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Vitamin D and Microbiota

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 24343

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Head of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa and San Bartolomeo Hospital, Sarzana, Italy
Interests: immunodeficiency; autoimmunity; neuro-endocrino-immunology; pharmacogenomics; soluble molecules; immune-mediated diseases; allergies; vaccines
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Guest Editor
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, School and Operative Unit of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Interests: inflammatory mediators; the citokine network (interleukins, chemokines, adhesion molecules, lipoxines); the oxidative stress in various areas of clinical immunology; allergy; oncology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Human microbiota is constituted by the fungi, bacteria, protozoa, and viruses cohabiting within the human body. Microbiota is not restrained to the gastrointestinal system, but is also present on the surface of the skin, genitals, nasal epithelium, and all mucosal surfaces or other tissues biologically populated by microorganisms. The gastrointestinal tract houses a variety of microbiota that are important for nutrient absorption, immunity, and intestinal epithelial barrier homeostasis. However, vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin deemed essential for human health and its levels are associated with the function and composition of the intestinal microbiome. Besides being known for maintaining bone homeostasis, vitamin D has been implicated in innate and adaptive immunity, as well as having anti-inflammatory properties. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D reduces inflammation and attenuates autoimmune disease. Of note, serum levels of vitamin D are positively associated with serum and colonic cathelicidin among ulcerative colitis patients. Serum cathelicidin is negatively associated with histologic inflammation, and clinical relapse risk. Finally, recent investigations on the microbiota confirmed its involvement in several diseases including cognitive impairment, allergy, autoimmunity, obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. The mechanisms by which a modified microbiota can intervene in the onset and progression of neoplastic diseases are different and include effects on the immune system and the action on the onset of obesity. In this Special Issue, we will address the role of vitamin D and microbiota, cytokines/receptors or signaling molecules in the pathogenesis of cancers, allergic, immune-mediated and other inflammatory chronic diseases. We will consider all reports, without restrictions in the animal or cellular model used. We encourage researchers to contribute experimental papers or review articles.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Murdaca
Assoc. Prof. Sebastiano Gangemi
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Microbiota
  • Cytokines
  • Signaling molecules
  • Allergic diseases
  • Immunologic diseases
  • ASTHMA
  • Food allergy
  • Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU)
  • Atopic dermatitis (AD)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Systemic sclerosis (SSc)
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)
  • Cancers

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

18 pages, 886 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D and Microbiota: Is There a Link with Allergies?
by Giuseppe Murdaca, Alessandra Gerosa, Francesca Paladin, Lorena Petrocchi, Sara Banchero and Sebastiano Gangemi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084288 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 6433
Abstract
There is increasing recognition of the importance of both the microbiome and vitamin D in states of health and disease. Microbiome studies have already demonstrated unique microbial patterns in systemic autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. [...] Read more.
There is increasing recognition of the importance of both the microbiome and vitamin D in states of health and disease. Microbiome studies have already demonstrated unique microbial patterns in systemic autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Dysbiosis also seems to be associated with allergies, in particular asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Even though the effect of vitamin D supplementation on these pathologies is still unknown, vitamin D deficiency deeply influences the microbiome by altering the microbiome composition and the integrity of the gut epithelial barrier. It also influences the immune system mainly through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). In this review, we summarize the influence of the microbiome and vitamin D on the immune system with a particular focus on allergic diseases and we discuss the necessity of further studies on the use of probiotics and of a correct intake of vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Microbiota)
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22 pages, 1595 KiB  
Review
Vitamin D Modulates Intestinal Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
by Carolina Battistini, Rafael Ballan, Marcos Edgar Herkenhoff, Susana Marta Isay Saad and Jun Sun
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010362 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 88 | Viewed by 17217
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), which differ in the location and lesion extensions. Both diseases are associated with microbiota dysbiosis, with a reduced population of butyrate-producing species, abnormal inflammatory response, and micronutrient deficiency (e.g., vitamin D hypovitaminosis). Vitamin D (VitD) is involved in immune cell differentiation, gut microbiota modulation, gene transcription, and barrier integrity. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the biological actions of the active VitD (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and is involved in the genetic, environmental, immune, and microbial aspects of IBD. VitD deficiency is correlated with disease activity and its administration targeting a concentration of 30 ng/mL may have the potential to reduce disease activity. Moreover, VDR regulates functions of T cells and Paneth cells and modulates release of antimicrobial peptides in gut microbiota-host interactions. Meanwhile, beneficial microbial metabolites, e.g., butyrate, upregulate the VDR signaling. In this review, we summarize the clinical progress and mechanism studies on VitD/VDR related to gut microbiota modulation in IBD. We also discuss epigenetics in IBD and the probiotic regulation of VDR. Furthermore, we discuss the existing challenges and future directions. There is a lack of well-designed clinical trials exploring the appropriate dose and the influence of gender, age, ethnicity, genetics, microbiome, and metabolic disorders in IBD subtypes. To move forward, we need well-designed therapeutic studies to examine whether enhanced vitamin D will restore functions of VDR and microbiome in inhibiting chronic inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Microbiota)
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