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Interleukin in Allergic and Immune-Mediated Diseases

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 8219

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Head of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa and San Bartolomeo Hospital, Sarzana, Italy
Interests: immunodeficiency; autoimmunity; neuro-endocrino-immunology; pharmacogenomics; soluble molecules; immune-mediated diseases; allergies; vaccines
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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Interests: inflammatory mediators; the citokine network (interleukins, chemokines, adhesion molecules, lipoxines); the oxidative stress in various areas of clinical immunology; allergy; oncology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Several diseases related to allergies, including asthma, food allergies (FAs), chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), and atopic dermatitis (AD), are characterized by the involvement of Th2 immunity. Several mediators lead to IgEs production, including key cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Other molecules, such as IL-2, interferon gamma, IL-21, and IL-23, are involved in the Th-1 and Th-17 pathway, thus leading to IL-17 production, which mediates tissue inflammation and autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), multiple sclerosis (MS), and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). In contrast, IL-2 is involved in T regular (T reg) cell activation with the consequent production of IL-10, which seems to regulate tolerance and immune suppression. Moving through this complex scenario, some of these molecules, such as IL-5, have already been studied as novel biomarkers for specific targeted therapies. Indeed, inhibition or stimulation in the protective function of these molecules could represent a promising option for future therapies. In the near future, new studies investigating the role of these molecules as part of a complex and wide biological net need to be carried out in order to understand the role of these molecules in biological systems.

Dr. Giuseppe Murdaca
Dr. Sebastiano Gangemi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • interleukin
  • cytokine
  • allergy
  • allergic diseases
  • immunologic diseases
  • asthma
  • food allergy
  • chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU)
  • atopic dermatitis (AD)
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • systemic sclerosis (SSc)
  • inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)
 

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

29 pages, 954 KiB  
Review
Alarmins and MicroRNAs, a New Axis in the Genesis of Respiratory Diseases: Possible Therapeutic Implications
by Alessandro Allegra, Giuseppe Murdaca, Luca Gammeri, Roberta Ettari and Sebastiano Gangemi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(2), 1783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24021783 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
It is well ascertained that airway inflammation has a key role in the genesis of numerous respiratory pathologies, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary tissue inflammation and anti-inflammatory responses implicate an intricate relationship between local and infiltrating [...] Read more.
It is well ascertained that airway inflammation has a key role in the genesis of numerous respiratory pathologies, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary tissue inflammation and anti-inflammatory responses implicate an intricate relationship between local and infiltrating immune cells and structural pulmonary cells. Alarmins are endogenic proteins discharged after cell injury in the extracellular microenvironment. The purpose of our review is to highlight the alterations in respiratory diseases involving some alarmins, such as high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin (IL)-33, and their inter-relationships and relationships with genetic non-coding material, such as microRNAs. The role played by these alarmins in some pathophysiological processes confirms the existence of an axis composed of HMGB1 and IL-33. These alarmins have been implicated in ferroptosis, the onset of type 2 inflammation and airway alterations. Moreover, both factors can act on non-coding genetic material capable of modifying respiratory function. Finally, we present an outline of alarmins and RNA-based therapeutics that have been proposed to treat respiratory pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interleukin in Allergic and Immune-Mediated Diseases)
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14 pages, 1060 KiB  
Review
Alarmins as a Possible Target of Future Therapies for Atrial Fibrillation
by Egidio Imbalzano, Giuseppe Murdaca, Luana Orlando, Marianna Gigliotti-De Fazio, Dario Terranova, Alessandro Tonacci and Sebastiano Gangemi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415946 - 15 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1875
Abstract
To date, worldwide, atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiovascular disease in adults, with a prevalence of 2% to 4%. The trigger of the pathophysiological mechanism of arrhythmia includes several factors that sustain and exacerbate the disease. Ectopic electrical conductivity, associated with the [...] Read more.
To date, worldwide, atrial fibrillation is the most common cardiovascular disease in adults, with a prevalence of 2% to 4%. The trigger of the pathophysiological mechanism of arrhythmia includes several factors that sustain and exacerbate the disease. Ectopic electrical conductivity, associated with the resulting atrial mechanical dysfunction, atrial remodeling, and fibrosis, promotes hypo-contractility and blood stasis, involving micro endothelial damage. This causes a significant local inflammatory reaction that feeds and sustains the arrhythmia. In our literature review, we evaluate the role of HMGB1 proteins, heat shock proteins, and S100 in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation, offering suggestions for possible new therapeutic strategies. We selected scientific publications on the specific topics “alarmins” and “atrial fibrillation” from PubMed. The nonsystematic review confirms the pivotal role of molecules such as S100 proteins, high-mobility group box-1, and heat shock proteins in the molecular pattern of atrial fibrillation. These results could be considered for new therapeutic opportunities, including inhibition of oxidative stress, evaluation of new anticoagulant drugs with novel therapeutic targets, molecular and genetic studies, and consideration of these alarmins as predictive or prognostic biomarkers of disease onset and severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interleukin in Allergic and Immune-Mediated Diseases)
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16 pages, 1392 KiB  
Review
Current Insight into the Role of IL-35 and Its Potential Involvement in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Atopic Dermatitis
by Weronika Zysk, Jolanta Gleń and Magdalena Trzeciak
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(24), 15709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms232415709 - 11 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Interleukin 35 (IL-35), a new member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines, could induce two different types of regulatory cells including regulatory T and B cells such as IL-35-induced regulatory T cells and IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (IL-10+Bregs), and IL-35-producing regulatory B [...] Read more.
Interleukin 35 (IL-35), a new member of the IL-12 family of heterodimeric cytokines, could induce two different types of regulatory cells including regulatory T and B cells such as IL-35-induced regulatory T cells and IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (IL-10+Bregs), and IL-35-producing regulatory B cells (IL-35+Bregs). These cells appear to play an important role in modulating the immune system in numerous diseases. Several findings suggested that the expression of IL-35 is dysregulated in many autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. Due to the functions of IL-35, it seems that this cytokine may act as an efficient therapeutic strategy for numerous conditions including atopic dermatitis (AD). We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of IL-35 in modulating the immune system. Additionally, we highlight IL-35 as a specific immunological target, discuss its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of AD, and hypothesize that IL-35 may become a novel target for the treatment of AD. However, further studies are required to evaluate this hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interleukin in Allergic and Immune-Mediated Diseases)
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