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Open AccessArticle

Ginsenoside Rh2 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice by Suppressing NF-kappaB-Mediated Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Expression and T Helper Type 2 Differentiation

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Korea
2
Intelligent Synthetic Biology Center, Daejeon 34141, Korea
3
Laboratory of Liver Research, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6111; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246111
Received: 1 January 1970 / Revised: 3 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 4 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
Ginsenosides are known to have various highly pharmacological activities, such as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the search for the most effective ginsenosides against the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) and the study of the effects of ginsenosides on specific cytokines involved in AD remain unclear. In this study, ginsenoside Rh2 was shown to exert the most effective anti-inflammatory action on thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and interleukin 8 in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid induced normal human keratinocytes by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines at both protein and transcriptional levels. Concomitantly, Rh2 also efficiently alleviated 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced AD-like skin symptoms when applied topically, including suppression of immune cell infiltration, cytokine expression, and serum immunoglobulin E levels in NC/Nga mice. In line with the in vitro results, Rh2 inhibited TSLP levels in AD mice via regulation of an underlying mechanism involving the nuclear factor κB pathways. In addition, in regard to immune cells, we showed that Rh2 suppressed not only the expression of TSLP but the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T-cells into T helper type 2 cells and their effector function in vitro. Collectively, our results indicated that Rh2 might be considered as a good therapeutic candidate for the alternative treatment of AD.
Keywords: atopic dermatitis; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; NF-κB pathway; Th2 differentiation; ginsenoside; ginseng atopic dermatitis; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; NF-κB pathway; Th2 differentiation; ginsenoside; ginseng
MDPI and ACS Style

Ko, E.; Park, S.; Lee, J.H.; Cui, C.-H.; Hou, J.; Kim, M.-H.; Kim, S.C. Ginsenoside Rh2 Ameliorates Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice by Suppressing NF-kappaB-Mediated Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Expression and T Helper Type 2 Differentiation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 6111.

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