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Special Issue "High-Density Lipoproteins and Cardiovascular Disease: The Good, the Bad, and the Future"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Joan Carles Escolà-Gil
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques (IIB) Sant Pau, CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Barcelona, Spain
Interests: atherosclerosis; cholesterol; genetically-modified mice; HDL; lipoproteins
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Josep Julve
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques (IIB) Sant Pau, CIBER de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Barcelona, Spain
Interests: obesity; diabetes; lipoprotein metabolism; metabolic syndrome; therapeutics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have shown that low levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, HDL-targeted drugs, such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, fibrates, and niacin, have failed to reduce cardiovascular events in clinical trials, thereby casting doubt on the beneficial effects of raising HDL levels.

Experimental studies have identified several HDL cardioprotective functions, including the enhancement of macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and endothelial function, as well as its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic properties. HDL is highly heterogeneous and carries a large variety of lipids, proteins, and microRNAs. The different composition of HDL subpopulations is directly related to their cardioprotective functions, but the assignment of specific molecules to HDL functions is not completely understood.

Compelling available data strongly indicate that increased HDL cholesterol levels do not always correlate with enhanced beneficial HDL properties, thus questioning their potential as a biomarker of HDL functionality. In addition, the association between low HDL cholesterol and cardiovascular disease can be further confounded by several factors, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and/or metabolic derangements leading to altered plasma lipids, thereby indicating that low HDL levels could simply be a marker of an underlying pathology. Current research is moving towards both the development of robust HDL function tests and the identification of specific HDL molecules (many of them bioactive) within HDL that can be widely applied in translational and pre-clinical studies. The application of novel HDL-based approaches for therapeutic purposes requires the development of validated and reproducible measures of these key atheroprotective HDL functions.

This Special Issue is jointly organized between IJMS and Biomedicines journals. According to the Aims and Scope of these journals, articles showing basic studies in biochemistry, molecular biology, and molecular medicine can be submitted to IJMS, while articles presenting more clinical content can be submitted to Biomedicines.

Dr. Joan Carles Escolà-Gil
Dr. Josep Julve
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • atherosclerosis
  • cardiovascular
  • diabetes
  • cholesterol
  • HDL
  • inflammation
  • mice
  • oxidation
  • therapy

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Cholesterol Acceptors Regulate the Lipidome of Macrophage Foam Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153784 - 02 Aug 2019
Abstract
Arterial foam cells are central players of atherogenesis. Cholesterol acceptors, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), take up cholesterol and phospholipids effluxed from foam cells into the circulation. Due to the high abundance of cholesterol in foam cells, most previous studies focused [...] Read more.
Arterial foam cells are central players of atherogenesis. Cholesterol acceptors, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), take up cholesterol and phospholipids effluxed from foam cells into the circulation. Due to the high abundance of cholesterol in foam cells, most previous studies focused on apoA-I/HDL-mediated free cholesterol (FC) transport. However, recent lipidomics of human atherosclerotic plaques also identified that oxidized sterols (oxysterols) and non-sterol lipid species accumulate as atherogenesis progresses. While it is known that these lipids regulate expression of pro-inflammatory genes linked to plaque instability, how cholesterol acceptors impact the foam cell lipidome, particularly oxysterols and non-sterol lipids, remains unexplored. Using lipidomics analyses, we found cholesterol acceptors remodel foam cell lipidomes. Lipid subclass analyses revealed various oxysterols, sphingomyelins, and ceramides, species uniquely enriched in human plaques were significantly reduced by cholesterol acceptors, especially by apoA-I. These results indicate that the function of lipid-poor apoA-I is not limited to the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids but suggest that apoA-I serves as a major regulator of the foam cell lipidome and might play an important role in reducing multiple lipid species involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
HDL Triglycerides: A New Marker of Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(13), 3151; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20133151 - 27 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
While cholesterol content in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is a well-established inverse marker of cardiovascular risk, the importance of HDL–triglyceride (HDL-TG) concentration is not well known. We aim to examine plasma HDL-TG concentrations, assessed by 1H-NMR, in patients with metabolic diseases and their [...] Read more.
While cholesterol content in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is a well-established inverse marker of cardiovascular risk, the importance of HDL–triglyceride (HDL-TG) concentration is not well known. We aim to examine plasma HDL-TG concentrations, assessed by 1H-NMR, in patients with metabolic diseases and their association with classical biomarkers. In this cross-sectional study, we included 502 patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome attending the lipid unit of our University Hospital. The presence of arteriosclerotic plaques was assessed by ultrasonography. A complete lipoprotein profile was performed by 1H-NMR (Liposcale test). HDL-TG was strongly positively correlated with total triglycerides, glycerol, and fatty liver index, while a strong negative correlation was observed with HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL-particle number (HDL-P). HDL-TG was associated with all triglyceride-rich lipoprotein parameters and had an opposite association with HDL-C and HDL-P. It was also significantly correlated with circulating cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP). HDL-TG concentrations were higher as metabolic syndrome components increased. HDL-TG was also higher with worsening glucose metabolism. Patients with carotid plaques also showed higher HDL-TG. In contrast to HDL-C, HDL-TG is directly associated with metabolism and arteriosclerotic vascular alterations. HDL-TG should be considered a biomarker of metabolic and cardiovascular risk and could be a marker of HDL dysfunction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lipoprotein Lipase Inhibitor, Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid, Aggravates Metabolic Phenotypes and Alters HDL Particle Size in the Western Diet-Fed db/db Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123057 - 22 Jun 2019
Abstract
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoprotein to supply fatty acids, and its deficiency leads to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby inducing metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been recently reported to inhibit LPL secretion by endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi redistribution. However, the role of NDGA [...] Read more.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides in lipoprotein to supply fatty acids, and its deficiency leads to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby inducing metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been recently reported to inhibit LPL secretion by endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi redistribution. However, the role of NDGA on dyslipidemia and MetSyn remains unclear. To address this question, leptin receptor knock out (KO)-db/db mice were randomly assigned to three different groups: A normal AIN76-A diet (CON), a Western diet (WD) and a Western diet with 0.1% NDGA and an LPL inhibitor, (WD+NDGA). All mice were fed for 12 weeks. The LPL inhibition by NDGA was confirmed by measuring the systemic LPL mass and adipose LPL gene expression. We investigated whether the LPL inhibition by NDGA alters the metabolic phenotypes. NDGA led to hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. More strikingly, the supplementation of NDGA increased the percentage of high density lipoprotein (HDL)small (HDL3a+3b+3c) and decreased the percentage of HDLlarge (HDL2a+2b) compared to the WD group, which indicates that LPL inhibition modulates HDL subclasses. was NDGA increased adipose inflammation but had no impact on hepatic stress signals. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that LPL inhibition by NDGA aggravates metabolic parameters and alters HDL particle size. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effective Treatment of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure with Reconstituted HDL (Milano) in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061273 - 13 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The risk of heart failure (HF) is prominently increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objectives of this study were to establish a murine model of diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by feeding a high-sugar/high-fat (HSHF) diet and to evaluate the effect of [...] Read more.
The risk of heart failure (HF) is prominently increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objectives of this study were to establish a murine model of diabetic cardiomyopathy induced by feeding a high-sugar/high-fat (HSHF) diet and to evaluate the effect of reconstituted HDLMilano administration on established HF in this model. The HSHF diet was initiated at the age of 12 weeks and continued for 16 weeks. To investigate the effect of reconstituted HDLMilano on HF, eight intraperitoneal administrations of MDCO-216 (100 mg/kg protein concentration) or of an identical volume of control buffer were executed with a 48-h interval starting at the age of 28 weeks. The HSHF diet-induced obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic cardiomyopathy was present in HSHF diet mice as evidenced by cardiac hypertrophy, increased interstitial and perivascular fibrosis, and decreased myocardial capillary density. Pressure-volume loop analysis indicated the presence of both systolic and diastolic dysfunction and of decreased cardiac output in HSHF diet mice. Treatment with MDCO-216 reversed pathological remodelling and cardiac dysfunction and normalized wet lung weight, indicating effective treatment of HF. No effect of control buffer injection was observed. In conclusion, reconstituted HDLMilano reverses HF in type 2 diabetic mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Levels of Preβ1-HDL Are Significantly Elevated in Non-Dialyzed Patients with Advanced Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051202 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases markedly, but there is no strong inverse relationship between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular diseases. This indicates that not only the HDL-C level, but also the other quantitative changes in the HDL [...] Read more.
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases markedly, but there is no strong inverse relationship between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and cardiovascular diseases. This indicates that not only the HDL-C level, but also the other quantitative changes in the HDL particles can influence the protective functionality of these particles, and can play a key role in the increase of cardiovascular risk in CKD patients. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the parameters that may give additional information about the HDL particles in the course of progressing CKD. For this purpose, we analyzed the concentrations of HDL containing apolipoprotein A-I without apolipoprotein A-II (LpA-I), preβ1-HDL, and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) in 68 patients at various stages of CKD. The concentration of HDL cholesterol, MPO, PON-1, and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity were similar in all of the analyzed stages of CKD. We did not notice significant changes in the LpA-I concentrations in the following stages of CKD (3a CKD stage: 57 ± 19; 3b CKD stage: 54 ± 15; 4 CKD stage: 52 ± 14; p = 0.49). We found, however, that the preβ1-HDL concentration and preβ1-HDL/LpA-I ratio increased along with the progress of CKD, and were inversely correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), even after adjusting for age, gender, triacylglycerols (TAG), HDL cholesterol, and statin therapy (β = −0.41, p < 0.001; β = −0.33, p = 0.001, respectively). Our results support the earlier hypothesis that kidney disease leads to the modification of HDL particles, and show that the preβ1-HDL concentration is significantly elevated in non-dialyzed patients with advanced stages of CKD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Compositional Features of HDL Particles Interact with Albuminuria to Modulate Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040977 - 23 Feb 2019
Abstract
Lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B modify associations of elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, it is known that elevated UAE alters high-density lipoprotein functionality. Accordingly, we examined whether HDL features might also modify UAE-associated CVD. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards modeling was [...] Read more.
Lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein B modify associations of elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, it is known that elevated UAE alters high-density lipoprotein functionality. Accordingly, we examined whether HDL features might also modify UAE-associated CVD. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards modeling was performed on participants of the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease) study at the baseline screening with standard lipid/lipoprotein analyses and, three-to-four years later (second screen), with nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein analyses focusing on HDL parameters including HDL particle (HDL-P) and apolipoprotein A-I concentrations. These were used with UAE and derived measures of HDL apoA-I content (apoA-I/HDL-C and apoA-I/HDL-P) in risk models adjusted for gender, age, apoB, diabetes, past CVD history, CRP and GFR. Interaction analysis was also performed. Baseline screening revealed significant associations inverse for HDL-C and apoA-I and direct for apoA-I/HDL-C. The second screening demonstrated associations inverse for HDL-P, large HDL-P, medium HDL-P, HDL size, and apoA-I/HDL-P. Significant interactions with UAE included apoA-I/HDL-C at the baseline screening, and apoA-I/HDL-P and medium HDL-P but not apoA-I/HDL-C at the second screening. We conclude that features of HDL particles including apoA-I/HDL-P, indicative of HDL apoA-I content, and medium HDL-P modify associations of elevated UAE with CVD risk. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Human ApoA-I Overexpression Enhances Macrophage-Specific Reverse Cholesterol Transport but Fails to Prevent Inherited Diabesity in Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030655 - 02 Feb 2019
Abstract
Human apolipoprotein A-I (hApoA-I) overexpression improves high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and the metabolic complications of obesity. We used a mouse model of diabesity, the db/db mouse, to examine the effects of hApoA-I on the two main functional properties of HDL, i.e., macrophage-specific reverse [...] Read more.
Human apolipoprotein A-I (hApoA-I) overexpression improves high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and the metabolic complications of obesity. We used a mouse model of diabesity, the db/db mouse, to examine the effects of hApoA-I on the two main functional properties of HDL, i.e., macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport (m-RCT) in vivo and the antioxidant potential, as well as the phenotypic features of obesity. HApoA-I transgenic (hA-I) mice were bred with nonobese control (db/+) mice to generate hApoA-I-overexpressing db/+ offspring, which were subsequently bred to obtain hA-I-db/db mice. Overexpression of hApoA-I significantly increased weight gain and the incidence of fatty liver in db/db mice. Weight gain was mainly explained by the increased caloric intake of hA-I-db/db mice (>1.2-fold). Overexpression of hApoA-I also produced a mixed type of dyslipidemia in db/db mice. Despite these deleterious effects, the overexpression of hApoA-I partially restored m-RCT in db/db mice to levels similar to nonobese control mice. Moreover, HDL from hA-I-db/db mice also enhanced the protection against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation compared with HDL from db/db mice. In conclusion, overexpression of hApoA-I in db/db mice enhanced two main anti-atherogenic HDL properties while exacerbating weight gain and the fatty liver phenotype. These adverse metabolic side-effects were also observed in obese mice subjected to long-term HDL-based therapies in independent studies and might raise concerns regarding the use of hApoA-I-mediated therapy in obese humans. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Vasoprotective Functions of High-Density Lipoproteins Relevant to Alzheimer’s Disease Are Partially Conserved in Apolipoprotein B-Depleted Plasma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030462 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to have vasoprotective functions in peripheral arteries and many of these functions extend to brain-derived endothelial cells. Importantly, several novel brain-relevant HDL functions have been discovered using brain endothelial cells and in 3D bioengineered human arteries. The cerebrovascular [...] Read more.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are known to have vasoprotective functions in peripheral arteries and many of these functions extend to brain-derived endothelial cells. Importantly, several novel brain-relevant HDL functions have been discovered using brain endothelial cells and in 3D bioengineered human arteries. The cerebrovascular benefits of HDL in healthy humans may partly explain epidemiological evidence suggesting a protective association of circulating HDL levels against Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) risk. As several methods exist to prepare HDL from plasma, here we compared cerebrovascular functions relevant to AD using HDL isolated by density gradient ultracentrifugation relative to apoB-depleted plasma prepared by polyethylene-glycol precipitation, a common high-throughput method to evaluate HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in clinical biospecimens. We found that apoB-depleted plasma was functionally equivalent to HDL isolated by ultracentrifugation in terms of its ability to reduce vascular Aβ accumulation, suppress TNFα-induced vascular inflammation and delay Aβ fibrillization. However, only HDL isolated by ultracentrifugation was able to suppress Aβ-induced vascular inflammation, improve Aβ clearance, and induce endothelial nitric oxide production. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
HDL Cholesterol as a Marker of Disease Severity and Prognosis in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(14), 3514; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20143514 - 18 Jul 2019
Abstract
The impact of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on the development of atherosclerosis and diseases of systemic circulation has been well documented both in experimental and registry studies. Recent discoveries in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) revealed a significant impact of HDL on pulmonary artery [...] Read more.
The impact of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on the development of atherosclerosis and diseases of systemic circulation has been well documented both in experimental and registry studies. Recent discoveries in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) revealed a significant impact of HDL on pulmonary artery vasoreactivity and patients’ prognosis. The vasoprotective activity of HDL primarily involves vascular endothelium that also plays a central role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) pathobiology. However, the exact mechanism in which this lipoprotein fraction exerts its effect in pulmonary circulation is still under investigation. This paper reviews potential vasoprotective mechanisms of HDL in pulmonary circulation and presents current clinical reports on the role of HDL in PAH patients. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Review
Title: HDL composition and function is as important as the HDL-cholesterol levels
Authors: Arash Meshkat, DMD; Nasrin Dorreh, MSc; Ana Dorfman, BSc; Pegah Malek, MD; Elnaz Kasiri, MD; Zarina Barseghyan, MD; Samra Vazirian, MD and Anahid Jewett, MPH, PhD

Review
Title: Advances in HDL functions: much more than lipid transporters
Authors: Soumaya Ben-Aicha, Lina Badimon, Gemma Vilahur

Review
Title: The role and function of HDL in patient with chronic kidney disease
Authors: Jacek Rysz, Beata Franczyk, Maciej Banach, Anna Gluba-Brzózka

Article
Title: One-year Clinical Outcomes According to HDL-C levels in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Authors: Madhav Sharma, MBBS; Usman Baber, MD, MS; Dhrubajyoti Bandyopadhyay, MBBS, MD; Serdar Farhan, MD; Jaya Chandrasekhar, MD, MS; Sabato Sorrentino, MD, PhD; Samantha Sartori, PhD; Bimmer E. Claeessen, MD, PhD;  Samuel Zucker, BS; Faride Godoy, MPH; Jason Kovacic, MD; Pedro R. Moreno, MD; Nitin Barman, MD; Joseph Sweeny, MD; Pooja Vijay BS; Srushti Shah, MS; George Dangas, MD, PhD; Roxana Mehran, MD; Annapoorna Kini, MD; Samin K. Sharma, MD

Review
Title: The role of HDL in interstitium and lymph- why we care about HDL trafficking through tissues
Authors: Li-Hao Huang

Review
Title: HDL cholesterol as a marker of disease severity and prognosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension
Authors: Grzegorz Kopec; Kamil Jonas

Article
Title: HDL triglycerides, a new marker of HDL dysfunction and cardiovascular risk
Authors: Girona J, Amigó N, Ibarretxe D, Plana N, Rodriguez-Borjabad C, Ferre R, Masana L.

Article
Title: The mechanism of Bisphenol A atherogenicity involves apolipoprotein AI downregulation through NF-kB activation
Authors: V.G. Trusca, F.I. Tudorache, M. Dumitrescu, I.M. Fenyo, M. Simionescu, A.V. Gafencu

Article
Title: Regulation of macrophage foam cell lipidome by ApoA1 and HDL
Authors: Ryan Hogan, Kiran Jahangir, Antoni Paul, and Young-Hwa Goo

Review
Title: Targeting circulating HDL-associated sphingolipids as mediators of diabetic cardiomyopathy: a role for diagnosis and therapeutics
Authors: Elena M. G. Diarte-Añazco, Karen Alejandra Méndez-Lara, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Núria Alonso and Josep Julve

Communication
Title: Acute intake of a turmeric extract and brewer’s yeast increase HDL cholesterol levels and ameliorate atheroprotective ratios in healthy subjects
Authors: Lorena Calderón-Pérez, et al.

Article
Title: Lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, alters lipid metabolism and HDL phenotypes in the western diet fed db/db mice
Author: Inhae Kang, et al.

Review
Title: (r)HDL in theranostics: how do we applied HDL's biology for precision medicine in atherosclerosis management?
Authors: Kepa Belloso Uribe (Uribe KB), Cesar Martín (Martín C), Noemi Rotllan Vila

Article
Title: High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Inhibits Serum Amyloid A (SAA) Induced Vascular and Renal Dysfunctions in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice
Authors: Xiaoping Cai, Gulfam Ahmad, Farjaneh Hossain, Anna Liu, XiaoSuo Wang, Joanne Dennis, Saul Benedict Freedman, Paul Witting *

Review
Title: Clinical and molecular effects of the diet on HDL function
Authors: Milessa Afonso, etc.

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