Autoimmune Diseases and Immune Modulation: Current Research and Future Outlook

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 1224

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
Interests: immunodeficiency; immune-mediated diseases; biologics; pharmacogenomics; vaccines
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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Interests: mediators of inflammation, cytokines, and biomarkers of oxidative stress; immunosenescence; immunogenetics; epigenetics; application of machine learning and deep learning in various fields of medicine
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Guest Editor
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa and Compex Structure for the Elderly and Disabled, Savona, Italy
Interests: immunosenescence
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Autoimmune diseases (ADs), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's disease (SS) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life and impose significant economic and psychological burdens on society and families. For this reason, in recent years, the attention has focused on the etiological and pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these immune disorders, with particular reference to the possible mechanisms of immune modulation and potential therapeutic targets. In this field, molecules, such as CAR (Chimeric Antigen Receptor), Treg cells, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), exosomes, gut microbiota dysbiosis, vitamin D, macrophages and neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity conditions have acquired growing interest.

Studying these molecules plays an important role in representing not only potential diagnostic markers, but also possible targets for the immune-modulation therapy of autoimmune disorders.

Prof. Giuseppe Murdaca
Prof. Dr. Sebastiano Gangemi
Dr. Francesca Paladin
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • CAR and immune system
  • Treg cells and immune system
  • SIRT1 and immune system
  • exosomes and immune system
  • gut microbiota dysbiosis and immune system
  • vitamin D and immune system
  • macrophages/neutrophils and immune system
  • CAR and autoimmune diseases
  • Treg cells and autoimmune diseases
  • SIRT1 and autoimmune diseases
  • exosomes and autoimmune diseases
  • gut microbiota dysbiosis and autoimmune diseases
  • vitamin D and autoimmune diseases
  • macrophages/neutrophils and autoimmune diseases
  • EIcircRNAs and autoimmune diseases

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

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15 pages, 754 KiB  
Review
Anti-B-Cell-Activating Factor (BAFF) Therapy: A Novel Addition to Autoimmune Disease Management and Potential for Immunomodulatory Therapy in Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia
by Mahija Cheekati and Irina Murakhovskaya
Biomedicines 2024, 12(7), 1597; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12071597 - 18 Jul 2024
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Abstract
Although rituximab is not specifically approved for the treatment of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA), the First International Consensus Group recommends considering its use as part of the initial therapy for patients with severe disease and as a second-line therapy for primary WAIHA. [...] Read more.
Although rituximab is not specifically approved for the treatment of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA), the First International Consensus Group recommends considering its use as part of the initial therapy for patients with severe disease and as a second-line therapy for primary WAIHA. Some patients do not respond to rituximab, and relapses are common. These relapses are associated with elevated B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) levels and the presence of quiescent long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs) in the spleen. A new group of immunomodulatory drugs, B-cell-activating factor inhibitors (BAFF-i), demonstrated efficacy in multiple autoimmune diseases and have the potential to improve WAIHA treatment outcomes by targeting B-cells and LLPCs. This article reviews the role of BAFF in autoimmune disorders and the currently available literature on the use of BAFF-directed therapies in various immunologic disorders, including WAIHA. Collectively, the clinical data thus far shows robust potential for targeting BAFF in WAIHA therapy. Full article
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11 pages, 1051 KiB  
Case Report
Real-World Case Series of Efgartigimod for Japanese Generalized Myasthenia Gravis: Well-Tailored Treatment Cycle Intervals Contribute to Sustained Symptom Control
by Shingo Konno, Takafumi Uchi, Hideo Kihara and Hideki Sugimoto
Biomedicines 2024, 12(6), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12061214 - 30 May 2024
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Abstract
Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG), an immune disorder affecting nerve-muscle transmission, often necessitates tailored therapies to alleviate longitudinal symptom fluctuations. Here, we aimed to examine and compare the treatment cycle intervals and efficacy of efgartigimod in four patients. This case series mainly offers insights [...] Read more.
Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG), an immune disorder affecting nerve-muscle transmission, often necessitates tailored therapies to alleviate longitudinal symptom fluctuations. Here, we aimed to examine and compare the treatment cycle intervals and efficacy of efgartigimod in four patients. This case series mainly offers insights into personalized treatment cycle intervals and the efficacy of efgartigimod for patients with MG in our facility in Japan. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed four patients with MG (2 patients with early-onset, 1 with late-onset, and 1 with seronegative MG, mainly managed with oral immunosuppressants as prior treatments) who completed four or more cycles of efgartigimod treatment from January 2022 to September 2023. We focused on changes in serum immunoglobulin (IgG) level, acetylcholine receptor antibody (AChR-Ab) titer, and quantitative MG (QMG) score. Results: Efgartigimod, administered at a median of 5.0 [IQR 5.0, 7.5] weeks between cycles, led to decreased serum IgG levels in all patients and reduced AChR-Ab titers in seropositive patients. All patients showed sustained MG symptom improvement, with considerably reduced QMG scores before efgartigimod treatment. None of the patients required rescue medications or developed treatment-related adverse events. Conclusions: Customized efgartigimod administration intervals effectively enhanced clinical outcomes in patients with MG without notable symptom fluctuations, demonstrating the benefits of individualized treatment approaches and validating the safety of efgartigimod during the study period. Full article
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