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Open AccessArticle

Frenetic, under-Challenged, and Worn-out Burnout Subtypes among Brazilian Primary Care Personnel: Validation of the Brazilian “Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire” (BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12)

1
Mente Aberta-Brazilian Center for Mindfulness and Health Promotion, Department of Preventive Medicine, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), 13565-905 São Paulo, Brazil
2
Primary Care Prevention and Health Promotion Research Network (RedIAPP), 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
3
Miguel Servet Hospital and University of Zaragoza, RedIAPP, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
4
Excellence Research Network PROMOSAM (PSI2014-56303-REDT), 28029 Madrid, Spain
5
Psicoforma Integral Psychology Center, 46001 Valencia, Spain
6
Teaching, Research & Innovation Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, 08830 St. Boi de Llobregat, Spain
7
Faculty of Psychology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Vallès), 08193 Barcelona, Spain
8
Department of Psychology, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Mallorca, Spain
9
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031081
Received: 12 December 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 8 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Burnout as a Public Health Problem and Its Approach from Prevention)
Primary healthcare personnel show high levels of burnout. A new model of burnout has been developed to distinguish three subtypes: frenetic, under-challenged, and worn-out, which are characterized as overwhelmed, under-stimulated, and disengaged at work, respectively. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the long/short Brazilian versions of the “Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire” (BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12) among Brazilian primary healthcare staff and its possible associations with other psychological health-related outcomes. An online cross-sectional study conducted among 407 Brazilian primary healthcare personnel was developed. Participants answered a Brazil-specific survey including the BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12, “Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey”, “Utrecht Work Engagement Scale”, “Hospital Anxiety/Depression Scale”, “Positive-Negative Affect Schedule”, and a Visual Analogue Scale of guilt at work. The bifactor was the model with the best fit to the data using the BCSQ-36, which allowed a general factor for each subtype. The three-correlated factors model fit better to the BCSQ-12. Internal consistence was appropriate, and the convergence between the long-short versions was high. The pattern of relationships between the burnout subtypes and the psychological outcomes suggested a progressive deterioration from the frenetic to the under-challenged and worn-out. In sum, the Brazilian BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12 showed appropriate psychometrics to be used in primary healthcare personnel. View Full-Text
Keywords: burnout; burnout subtypes; BCSQ; primary care; Brazil; validation studies; bifactor; questionnaire burnout; burnout subtypes; BCSQ; primary care; Brazil; validation studies; bifactor; questionnaire
MDPI and ACS Style

Demarzo, M.; García-Campayo, J.; Martínez-Rubio, D.; Pérez-Aranda, A.; Miraglia, J.L.; Hirayama, M.S.; de Salvo, V.M.A.; Cicuto, K.; Favarato, M.L.; Terra, V.; de Oliveira, M.B.; García-Toro, M.; Modrego-Alarcón, M.; Montero-Marín, J. Frenetic, under-Challenged, and Worn-out Burnout Subtypes among Brazilian Primary Care Personnel: Validation of the Brazilian “Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire” (BCSQ-36/BCSQ-12). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1081.

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