Special Issue "Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. María del Mar Molero Jurado
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Education, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
Interests: psychology of sustainability; engagement work; occupational health; psychosocial; organizational environments; personality; emotional intelligence; burnout; emotions; health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dr. José Jesús Gázquez Linares
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Psychology, Universidad de Almería, Calle Universidad de Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
2. Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Av. Pedro de Valdivia 425, Providencia, Región Metropolitana, Chile
Interests: psychology of sustainability; engagement work; occupational health; psychosocial; organizational environments; personality; aggressive behavior; emotional intelligence; emotional intelligence; burnout, public health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A high percentage of professionals suffer from a series of symptoms closely related to work overloads, pressures of time or responsibility, often leading to intense chronic distress, which could progress into what is known as the Burnout Syndrome. This puts the capacity for adaptation of the professionals affected to the test and can distort the way in which they perceive daily challenges, seeing them as threats and insurmountable obstacles.

Traditionally, burnout research has prioritized the analysis of the syndrome’s risk factors and consequences. This syndrome has recently been classed as a public health problem, and new theoretical approaches have arisen arguing for the study of variables, which insofar as they are related to burnout can take on a protective role against events triggering the syndrome. This refers to a wide spectrum of personal factors, which are essential to personal and professional development, such as, in the field of healthcare, social skills, communication, empathy, resilience, emotional intelligence, coping strategies, stress tolerance, proactive personality, self-esteem, and so forth.

This Special Issue is intended to provide greater visibility to the empirical study of the relationships between the presence of certain protector factors, which can specifically prevent the development or chronification of professional burnout of workers. These are professionals who, due to the characteristics of the setting they act in, perform tasks requiring continuous interaction with colleagues, children, patients, and their family members. In addition to the technical competencies necessary for them to develop their particular profession, it is indispensable to attend to other personal resources, which make these professionals less vulnerable to the effects of the workload, exhaustion, job dissatisfaction, stress, and so on, all of which involves being equipped with personal tools for coping successfully with the demands typical of their job, thereby contributing to improved social relations, performance, teamwork, effective leadership, etc., and in other words, work better adjusted to needs and demands. Furthermore, personal and professional benefits, and, ultimately, the advantages of all of this for the institution or company are outstanding.

Priority will be given to papers presenting the results of data collection and statistical analysis, and theoretical reviews, framed within a systematic methodology or meta-analysis, which are outstanding because of the relevance of their results, will also be considered. Above all, we will prioritize those which present an up-to-date methodological framework, which can be considered a starting point for future lines of research, specifically: proposal of theoretical models, development of evaluation instruments, or design of intervention programs (especially preventive).

Dr. María del Mar Molero Jurado
Dr. María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes
Dr. José Jesús Gázquez Linares
Dr. Ivan Herrera-Peco
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • burnout syndrome
  • public health
  • prevention
  • risk factors
  • protector factors
  • occupational health
  • workplace
  • personal factors

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Outbreak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010337 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1778
Abstract
(1) Background: The present study aims to assess the level of professional burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS), and to identify potential risk or protective factors among health care workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.; (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The present study aims to assess the level of professional burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS), and to identify potential risk or protective factors among health care workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.; (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study, based on an online survey, collected demographic data and mental distress outcomes from 184 HCWs from 1 May 2020, to 15 June 2020, from 45 different countries. The degree of STS, perceived stress and burnout was assessed using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk and protective factors for STS; (3) Results: 184 HCWs (M = 90; Age mean: 46.45; SD: 11.02) completed the survey. A considerable proportion of HCWs had symptoms of STS (41.3%), emotional exhaustion (56.0%), and depersonalization (48.9%). The prevalence of STS was 47.5% in frontline HCWs while in HCWs working in other units it was 30.3% (p < 0.023); 67.1% for the HCWs exposed to patients’ death and 32.9% for those HCWs which were not exposed to the same condition (p < 0.001). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, and exposure to patients’ death remained as significant predictors in the final model for STS (adjusted R2 = 0.537, p < 0.001); (4) Conclusions: During the current COVID-19 pandemic, HCWs facing patients’ physical pain, psychological suffering, and death are more likely to develop STS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT)—Development, Validity, and Reliability
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249495 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
This paper introduces a new definition for burnout and investigates the psychometric properties of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT). In a prior qualitative study, 49 practitioners were interviewed about their conceptualization of burnout (part 1). Using a dialectical approach, four core dimensions—exhaustion, mental [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a new definition for burnout and investigates the psychometric properties of the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT). In a prior qualitative study, 49 practitioners were interviewed about their conceptualization of burnout (part 1). Using a dialectical approach, four core dimensions—exhaustion, mental distance, and impaired emotional and cognitive impairment—and three secondary dimensions—depressed mood, psychological distress, and psychosomatic complaints—emerged, which constitute the basis of the BAT. In the second study, the psychometric characteristics of the BAT were investigated in a representative sample of 1500 Flemish employees, focusing on factorial validity, reliability, and construct validity, respectively. Results demonstrate the assumed four-factor structure for the core dimensions, which is best represented by one general burnout factor. Contrary to expectations, instead of a three-factor structure, a two-factor structure was found for the secondary dimensions. Furthermore, the BAT and its subscales show adequate reliability. Convergent validity and discriminant validity with other burnout measures—including the MBI and OLBI—was demonstrated, as well as discriminant validity with other well-being constructs, such as work engagement and workaholism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Are You Tired of Working amid the Pandemic? The Role of Professional Identity and Job Satisfaction against Job Burnout
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9188; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249188 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1023
Abstract
With the outbreak of novel coronavirus in 2019, most universities changed from traditional offline teaching to online teaching, which brought about a large amount of problems, including teachers’ physical and mental problems. Because of teaching on the computer screen for a long period [...] Read more.
With the outbreak of novel coronavirus in 2019, most universities changed from traditional offline teaching to online teaching, which brought about a large amount of problems, including teachers’ physical and mental problems. Because of teaching on the computer screen for a long period of time, the teacher lacks communication and can act casually. With long-term accumulation, the problem of teachers’ job burnout has become increasingly serious. The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of professional identity on job burnout during the period of the novel coronavirus. At the same time, this study also discussed the moderating effect of job satisfaction on professional identity and job burnout, and its relationship between job satisfaction and job burnout. During the peak period of the COVID-19 epidemic, we conducted an online survey—483 Chinese university teachers with online teaching experience completed the Teacher Professional Identity Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Job Burnout Scale. The results of this study found professional identity and job satisfaction of university teachers to be significantly negative predictors of job burnout, with job satisfaction playing a moderating role between professional identity and job burnout. This study also confirmed that professional identity and job satisfaction are important factors affecting job burnout of university teachers. Therefore, this study proposed that schools should adopt more effective strategies to improve university teachers’ professional identity and job satisfaction in order to reduce the practical problems of job burnout, ensure the effectiveness of online teaching, and maintain the sustainable development during the epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
A Person-Centered Approach to the Job Demands–Control Model: A Multifunctioning Test of Addictive and Buffer Hypotheses to Explain Burnout
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238871 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
This study used a cross-sectional design and a person-centered approach in order to test the addictive and interactive strain hypotheses of Job Demands–Control Model to explain burnout. A large sample (n = 6357) of Portuguese workers (nurses, bank employees, retail traders, and [...] Read more.
This study used a cross-sectional design and a person-centered approach in order to test the addictive and interactive strain hypotheses of Job Demands–Control Model to explain burnout. A large sample (n = 6357) of Portuguese workers (nurses, bank employees, retail traders, and contact center agents) was used. Through latent profile analysis (LPA), first latent profiles of demands and control were identified and then it was examined how these profiles differed in workplace well-being (engagement and burnout) through an ANCOVA. The four hypothesized profiles (i.e., “high-strain”, “low-Strain”, “passive”, and “active”) and one more profile denominated “moderate active”, emerged from LPA analysis. The hypotheses were supported in both addictive effects and interactive effects (buffer hypothesis), suggesting that the difficulty in finding consistent support for the buffer hypothesis might be related to the use of variable-centered approaches. Moreover, this reinforces that, in organizational practice, job control is a crucial characteristic to face job demands, as job control will buffer job demands’ harmful effects on workplace well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Burnout in Spanish Security Forces during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238790 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, members of the State Security Forces and the Armed Forces have been mobilized to guarantee the security and mobility of the population and to support health institutions by providing personnel for care, creating field [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, members of the State Security Forces and the Armed Forces have been mobilized to guarantee the security and mobility of the population and to support health institutions by providing personnel for care, creating field hospitals, transferring the sick and the dead, etc. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of burnout in these professionals using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) scale, both in its different subscales and its total value. The study was developed using a quantitative methodology through a simple random sample (n = 2182). An ad hoc questionnaire was administered including variables related to: (a) socio-demographic issues, (b) subjective perceptions about their working conditions and the need for psychological and psychiatric treatment, and (c) the Death Anxiety Scale developed by Collett–Lester, and the MBI. The results show high levels of burnout (28.5%) in all its subscales: emotional exhaustion (53.8%), depersonalization (58.0%), and lack of personal development (46.3%). The logistic regression verifies a series of predictive variables that coincide in each of the subscales. These data indicate the need to implement prevention and treatment measures for workers so that their, stress, and anxiety to which they are subjected during their professional activity does not become a norm that can have negative repercussions for them, especially given the risk of new pandemic waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
Psychological Capital and Burnout in Teachers: The Mediating Role of Flourishing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8403; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228403 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 808
Abstract
In keeping with the growth in the development of healthy environments in organizational contexts, in recent years, there has also been increasing interest in the identification of personal psychological resources that contribute to improved worker mental health. From this proactive approach, this study [...] Read more.
In keeping with the growth in the development of healthy environments in organizational contexts, in recent years, there has also been increasing interest in the identification of personal psychological resources that contribute to improved worker mental health. From this proactive approach, this study examines the mediating role of flourishing in the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and burnout in teachers, a professional group that is particularly prone to suffering from this syndrome. A total of 1379 teachers from pre-school, primary, secondary, and vocational education systems participated in the study. The mediating effect of flourishing was determined via mediation analysis using the PROCESS macro. The results showed that flourishing partially mediates the negative effect of PsyCap on the three symptoms of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of professional accomplishment). These findings indicate that both PsyCap and flourishing may be effective personal resources in reducing teacher burnout. Therefore, in order to prevent burnout, it is advisable to design interventions that combine PsyCap and flourishing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Emotion Regulation Strategies, Workload Conditions, and Burnout in Healthcare Residents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7816; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217816 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 642
Abstract
Background: Burnout syndrome is very prevalent among healthcare residents. Initiatives addressing workload conditions have had limited impact on burnout. The present study aims to explore the contribution of two emotion regulation strategies, namely emotion suppression and cognitive reevaluation, to residents’ burnout, while accounting [...] Read more.
Background: Burnout syndrome is very prevalent among healthcare residents. Initiatives addressing workload conditions have had limited impact on burnout. The present study aims to explore the contribution of two emotion regulation strategies, namely emotion suppression and cognitive reevaluation, to residents’ burnout, while accounting for workload factors. Methods: Participants were 105 residents (68.6% women; mean age = 27.5, SD = 3.0). They completed measures of workload, burnout, and emotion regulation. The study was cross-sectional. Results: Emotional suppression was associated with higher burnout (depersonalization scale; β = 0.20, p < 0.05, CI 0.15–2.48) and cognitive revaluation was linked to lower burnout (higher personal accomplishment; β = 0.35, p < 0.01, CI 0.16–2.56), even after controlling for demographic and workload factors. We found interaction effects between workload variables (supervisor support and number of patient hours) and emotion regulation (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The relationship between workload, emotion regulation, and burnout seems to be complex. That is, similar work conditions might generate different levels of burnout depending on the resident’s emotional regulation strategies. This might partly explain why existing initiatives based on workload changes have had a modest impact on burnout. Results also support including emotion regulation training in prevention and treatment programs targeting burnout during residency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
Testing the Intermediary Role of Perceived Stress in the Relationship between Mindfulness and Burnout Subtypes in a Large Sample of Spanish University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197013 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 703
Abstract
The burnout syndrome is the consequence of chronic stress that overwhelms an individual’s resources to cope with occupational or academic demands. Frenetic, under-challenged, and worn-out are different burnout subtypes. Mindfulness has been recognized to reduce stress, comprising five facets (observing, describing, acting with [...] Read more.
The burnout syndrome is the consequence of chronic stress that overwhelms an individual’s resources to cope with occupational or academic demands. Frenetic, under-challenged, and worn-out are different burnout subtypes. Mindfulness has been recognized to reduce stress, comprising five facets (observing, describing, acting with awareness, non-judging of inner experience, and non-reactivity to inner experience). This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the relationship between mindfulness facets, perceived stress, and burnout subtypes in a sample of 1233 students of Education, Nursing, and Psychology degrees from different universities of Valencia (Spain). Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was computed showing an adequate fit (Chi-square, CFI, TLI, RMSEA, and SRMR). Four mindfulness facets (all but observing) significantly correlated with general second-order mindfulness. Unexpected results were found: Acting with awareness facet was positively associated with frenetic subtype, while the non-reacting facet was positively associated with frenetic and under-challenged subtype. Ultimately, mindfulness facets negatively predicted the perceived stress levels, which in turn, predicted burnout. However, mindfulness plays different roles in the early stages of burnout syndrome (i.e., frenetic and under-challenged). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Resilience, Everyday Stress, Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem, Emotional Intelligence, and Empathy on Attitudes toward Sexual and Gender Diversity Rights
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176219 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
The present study forms part of the project “Cross-disciplinary education for sexual, body, and gender diversity” (Code 419). The aim of this study was to analyze the role played by the psychoeducational variables involved in burnout (resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, and [...] Read more.
The present study forms part of the project “Cross-disciplinary education for sexual, body, and gender diversity” (Code 419). The aim of this study was to analyze the role played by the psychoeducational variables involved in burnout (resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, and everyday stress) on attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity rights. Participants comprised 170 university students undertaking a degree in primary education. Instruments were administered to assess the constructs analyzed, ensuring informed consent, voluntary participation, anonymity, and data confidentiality. An ex post facto design was employed to determine whether attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity rights are influenced by the possible relationships and role of these variables. We found statistically significant associations between students’ attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity at all three levels (sociocultural, relational, and personal) and the variable of burnout. Attitudes towards gender sexual orientation and gender identity rights influence burnout, and vice versa. As we ponder deeply about how these factors influence one another, we can shift our perspectives in a way that builds social harmony. It is important to learn how exactly these influences work, and this knowledge translates into making teaching strategies more effective to help raise awareness about guaranteeing rights for all. At the personal level of students’ attitudes toward sexual and gender diversity/equality, we found positive correlations between this level and the total score for the variable of resilience and with its factor of personal competence. The data obtained will be of use for future psychoeducational assessment and intervention programs related to an education in sexual orientation and gender identity rights that are aimed at developing socio-emotional competencies and attention to diversity with the ultimate goal of improving social harmony by dismantling stereotypes and raising awareness of the importance of the variables of resilience, self-efficacy, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, and everyday stress which highlights how “education is an instrument of social transformation”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
Positive Psychological Capital Mediates the Association between Burnout and Nursing Performance Outcomes among Hospital Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5988; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165988 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Nursing burnout is associated with reduced nursing performance outcomes. Positive psychological capital is known to play an important role in improving workers’ job performance. However, the association among the three variables has rarely been addressed. The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive study was [...] Read more.
Nursing burnout is associated with reduced nursing performance outcomes. Positive psychological capital is known to play an important role in improving workers’ job performance. However, the association among the three variables has rarely been addressed. The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to explore the association between burnout and nursing performance outcomes among Korean nurses working at a tertiary hospital and the mediating role of psychological capital in this relationship. Recruited through convenience sampling, a total of 285 nurses provided data on their demographic characteristics and completed a structured questionnaire consisting of items from the Professional Quality of Life Scale (burnout), Nursing Performance Scale, and Psychology Capital Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, student’s t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and multiple linear regression analyses were used to analyze data. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with the PROCESS macro. The mean age of participants was 30.51 years, and most participants were females (94.0%) and unmarried (71.6%); more than half (57.5%) experienced a severe workload. The average (±standard deviation) scores of burnout, nursing performance outcomes, and positive psychological capital were 28.77 ± 4.93, 2.98 ± 0.32, and 3.19 ± 0.45, respectively. Burnout was associated with nursing performance among clinical nurses (β = −0.20, p < 0.001). Positive psychological capital mediated the association between burnout and nursing performance outcomes (β = 0.41, p < 0.001). These findings contribute to the understanding that burnout among nurses could be reduced by increased positive psychological capital, which results in improved performance outcomes. The findings also indicate that interventions to improve positive psychological capital should be developed and implemented for nurses’ burnout management and improvement in nursing performance outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
In Pursuit of Work Performance: Testing the Contribution of Emotional Intelligence and Burnout
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155373 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Previous research has highlighted the connection between emotional intelligence (EI) and work performance. However, the role of job burnout in this context remains relatively unexplored. This study aimed to examine the mediator role of burnout in the relationship between EI and work performance [...] Read more.
Previous research has highlighted the connection between emotional intelligence (EI) and work performance. However, the role of job burnout in this context remains relatively unexplored. This study aimed to examine the mediator role of burnout in the relationship between EI and work performance in a multioccupational sample of 1197 Spanish professionals (58.6% women). The participants completed the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire. As expected, the results demonstrated a positive relationship between EI and performance, and a negative relationship with burnout, which has a mediator effect in the relationship between EI and work performance. Professionals with high levels of IE and low burnout reported the highest performance. Multiple mediation analyses showed that employees’ EI was indirectly connected to work performance via professional efficacy and exhaustion, even when controlling the effects of sociodemographic variables. The same pattern was found when multiple mediations were conducted for each EI dimension. These findings demonstrate the importance of burnout in understanding work performance and emphasize the role of EI as a protective variable which can prevent the development or chronic progression of workers’ burnout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Professional Quality of Life and Life Satisfaction in Spanish Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124366 - 18 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
Background: Dealing with suffering, grief, and death on a daily basis, together with the particular working conditions, may produce high levels of burnout in nurses, and hinder their well-being. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of self-care and [...] Read more.
Background: Dealing with suffering, grief, and death on a daily basis, together with the particular working conditions, may produce high levels of burnout in nurses, and hinder their well-being. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of self-care and self-compassion on nurses’ professional quality of life and well-being. Methods: The research had a cross-sectional design, used correlational methodology and a structural equation model was hypothesized. Along the study, 210 nurses from the Healthcare Public System of the Balearic Islands, participated. The study took place from June to September 2018. Results: The hypothesized model showed an overall adequate fit. Practice environment predicted both self-care and self-compassion, whereas nursing stress did not. Self-care and self-compassion predicted nurses’ professional quality of life, whereas the practice environment and nursing stress were not predictors. Finally, professional quality of life showed a positive relationship with life satisfaction. Conclusions: The study presents a comprehensive structural equation model in which self-care and self-compassion are the best predictors of nurses’ professional quality of life. A direct relation of professional quality of life and nurses’ well-being has also been found, while controlling for the effects of nurses’ practice environment and stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Stress and Indicators of Burnout in Teachers at Portuguese Higher Education Institutions (HEI)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093248 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1652
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the phenomena of burnout and perceived stress in teachers at Higher Education Institutions, as this professional class is one of the most affected by high levels of stress. A sample of 520 university teachers was [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the phenomena of burnout and perceived stress in teachers at Higher Education Institutions, as this professional class is one of the most affected by high levels of stress. A sample of 520 university teachers was used, of which 339 (65.2%) were women. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used to measure perceived stress. A sociodemographic data questionnaire produced by the authors was also applied, which consisted of questions about age, sex, experience in the teaching profession and the participants’ teaching areas. The results indicated that university teachers over 60 years old exhibited lower levels of perceived stress, as did teachers with more teaching experience (30 years or more), and those with less experience (less than 10 years). Women exhibited higher levels of perceived stress than men. Women also scored higher levels of Emotional Exhaustion in the burnout dimensions, whereas teachers will less experience (under 10 years) and teachers with more experience (more than 30 years) had the lowest scores in this dimension. Through an examination of the relation between perceived stress and the burnout dimensions, we concluded that perceived stress was directly proportional to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; and was inversely proportional to personal accomplishment. A total of 31.3% of the variance in burnout was explained by perceived stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
What Protects Youth Residential Caregivers from Burning Out? A Longitudinal Analysis of Individual Resilience
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072212 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Background: Professional caregivers are exposed to multiple stressors and have high burnout rates; however, not all individuals are equally susceptible. We investigated the association between resilience and burnout in a Swiss population of professional caregivers working in youth residential care. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Professional caregivers are exposed to multiple stressors and have high burnout rates; however, not all individuals are equally susceptible. We investigated the association between resilience and burnout in a Swiss population of professional caregivers working in youth residential care. Methods: Using a prospective longitudinal study design, participants (n = 159; 57.9% women) reported on burnout symptoms and sense of coherence (SOC), self-efficacy and self-care at four annual sampling points. The associations of individual resilience measures and sociodemographic variables, work-related and personal stressors, and burnout symptoms were assessed. Cox proportional hazards regressions were calculated to compute hazard ratios over the course of three years. Results: Higher SOC, self-efficacy and self-care were related to lower burnout symptoms in work-related and personal domains. Higher SOC and self-efficacy were reported by older caregivers and by those with children. All three resilience measures were highly correlated. A combined model analysis weakened the protective effect of self-efficacy, leaving only SOC and self-care negatively associated with burnout. Conclusion: This longitudinal analysis suggests that SOC and self-caring behaviour in particular protect against burnout. Our findings could have implications for promoting self-care practices, as well as cultivating a meaningful, comprehensible and manageable professional climate in all facets of institutional care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
Job Burnout and Occupational Stressors among Chinese Healthcare Professionals at County-Level Health Alliances
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061848 - 12 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to examine the degrees of job burnout and occupational stressors and their associations among healthcare professionals from county-level health alliances in Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in county-level health alliances in Qinghai Province, China, in [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to examine the degrees of job burnout and occupational stressors and their associations among healthcare professionals from county-level health alliances in Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in county-level health alliances in Qinghai Province, China, in November 2018. The Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Survey and the 38-item Chinese version of the “Scale for occupational stressors on clinicians” were used. Medical staff in four health alliances from two counties were invited to complete the questionnaire. Results: A total of 1052 (age: 34.06 ± 9.22 years, 79.1% females) healthcare professionals were included, 68.2% (95% CI: 65.2–71.0%) of the participants had job burnout symptoms. Occupational stressors had positive associations with moderate (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.05–1.07) and serious (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.13–1.19) level of job burnout. Stressors from vocational interest produced the greatest magnitude of odds ratio (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.62–1.92) for serious degree of burnout, followed by doctor–patient relationship, interpersonal relationship as well as other domains of occupational stressors. Conclusions: Job burnout was very common among healthcare professionals working in Chinese county-level health alliances, different occupational stressors had associations with job burnout. Appropriate and effective policies and measures should be developed and implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
The Development of a Proactive Burnout Prevention Inventory: How Employees Can Contribute to Reduce Burnout Risks
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051711 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
Proactive burnout prevention refers to a set of proactive behaviors employees may engage in to prevent burnout. Findings of a previous exploratory qualitative study indicated that employees who had to deal with high demands engaged in specific proactive behaviors in the work, home, [...] Read more.
Proactive burnout prevention refers to a set of proactive behaviors employees may engage in to prevent burnout. Findings of a previous exploratory qualitative study indicated that employees who had to deal with high demands engaged in specific proactive behaviors in the work, home, and personal domain in order to prevent burnout. To further examine proactive burnout prevention in longitudinal quantitative research and to be able to investigate its effectiveness, an inventory for assessing these kinds of behaviors is necessary. The goal of this study was twofold: 1) to develop an inventory to assess employees’ proactive burnout prevention behaviors and examine its factorial validity, 2) to explore the broader nomological network of proactive burnout prevention behaviors by examining its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. A two-wave longitudinal survey (T1: N = 343; T2: N = 201) was conducted. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed that proactive burnout prevention can be reliably assessed with 40 items that load on 12 factors, indicating 12 separate proactive burnout prevention behaviors. Moreover, exploration of the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the proactive burnout prevention inventory showed promising results, as expected relationships were confirmed for most behaviors. Further research is needed to substantiate the findings and examine the effectiveness of proactive burnout prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
Frenetic, under-Challenged, and Worn-out Burnout Subtypes among Brazilian Primary Care Personnel: Validation of the Brazilian “Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire” (BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031081 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Primary healthcare personnel show high levels of burnout. A new model of burnout has been developed to distinguish three subtypes: frenetic, under-challenged, and worn-out, which are characterized as overwhelmed, under-stimulated, and disengaged at work, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess [...] Read more.
Primary healthcare personnel show high levels of burnout. A new model of burnout has been developed to distinguish three subtypes: frenetic, under-challenged, and worn-out, which are characterized as overwhelmed, under-stimulated, and disengaged at work, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the long/short Brazilian versions of the “Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire” (BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12) among Brazilian primary healthcare staff and its possible associations with other psychological health-related outcomes. An online cross-sectional study conducted among 407 Brazilian primary healthcare personnel was developed. Participants answered a Brazil-specific survey including the BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12, “Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey”, “Utrecht Work Engagement Scale”, “Hospital Anxiety/Depression Scale”, “Positive-Negative Affect Schedule”, and a Visual Analogue Scale of guilt at work. The bifactor was the model with the best fit to the data using the BCSQ-36, which allowed a general factor for each subtype. The three-correlated factors model fit better to the BCSQ-12. Internal consistence was appropriate, and the convergence between the long-short versions was high. The pattern of relationships between the burnout subtypes and the psychological outcomes suggested a progressive deterioration from the frenetic to the under-challenged and worn-out. In sum, the Brazilian BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12 showed appropriate psychometrics to be used in primary healthcare personnel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Emotional Regulation and School Burnout: Structural Equation Model According to Dedication to Tutoring
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4703; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234703 - 26 Nov 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1135
Abstract
School burnout constitutes a current phenomenon which generates diverse negative consequences in the personal and academic lives of students. Given this situation, it is necessary to develop actions that permit us to regulate this harmful mental state and that are administered from within [...] Read more.
School burnout constitutes a current phenomenon which generates diverse negative consequences in the personal and academic lives of students. Given this situation, it is necessary to develop actions that permit us to regulate this harmful mental state and that are administered from within the school context. A descriptive and cross-sectional study is presented that pursues the objective of examining a structural equation model which brings together burnout and emotional regulation. The model assumes that students receive tutoring at school in order to tackle these types of problems. For this, the sample constituted a total of 569 students from the province of Granada (men = 52.3% (n = 298); women = 47.7% (n = 271)). Mean age was reported as 10.39 ± 0.95 years and the School Burnout Inventory (BMI) and the Emotional Regulation Scale were utilized as the principal instruments. As main findings it was observed that students who received one hour of weekly tutoring showed a positive relationship between expressive suppression as a strategy of emotional regulation, cynicism, and exhaustion as consequences of school burnout. In the same way, a direct association existed between burnout-related exhaustion and cognitive repair. Given that significant relationships could not be observed between these variables in students who do not receive tutoring, higher use of emotional regulation was confirmed amongst tutored students when faced with this negative mental state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
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