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Special Issue "Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Paola Stiuso
Website
Guest Editor
Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy
Interests: metabolic disease; oxidative stress; antioxidants; obesity
Prof. Gian Carlo Tenore
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples "Federico II", Via Domenico Montesano, 49, 80131 Napoli, Italy
Interests: nutraceuticals; food chemistry; functional foods; metabolic syndrome

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and type 1 and type 2 diabetics, are the main causes of death and disability in the world.

"Nutraceuticals" are natural products, food supplements, or functional foods that have health benefits. In recent years, scientific research has shown that nutraceuticals can be used as a complement to conventional therapies and drugs. Nutraceuticals can be dietary fibers of vegetable origin, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, phytochemicals such as polyphenols, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, terpenes, and other essential oil components. Normally, the bioactive compounds contained in nutraceuticals have strong antioxidant activity. Oxidation stress is considered a useful tool to prevent and/or treat chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and comorbidity, neurodegeneration, and cancer.

The Special Issue will focus on the role of natural bioactive compounds on chronic diseases. The authors are invited to present manuscripts presenting basic research, applied research and clinical research, observational studies, and meta-analysis and analytical analysis on the beneficial effects of natural bioactive compounds.

Prof. Dr. Paola Stiuso
Prof. Gian Carlo Tenore
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nutraceutical
  • Chronic desease
  • Oxidative stress
  • Inflammation
  • Cancer
  • Cardiovascular disease

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Strain-Specific Effects of Bifidobacterium longum on Hypercholesterolemic Rats and Potential Mechanisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1305; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031305 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease, which is among the major causes of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore whether Bifidobacterium longum strains exerted intra-species differences in cholesterol-lowering effects in hypercholesterolemic rats and to investigate the [...] Read more.
Hypercholesterolemia is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular disease, which is among the major causes of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore whether Bifidobacterium longum strains exerted intra-species differences in cholesterol-lowering effects in hypercholesterolemic rats and to investigate the potential mechanisms. SD rats underwent gavage with each B. longum strain (CCFM 1077, I3, J3 and B3) daily for 28 days. B. longum CCFM 1077 exerted the most potent cholesterol-lowering effect, followed by B. longum I3 and B3, whereas B. longum B3 had no effect in alleviating hypercholesterolemia. Divergent alleviation of different B. longum strains on hypercholesterolemia can be attributed to the differences in bile salt deconjugation ability and cholesterol assimilation ability in vitro. By 16S rRNA metagenomics analysis, the relative abundance of beneficial genus increased in the B. longum CCFM 1077 treatment group. The expression of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were also altered after the B. longum CCFM 1077 treatment. In conclusion, B. longum exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to differences in bacterial characteristics, bile salt deconjugation ability, cholesterol assimilation ability, expressions of key genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and alterations of gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Serenoa repens and Urtica dioica Fixed Combination: In-Vitro Validation of a Therapy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239178 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 541
Abstract
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related chronic disorder, characterized by the hyperproliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells, which drives prostate enlargement. Since BPH aetiology and progression have been associated with the persistence of an inflammatory stimulus, induced both by Nuclear Factor-kappa [...] Read more.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related chronic disorder, characterized by the hyperproliferation of prostatic epithelial and stromal cells, which drives prostate enlargement. Since BPH aetiology and progression have been associated with the persistence of an inflammatory stimulus, induced both by Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, the inhibition of these pathways could result in a good tool for its clinical treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of a combined formulation of Serenoa repens and Urtica dioica (SR/UD) in an in vitro human model of BPH. The results confirmed both the antioxidant and the anti-inflammatory effects of SR/UD. In fact, SR/UD simultaneously reduced ROS production, NF-κB translocation inside the nucleus, and, consequently, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) production. Furthermore, the effect of SR/UD was also tested in a human androgen-independent prostate cell model, PC3. SR/UD did not show any significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, but was able to reduce NF-κB translocation. Taken together, these results suggested a promising role of SR/UD in BPH and BPH-linked disorder prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus Strains Alleviated Hyperlipidemia and Liver Steatosis in Aging Rats via Activation of AMPK
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165872 - 16 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
In this study, we hypothesized that different strains of Lactobacillus can alleviate hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis via activation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that is involved in cellular energy homeostasis, in aged rats. Male rats were fed [...] Read more.
In this study, we hypothesized that different strains of Lactobacillus can alleviate hyperlipidemia and liver steatosis via activation of 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an enzyme that is involved in cellular energy homeostasis, in aged rats. Male rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) and injected with D-galactose daily over 12 weeks to induce aging. Treatments included (n = 6) (i) normal diet (ND), (ii) HFD, (iii) HFD-statin (lovastatin 2 mg/kg/day), (iv) HFD-Lactobacillus fermentum DR9 (10 log CFU/day), (v) HFD-Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 (10 log CFU/day), and (vi) HFD-Lactobacillus reuteri 8513d (10 log CFU/day). Rats administered with statin, DR9, and 8513d reduced serum total cholesterol levels after eight weeks (p < 0.05), while the administration of DR7 reduced serum triglycerides level after 12 weeks (p < 0.05) as compared to the HFD control. A more prominent effect was observed from the administration of DR7, where positive effects were observed, ranging from hepatic gene expressions to liver histology as compared to the control (p < 0.05); downregulation of hepatic lipid synthesis and β-oxidation gene stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), upregulation of hepatic sterol excretion genes of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8), lesser degree of liver steatosis, and upregulation of hepatic energy metabolisms genes AMPKα1 and AMPKα2. Taken altogether, this study illustrated that the administration of selected Lactobacillus strains led to improved lipid profiles via activation of energy and lipid metabolisms, suggesting the potentials of Lactobacillus as a promising natural intervention for alleviation of cardiovascular and liver diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Bladder Cancer Metastasis Induced by Chronic Everolimus Application Can Be Counteracted by Sulforaphane In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155582 - 04 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 601
Abstract
Chronic treatment with the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, fails long-term in preventing tumor growth and dissemination in cancer patients. Thus, patients experiencing treatment resistance seek complementary measures, hoping to improve therapeutic efficacy. This study investigated metastatic characteristics of bladder carcinoma cells exposed to everolimus [...] Read more.
Chronic treatment with the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus, fails long-term in preventing tumor growth and dissemination in cancer patients. Thus, patients experiencing treatment resistance seek complementary measures, hoping to improve therapeutic efficacy. This study investigated metastatic characteristics of bladder carcinoma cells exposed to everolimus combined with the isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SFN), which has been shown to exert cancer inhibiting properties. RT112, UMUC3, or TCCSUP bladder carcinoma cells were exposed short- (24 h) or long-term (8 weeks) to everolimus (0.5 nM) or SFN (2.5 µM), alone or in combination. Adhesion and chemotaxis along with profiling details of CD44 receptor variants (v) and integrin α and β subtypes were evaluated. The functional impact of CD44 and integrins was explored by blocking studies and siRNA knock-down. Long-term exposure to everolimus enhanced chemotactic activity, whereas long-term exposure to SFN or the SFN-everolimus combination diminished chemotaxis. CD44v4 and v7 increased on RT112 cells following exposure to SFN or SFN-everolimus. Up-regulation of the integrins α6, αV, and β1 and down-regulation of β4 that was present with everolimus alone could be prevented by combining SFN and everolimus. Down-regulation of αV, β1, and β4 reduced chemotactic activity, whereas knock-down of CD44 correlated with enhanced chemotaxis. SFN could, therefore, inhibit resistance-related tumor dissemination during everolimus-based bladder cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 Modulated Bowel Movement and Gut Microbiota Associated with Dopamine and Serotonin Pathways in Stressed Adults
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134608 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
We have previously reported that the administration of Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 for 12 weeks reduced stress and anxiety in stressed adults as compared to the placebo group, in association with changes along the brain neurotransmitters pathways of serotonin and dopamine-norepinephrine. We now aim [...] Read more.
We have previously reported that the administration of Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 for 12 weeks reduced stress and anxiety in stressed adults as compared to the placebo group, in association with changes along the brain neurotransmitters pathways of serotonin and dopamine-norepinephrine. We now aim to evaluate the effects of DR7 on gut functions, gut microbiota compositional changes, and determine the correlations between microbiota changes and the pathways of brain neurotransmitters. The administration of DR7 prevented an increase of defecation frequency over 12 weeks as compared to the placebo (p = 0.044), modulating the increase of stress-induced bowel movement. Over 12 weeks, alpha diversity of gut microbiota was higher in DR7 than the placebo group across class (p = 0.005) and order (p = 0.018) levels, while beta diversity differed between groups at class and order levels (p < 0.001). Differences in specific bacterial groups were identified, showing consistency at different taxonomic levels that survived multiplicity correction, along the phyla of Bacteroides and Firmicutes and along the classes of Deltaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidia, and Bacteroidales which were reduced in abundance in the placebo group showed opposing correlation with gene expression of dopamine beta hydrolase (DBH, dopamine pathway; p < 0.001), while Bacteroidia and Bacteroidales showed correlation with tryptophan hydroxylase-II (TPH2, serotonin pathway; p = 0.001). A correlation was observed between DBH and Firmicutes (p = 0.002), Clostridia (p < 0.001), Clostridiales (p = 0.001), Blautia (p < 0.001), and Romboutsia (p < 0.001), which were increased in abundance in the placebo group. Blautia was also associated with TDO (p = 0.001), whereas Romboutsia had an opposing correlation with TPH2 (p < 0.001). Deltaproteobacteria and Desulfovibrionales which were decreased in abundance in the placebo group showed opposing correlation with DBH (p = 0.001), whereas Bilophila was associated with TPH2 (p = 0.001). Our present data showed that physiological changes induced by L. plantarum DR7 could be associated with changes in specific taxa of the gut microbiota along the serotonin and dopamine pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal N-Acetyl Cysteine Intake Improved Glucose Tolerance in Obese Mice Offspring
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21061981 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
Exposure to certain environmental factors during the early stages of development was found to affect health in adulthood. Among other environmental factors, oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in fetal programming, leading to elevated risk for metabolic disorders, including type 2 [...] Read more.
Exposure to certain environmental factors during the early stages of development was found to affect health in adulthood. Among other environmental factors, oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in fetal programming, leading to elevated risk for metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes; however, the possibility that antioxidant consumption during early life may affect the development of diabetes has scarcely been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) given during pregnancy and lactation on the susceptibility of offspring to develop glucose intolerance at adulthood. C57bl6/J mice were given NAC during pregnancy and lactation. High fat diet (HFD) was given to offspring at an age of 6 weeks for an additional 9 weeks, till the end of the study. Isolated islets of NAC-treated offspring (6 weeks old, before HFD feeding) had an increased efficacy of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and a higher resistance to oxidative damage. Following HFD feeding, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of NAC-treated offspring were improved. In addition, islet diameter was lower in male offspring of NAC-treated mice compared to their HFD-fed littermates. NAC consumption during early life improves glucose tolerance in adulthood in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Salacia chinensis L. Stem Extract Exerts Antifibrotic Effects on Human Hepatic Stellate Cells through the Inhibition of the TGF-β1-Induced SMAD2/3 Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6314; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246314 - 13 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Salacia chinensis L. (SC) stems have been used as an ingredient in Thai traditional medicine for treating patients with hepatic fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting the antifibrotic effects of SC extract. Therefore, this study aimed to determine [...] Read more.
Salacia chinensis L. (SC) stems have been used as an ingredient in Thai traditional medicine for treating patients with hepatic fibrosis and liver cirrhosis. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting the antifibrotic effects of SC extract. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the antifibrotic activity of SC stem extract in human hepatic stellate cell-line called LX-2. We found that upon TGF-β1 stimulation, LX-2 cells transformed to a myofibroblast-like phenotype with a noticeable increase in α-SMA and collagen type I production. Interestingly, cells treated with SC extract significantly suppressed α-SMA and collagen type I production and reversed the myofibroblast-like characteristics back to normal. Additionally, TGF-β1 also influenced the development of fibrogenesis by upregulation of MMP-2, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 and related cellular signaling, such as pSmad2/3, pErk1/2, and pJNK. Surprisingly, SC possesses antifibrotic activity through the suppression of TGF-β1-mediated production of collagen type 1, α-SMA, and the phosphorylation status of Smad2/3, Erk1/2, and JNK. Taken together, the present study provides accumulated information demonstrating the antifibrotic effects of SC stem extract and revealing its potential for development for hepatic fibrosis patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Brassica Bioactives Could Ameliorate the Chronic Inflammatory Condition of Endometriosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9397; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249397 - 10 Dec 2020
Viewed by 902
Abstract
Endometriosis is a chronic, inflammatory, hormone-dependent disease characterized by histological lesions produced by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Despite the fact that an estimated 176 million women are affected worldwide by this gynecological disorder, risk factors that cause endometriosis [...] Read more.
Endometriosis is a chronic, inflammatory, hormone-dependent disease characterized by histological lesions produced by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. Despite the fact that an estimated 176 million women are affected worldwide by this gynecological disorder, risk factors that cause endometriosis have not been properly defined and current treatments are not efficient. Although the interaction between diet and human health has been the focus of many studies, little information about the correlation of foods and their bioactive derivates with endometriosis is available. In this framework, Brassica crops have emerged as potential candidates for ameliorating the chronic inflammatory condition of endometriosis, due to their abundant content of health-promoting compounds such as glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Several inflammation-related signaling pathways have been included among the known targets of isothiocyanates, but those involving aquaporin water channels have an important role in endometriosis. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the promising effects of the phytochemicals present in Brassica spp. as major candidates for inclusion in a dietary approach aiming to improve the inflammatory condition of women affected with endometriosis. This review points out the potential roles of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates from Brassicas as anti-inflammatory compounds, which might contribute to a reduction in endometriosis symptoms. In view of these promising results, further investigation of the effect of glucosinolates on chronic inflammatory diseases, either as diet coadjuvants or as therapeutic molecules, should be performed. In addition, we highlight the involvement of aquaporins in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. In brief, glucosinolates and the modulation of cellular water by aquaporins could shed light on new approaches to improve the quality of life for women with endometriosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
A Novel Promising Frontier for Human Health: The Beneficial Effects of Nutraceuticals in Cardiovascular Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228706 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetes are a significant public health problem worldwide. Although several novel pharmacological treatments to reduce the progression of CVDs have been discovered during the last 20 years, the better way to contain the [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetes are a significant public health problem worldwide. Although several novel pharmacological treatments to reduce the progression of CVDs have been discovered during the last 20 years, the better way to contain the onset of CVDs remains prevention. In this regard, nutraceuticals seem to own a great potential in maintaining human health, exerting important protective cardiovascular effects. In the last years, there has been increased focus on identifying natural compounds with cardiovascular health-promoting effects and also to characterize the molecular mechanisms involved. Although many review articles have focused on the individual natural compound impact on cardiovascular diseases, the aim of this manuscript was to examine the role of the most studied nutraceuticals, such as resveratrol, cocoa, quercetin, curcumin, brassica, berberine and Spirulina platensis, on different CVDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
An Update on Vitamin D Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186573 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone classically involved in the calcium metabolism and bone homeostasis. Recently, new and interesting aspects of vitamin D metabolism has been elucidated, namely the special role of the skin, the metabolic control of liver hydroxylase CYP2R1, the specificity [...] Read more.
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone classically involved in the calcium metabolism and bone homeostasis. Recently, new and interesting aspects of vitamin D metabolism has been elucidated, namely the special role of the skin, the metabolic control of liver hydroxylase CYP2R1, the specificity of 1α-hydroxylase in different tissues and cell types and the genomic, non-genomic and epigenomic effects of vitamin D receptor, which will be addressed in the present review. Moreover, in the last decades, several extraskeletal effects which can be attributed to vitamin D have been shown. These beneficial effects will be here summarized, focusing on the immune system and cardiovascular system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
Effects of Omega 3 Fatty Acids on Main Dimensions of Psychopathology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176042 - 21 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 893
Abstract
The usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory, cardiovascular, and the nervous system was studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying their benefic properties are still partially unknown. These agents seem to express their action on the membrane phospholipid composition and [...] Read more.
The usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammatory, cardiovascular, and the nervous system was studied in the last decades, but the mechanisms underlying their benefic properties are still partially unknown. These agents seem to express their action on the membrane phospholipid composition and permeability and modulation of second messenger cascades. In psychiatry, the efficacy and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acids were investigated in several psychiatric disorders, including major depression, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, high-risk conditions to develop psychosis, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorders. Initial findings in this field are promising, and some relevant questions need to be addressed. In particular, the effects of these agents on the main symptom dimensions have to be investigated in a trans-diagnostic perspective. The present systematic review is aimed to examine the available data on the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids on domains of psychotic symptoms, affective symptoms, impulsivity, and aggressiveness, and harmful behaviors, and suicide risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessReview
Nutraceuticals in Neurological Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124424 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1295
Abstract
Neurological diseases are one of the major healthcare issues worldwide. Posed lifestyle changes are associated with drastically increased risk of chronic illness and diseases, posing a substantial healthcare and financial burden to society globally. Researchers aim to provide fine treatment for ailing disorders [...] Read more.
Neurological diseases are one of the major healthcare issues worldwide. Posed lifestyle changes are associated with drastically increased risk of chronic illness and diseases, posing a substantial healthcare and financial burden to society globally. Researchers aim to provide fine treatment for ailing disorders with minimal exposed side effects. In recent decades, several studies on functional foods have been initiated to obtain foods that have fewer side effects and increased therapeutic activity. Hence, an attempt has been made to unravel several extraction techniques to acquire essential bioactive compounds or phytochemicals from therapeutically active food products. This has led to the conception of the term functional foods being meddled with other similar terms like “pharmafoods,” “medifoods”, “vitafoods”, or “medicinal foods”. With a dire need to adhere towards healthy options, the demand of nutraceuticals is widely increasing to combat neurological interventions. An association between food habits and the individual lifestyle with neurodegeneration has been manifested, thereby proposing the role of nutraceuticals as prophylactic treatment for neurological interventions. The current review covers some of the major neurological disorders and nutraceutical therapy in the prevention of disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
Nutraceuticals Targeting Generation and Oxidant Activity of Peroxynitrite May Aid Prevention and Control of Parkinson’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103624 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic low-grade inflammatory process in which activated microglia generate cytotoxic factors—most prominently peroxynitrite—which induce the death and dysfunction of neighboring dopaminergic neurons. Dying neurons then release damage-associated molecular pattern proteins such as high mobility group box 1 which [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic low-grade inflammatory process in which activated microglia generate cytotoxic factors—most prominently peroxynitrite—which induce the death and dysfunction of neighboring dopaminergic neurons. Dying neurons then release damage-associated molecular pattern proteins such as high mobility group box 1 which act on microglia via a range of receptors to amplify microglial activation. Since peroxynitrite is a key mediator in this process, it is proposed that nutraceutical measures which either suppress microglial production of peroxynitrite, or which promote the scavenging of peroxynitrite-derived oxidants, should have value for the prevention and control of PD. Peroxynitrite production can be quelled by suppressing activation of microglial NADPH oxidase—the source of its precursor superoxide—or by down-regulating the signaling pathways that promote microglial expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Phycocyanobilin of spirulina, ferulic acid, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, good vitamin D status, promotion of hydrogen sulfide production with taurine and N-acetylcysteine, caffeine, epigallocatechin-gallate, butyrogenic dietary fiber, and probiotics may have potential for blunting microglial iNOS induction. Scavenging of peroxynitrite-derived radicals may be amplified with supplemental zinc or inosine. Astaxanthin has potential for protecting the mitochondrial respiratory chain from peroxynitrite and environmental mitochondrial toxins. Healthful programs of nutraceutical supplementation may prove to be useful and feasible in the primary prevention or slow progression of pre-existing PD. Since damage to the mitochondria in dopaminergic neurons by environmental toxins is suspected to play a role in triggering the self-sustaining inflammation that drives PD pathogenesis, there is also reason to suspect that plant-based diets of modest protein content, and possibly a corn-rich diet high in spermidine, might provide protection from PD by boosting protective mitophagy and thereby aiding efficient mitochondrial function. Low-protein diets can also promote a more even response to levodopa therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Chronic Diseases)
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