The Roles of Circular RNAs in Immune Responses and Immune Diseases

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 1388

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Head of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa and San Bartolomeo Hospital, Sarzana, Italy
Interests: immunodeficiency; autoimmunity; neuro-endocrino-immunology; pharmacogenomics; soluble molecules; immune-mediated diseases; allergies; vaccines
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Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Interests: mediators of inflammation, cytokines, and biomarkers of oxidative stress; immunosenescence; immunogenetics; epigenetics; application of machine learning and deep learning in various fields of medicine
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Division of Hematology, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood “Gaetano Barresi”, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
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Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa and Compex Structure for the Elderly and Disabled, Savona, Italy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Numerous enzymes, transcription factors, signal transducers and membrane proteins contribute to control immune system activity. The “transcriptional machine” of eukaryotic cells is a complex system, composed not only of coding material as messenger RNAs (mRNAs) but also of non-coding elements, grouped together in the set of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). According to their structure, circular RNAs (circRNAs) can be divided into several groups such as exonic circRNAs (EcircRNAs) made by exons, intronic circRNAs (IcircRNAs) made by introns, and exon–intron circRNAs (EIcircRNAs) made by both exons and introns. Recent studies demonstrate that circRNAs play a crucial role in numerous cellular functions, in gene expression in physiology, and in the pathogenesis of many immune disorders. Principal functions of circRNAs include miRNA inhibition, epithelial–mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis. The expression of circRNAs can also be specific to the tissue. Furthermore, circRNAs were found in different types of biological samples including plasma, cell-free saliva, and exosomes. The aim of this Special Issue is to gather high-quality original research, articles, and reviews that contribute to our understanding of the roles that circRNAs play in immune-mediated diseases.

Dr. Giuseppe Murdaca
Prof. Dr. Sebastiano Gangemi
Dr. Alessandro Allegra
Dr. Francesca Paladin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • circRNAs and immune system
  • EcircRNAs and immune system
  • IcircRNAs and immune system
  • EIcircRNAs and immune system
  • circRNAs and immune-mediated diseases
  • EcircRNAs and immune-mediated diseases
  • IcircRNAs and immune-mediated diseases
  • EIcircRNAs and immune-mediated diseases

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Review

20 pages, 1040 KiB  
Review
Circular RNAs: A New Approach to Multiple Sclerosis
by Raffaele Sciaccotta, Giuseppe Murdaca, Santino Caserta, Vincenzo Rizzo, Sebastiano Gangemi and Alessandro Allegra
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 2883; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11112883 - 24 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1215
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis, a condition characterised by demyelination and axonal damage in the central nervous system, is due to autoreactive immune cells that recognise myelin antigens. Alteration of the immune balance can promote the onset of immune deficiencies, loss of immunosurveillance, and/or development of [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis, a condition characterised by demyelination and axonal damage in the central nervous system, is due to autoreactive immune cells that recognise myelin antigens. Alteration of the immune balance can promote the onset of immune deficiencies, loss of immunosurveillance, and/or development of autoimmune disorders such as MS. Numerous enzymes, transcription factors, signal transducers, and membrane proteins contribute to the control of immune system activity. The “transcriptional machine” of eukaryotic cells is a complex system composed not only of mRNA but also of non-coding elements grouped together in the set of non-coding RNAs. Recent studies demonstrate that ncRNAs play a crucial role in numerous cellular functions, gene expression, and the pathogenesis of many immune disorders. The main purpose of this review is to investigate the role of circular RNAs, a previously unknown class of non-coding RNAs, in MS’s pathogenesis. CircRNAs influence post-transcriptional control, expression, and functionality of a microRNA and epigenetic factors, promoting the development of typical MS abnormalities such as neuroinflammation, damage to neuronal cells, and microglial dysfunction. The increase in our knowledge of the role of circRNAs in multiple sclerosis could, in the future, modify the common diagnostic–therapeutic criteria, paving the way to a new vision of this neuroimmune pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Roles of Circular RNAs in Immune Responses and Immune Diseases)
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