. Mimicking the composition of bone to create advanced scaffolds, such as bone substitutes, proved to be insufficient for successful bone regeneration, and a special attention should be given to control the changes in the bone tissue micro-environment. The magnetic manipulation by an external field can be a promising technique to control this micro-environment, and to sustain the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, promoting the expression of some growth factors, and, finally, accelerating new bone formation. By incorporating stimuli responsive nanocarriers in the scaffold’s architecture, such as magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with bioactive molecules, their behavior can be rigorously controlled under external magnetic driving, and stimulates the bone tissue formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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33 pages, 5715 KiB  
Review
Barrier Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR): A Focus on Recent Advances in Collagen Membranes
by Yanru Ren, Lu Fan, Said Alkildani, Luo Liu, Steffen Emmert, Stevo Najman, Denis Rimashevskiy, Reinhard Schnettler, Ole Jung, Xin Xiong and Mike Barbeck
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 14987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314987 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 5725
Abstract
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a clinically standard modality for the treatment of localized jawbone defects. Barrier membranes play an important role in this process by preventing soft tissue invasion outgoing from the mucosa and creating an underlying space to support bone [...] Read more.
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) has become a clinically standard modality for the treatment of localized jawbone defects. Barrier membranes play an important role in this process by preventing soft tissue invasion outgoing from the mucosa and creating an underlying space to support bone growth. Different membrane types provide different biological mechanisms due to their different origins, preparation methods and structures. Among them, collagen membranes have attracted great interest due to their excellent biological properties and desired bone regeneration results to non-absorbable membranes even without a second surgery for removal. This work provides a comparative summary of common barrier membranes used in GBR, focusing on recent advances in collagen membranes and their biological mechanisms. In conclusion, the review article highlights the biological and regenerative properties of currently available barrier membranes with a particular focus on bioresorbable collagen-based materials. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of these biomaterials are highlighted, and possible improvements for future material developments are summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering 3.0)
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