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Advances in HDL: Much More than Lipid Transporters

by Soumaya Ben-Aicha 1,2, Lina Badimon 1,3,4,† and Gemma Vilahur 1,3,*,†
1
Cardiovascular ICCC Program, Research Institute-Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, 08001 Barcelona, Spain
2
School of Medicine, University of Barcelona (UB), 08001 Barcelona, Spain
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Cardiovascular (CIBERCV) Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28001 Madrid, Spain
4
Cardiovascular Research Chair, Universidad Autónoma Barcelona (UAB), 08001 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors equally coordinated the work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030732
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 19 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) particles, beyond serving as lipid transporters and playing a key role in reverse cholesterol transport, carry a highly variable number of proteins, micro-RNAs, vitamins, and hormones, which endow them with the ability to mediate a plethora of cellular and molecular mechanisms that promote cardiovascular health. It is becoming increasingly evident, however, that the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and co-morbidities alters HDLs cargo and protective functions. This concept has led to the notion that metrics other than HDL-cholesterol levels, such as HDL functionality and composition, may better capture HDL cardiovascular protection. On the other hand, the potential of HDL as natural delivery carriers has also fostered the design of engineered HDL-mimetics aiming to improve HDL efficacy or as drug-delivery agents with therapeutic potential. In this paper, we first provide an overview of the molecules known to be transported by HDL particles and mainly discuss their functions in the cardiovascular system. Second, we describe the impact of cardiovascular risk factors and co-morbidities on HDL remodeling. Finally, we review the currently developed HDL-based approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: HDL; cardiovascular risk factors; cardiovascular disease; engineered HDL-mimetics HDL; cardiovascular risk factors; cardiovascular disease; engineered HDL-mimetics
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Ben-Aicha, S.; Badimon, L.; Vilahur, G. Advances in HDL: Much More than Lipid Transporters. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 732.

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