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Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT)—Development, Validity, and Reliability
Open AccessArticle

Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Outbreak

1
Department of Surgical, Medical and Molecular Pathology, Critical and Care Medicine, University of Pisa, 56121 Pisa, Italy
2
Weaning and Cardio-Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, Auxilium Vitae Rehabilitation Centre, 56148 Volterra, Italy
3
Fondazione Volterra Ricerche ONLUS, 56148 Volterra, Italy
4
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, 56121 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010337
Received: 25 November 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 31 December 2020 / Published: 5 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
(1) Background: The present study aims to assess the level of professional burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS), and to identify potential risk or protective factors among health care workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak.; (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study, based on an online survey, collected demographic data and mental distress outcomes from 184 HCWs from 1 May 2020, to 15 June 2020, from 45 different countries. The degree of STS, perceived stress and burnout was assessed using the Secondary Traumatic Stress Scale (STSS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Service Survey (MBI-HSS) respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk and protective factors for STS; (3) Results: 184 HCWs (M = 90; Age mean: 46.45; SD: 11.02) completed the survey. A considerable proportion of HCWs had symptoms of STS (41.3%), emotional exhaustion (56.0%), and depersonalization (48.9%). The prevalence of STS was 47.5% in frontline HCWs while in HCWs working in other units it was 30.3% (p < 0.023); 67.1% for the HCWs exposed to patients’ death and 32.9% for those HCWs which were not exposed to the same condition (p < 0.001). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, and exposure to patients’ death remained as significant predictors in the final model for STS (adjusted R2 = 0.537, p < 0.001); (4) Conclusions: During the current COVID-19 pandemic, HCWs facing patients’ physical pain, psychological suffering, and death are more likely to develop STS. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; secondary traumatic stress; burnout; health care workers COVID-19; secondary traumatic stress; burnout; health care workers
MDPI and ACS Style

Orrù, G.; Marzetti, F.; Conversano, C.; Vagheggini, G.; Miccoli, M.; Ciacchini, R.; Panait, E.; Gemignani, A. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Outbreak. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010337

AMA Style

Orrù G, Marzetti F, Conversano C, Vagheggini G, Miccoli M, Ciacchini R, Panait E, Gemignani A. Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Outbreak. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(1):337. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010337

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orrù, Graziella; Marzetti, Francesca; Conversano, Ciro; Vagheggini, Guido; Miccoli, Mario; Ciacchini, Rebecca; Panait, Eugenia; Gemignani, Angelo. 2021. "Secondary Traumatic Stress and Burnout in Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Outbreak" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 18, no. 1: 337. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010337

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