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Interleukins in Allergic and Immune-Mediated Diseases: A Cascade of Multiple Shadows

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 11994

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Guest Editor
Head of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa and San Bartolomeo Hospital, Sarzana, Italy
Interests: immunodeficiency; autoimmunity; neuro-endocrino-immunology; pharmacogenomics; soluble molecules; immune-mediated diseases; allergies; vaccines
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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova and, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genova, Italy
Interests: immune system; autoimmune diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several allergic and immunologic diseases, including asthma, food allergy (FA), chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), atopic dermatitis (AD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), multiple sclerosis (MS), and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), are characterized by the involvement of Th2 immunity. Several mediators lead to IgEs production, thus including key cytokines like IL-4, IL-5, IL-13. Other molecules, such as IL-6, IL-21, and IL-23, are involved in Th-17 pathway, thus leading to IL-17 production which mediates tissue inflammation and autoimmunity. On the other hand, IL-2 is involved in T regular (T reg) cell activation with consequent production of IL-10, which seems to regulate tolerance and immune suppression. Moving through this complex scenario, some of these molecules, such as IL-5, have already been studied as novel biomarkers for specific targeted therapies. Indeed, inhibition or stimulation in case of protective function of these molecules could represent a promising option for future therapies. In the near future, new studies investigating the role of these molecules as part of a complex and wide biological net are needed in order to understand the role of these molecules on biological systems.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Murdaca
Assoc. Pro Sebastiano Gangemi
Dr. Monica Greco
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Review

13 pages, 1198 KiB  
Review
IL-33 and the Cytokine Storm in COVID-19: From a Potential Immunological Relationship towards Precision Medicine
by Fabiana Furci, Giuseppe Murdaca, Alessandro Allegra, Luca Gammeri, Gianenrico Senna and Sebastiano Gangemi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(23), 14532; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232314532 - 22 Nov 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has represented, and still represents, a real challenge from a clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic point of view. During acute infection, the increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are involved in the pathology of disease and the development of SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory [...] Read more.
Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has represented, and still represents, a real challenge from a clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic point of view. During acute infection, the increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are involved in the pathology of disease and the development of SARS-CoV-2-induced acute respiratory disease syndrome, the life-threatening form of this infection, are correlated with patient survival and disease severity. IL-33, a key cytokine involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses in mucosal organs, can increase airway inflammation, mucus secretion and Th2 cytokine synthesis in the lungs, following respiratory infections. Similar to cases of exposure to known respiratory virus infections, exposure to SARS-CoV-2 induces the expression of IL-33, correlating with T-cell activation and lung disease severity. In this work, we analyse current evidence regarding the immunological role of IL-33 in patients affected by COVID-19, to evaluate not only the clinical impact correlated to its production but also to identify possible future immunological therapies that can block the most expressed inflammatory molecules, preventing worsening of the disease and saving patient lives. Full article
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10 pages, 684 KiB  
Review
Interleukin-24 Immunobiology and Its Roles in Inflammatory Diseases
by Yajie Zhong, Xuan Zhang and Waipo Chong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020627 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3173
Abstract
Interleukin (IL)-24 belongs to the IL-10 family and signals through two receptor complexes, i.e., IL-20RA/IL-20RB and IL-20RB/IL22RA1. It is a multifunctional cytokine that can regulate immune response, tissue homeostasis, host defense, and oncogenesis. Elevation of IL-24 is associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmune [...] Read more.
Interleukin (IL)-24 belongs to the IL-10 family and signals through two receptor complexes, i.e., IL-20RA/IL-20RB and IL-20RB/IL22RA1. It is a multifunctional cytokine that can regulate immune response, tissue homeostasis, host defense, and oncogenesis. Elevation of IL-24 is associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Its pathogenicity has been confirmed by inducing inflammation and immune cell infiltration for tissue damage. However, recent studies also revealed their suppressive functions in regulating immune cells, including T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages. The tolerogenic properties of IL-24 were reported in various animal models of autoimmune diseases, suggesting the complex functions of IL-24 in regulating autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss the immunoregulatory functions of IL-24 and its roles in autoimmune diseases. Full article
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34 pages, 3472 KiB  
Review
Immunobiological Properties and Clinical Applications of Interleukin-38 for Immune-Mediated Disorders: A Systematic Review Study
by Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh, Nazila Bahmaie, Elham Nouri, Mohammad Javad Hajkazemi and Maryam Zareh Rafie
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12552; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212552 - 21 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3428
Abstract
Exponential growth in the usage of “cytokines” (as seroimmunobiomarkers) has facilitated more accurate prognosis, early diagnosis, novel, and efficient immunotherapeutics. Numerous studies have reported immunopathophysiological and immunopathological processes of interleukin-38 (IL-38). Therefore, in this systematic review article, the authors aimed to present an [...] Read more.
Exponential growth in the usage of “cytokines” (as seroimmunobiomarkers) has facilitated more accurate prognosis, early diagnosis, novel, and efficient immunotherapeutics. Numerous studies have reported immunopathophysiological and immunopathological processes of interleukin-38 (IL-38). Therefore, in this systematic review article, the authors aimed to present an updated comprehensive overview on the immunobiological mechanisms, diagnostic, and immune gene-based therapeutic potentials of IL-38. According to our inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 216 articles were collected from several search engines and databases from the January 2012 to July 2021 time interval by using six main keywords. Physiologic or pathologic microenvironments, optimal dosage, and involved receptors affect the functionalities of IL-38. Alterations in serum levels of IL-38 play a major role in the immunopathogenesis of a wide array of immune-mediated disorders. IL-38 shows anti-inflammatory activities by reduction or inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, supporting the therapeutic aspects of IL-38 in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. According to the importance of pre-clinical studies, it seems that manipulation of the immune system by immunomodulatory properties of IL-38 can increase the accuracy of diagnosis, and decipher optimal clinical outcomes. To promote our knowledge, more collaboration is highly recommended among laboratory scientists, internal/infectious diseases specialists, oncologists, immunologists, diseases-specific biomarkers scientists, and basic medical researchers. Full article
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20 pages, 1151 KiB  
Review
Involvement of Alarmins in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Multiple Myeloma
by Giuseppe Murdaca, Alessandro Allegra, Francesca Paladin, Fabrizio Calapai, Caterina Musolino and Sebastiano Gangemi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 9039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22169039 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
Objective: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a haematological disease resulting from the neoplastic transformation of plasma cells. The uncontrolled growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow and the delivery of several cytokines causes bone erosion that often does not regress, even in the [...] Read more.
Objective: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a haematological disease resulting from the neoplastic transformation of plasma cells. The uncontrolled growth of plasma cells in the bone marrow and the delivery of several cytokines causes bone erosion that often does not regress, even in the event of disease remission. MM is characterised by a multi-step evolutionary path, which starts with an early asymptomatic stage defined as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) evolving to overt disease. Data Sources and Study Selection: We have selected scientific publications on the specific topics “alarmis, MGUS, and MM”, drawing from PubMed. The keywords we used were alarmines, MGUS, MM, and immune system. Results: The analysis confirms the pivotal role of molecules such as high-mobility group box-1, heat shock proteins, and S100 proteins in the induction of neoangiogenesis, which represents a milestone in the negative evolution of MM as well as other haematological and non-haematological tumours. Conclusions: Modulation of the host immune system and the inhibition of neoangiogenesis may represent the therapeutic target for the treatment of MM that is capable of promoting better survival and reducing the risk of RRMM. Full article
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