Special Issue "Adult Psychiatry "

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Assoc. Prof. Roger C.M. Ho
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychological Medicine, National University of Singapore,Level 9, NUHS Tower Block, 1E Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Interests: mood disorders; personality disorders; electronic mental health service delivery and the interface between psychiatry and medicine; application of optical topography in psychiatry
Dr. Bach Tran
Website
Guest Editor
Vice Head, Department of Health Economics, Hanoi Medical University, Vietnam
Vietnam Young Physician Association
Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, USA
Interests: health economics and policy; global health; e-Health
Dr. Ng Chong Guan
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Interests: epidemiology; depression; palliative psychiatry; psychooncology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Psychiatric disorders affect the brain, which is the most important organ of human body, by a combination of aetiologies involving biological and environmental factors. Psychiatric disorders are common in the adult population with prevalence ranges from 1% (schizophrenia) to 15% (depression). Despite recent advances in psychopharmacology, psychiatric disorders are associated with work-related disability, productivity loss and stigma in the adult population. Psychiatric disorders have negative impacts on patient quality of life and contribute significantly to the human and economic costs in the society. More research is required to understand the biological, psychological and social aspects of psychiatric disorders in adults.  Such research findings will help governments and health authorities to formulate mental health policy in prevention, detection and treatment of psychiatric disorders.

This Special Issue aims to showcase and summarize latest research findings about psychiatric disorders which affect adults in different countries. This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to “Adult Psychiatry”. We welcome papers that report research findings related to schizophrenia, depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, suicide and deliberate self-harm, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, addiction and substance abuse, as well as other psychiatric disorders. Studies using innovative research methods to study psychiatric disorders are most welcome.

Dr. Ho Chun Man Roger
Dr. Bach Tran
Dr. Ng Chong Guan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Schizophrenia
  • Depressive disorder
  • Bipiolar disorder
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Suicide
  • Addiction
  • Substance abuse
  • Personality disorder

Published Papers (65 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Coping with COVID-19: Exposure to COVID-19 and Negative Impact on Livelihood Predict Elevated Mental Health Problems in Chinese Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3857; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113857 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2020
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic might lead to more mental health problems. However, few studies have examined sleep problems, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms among the general adult population during the COVID-19 outbreak, and little is known about coping behaviors. This survey was conducted online in [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic might lead to more mental health problems. However, few studies have examined sleep problems, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms among the general adult population during the COVID-19 outbreak, and little is known about coping behaviors. This survey was conducted online in China from February 1st to February 10th, 2020. Quota sampling was used to recruit 2993 Chinese citizens aged ≥18 years old. Mental health problems were assessed with the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression inventory, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Exposure to COVID-19 was measured with questions about residence at outbreak, personal exposure, media exposure, and impact on livelihood. General coping style was measured by the brief Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). Respondents were also asked 12 additional questions about COVID-19 specific coping behaviors. Direct exposure to COVID-19 instead of the specific location of (temporary) residence within or outside the epicenter (Wuhan) of the pandemic seems important (standardized beta: 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02–0.09). Less mental health problems were also associated with less intense exposure through the media (standardized beta: −0.07, 95% CI: −0.10–−0.03). Perceived negative impact of the pandemic on livelihood showed a large effect size in predicting mental health problems (standardized beta: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.10–0.19). More use of cognitive and prosocial coping behaviors were associated with less mental health problems (standardized beta: −0.30, 95% CI: −0.34–−0.27). Our study suggests that the mental health consequences of the lockdown impact on livelihood should not be underestimated. Building on cognitive coping behaviors reappraisal or cognitive behavioral treatments may be most promising. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Psychological Distress of Patients Experiencing Different Types of Road Traffic Injuries in Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103429 - 14 May 2020
Abstract
Road-related injuries are often catastrophic, and the eighth leading cause of all-aged mortality. While psychological problems, including anxiety, driving phobia, and post-traumatic stress have been found to be common among injured survivors, the literature in this area is still limited. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Road-related injuries are often catastrophic, and the eighth leading cause of all-aged mortality. While psychological problems, including anxiety, driving phobia, and post-traumatic stress have been found to be common among injured survivors, the literature in this area is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of distress between different types of road injuries among 413 patients in Thai Binh hospitals from October to December 2018. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) was used to assess mental health status. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were also collected. The results of Multiple Logistic and Tobit regression models were utilized. Psychological issues were found in 13.8% of the participants. In terms of K6 profile, nervous, restless/fidgety, and “everything was an effort” were the three most frequently endorsed aspects. Having soft-tissue injuries had a 0.32-time lower likelihood of psychological distress compared to those having other injuries. Additionally, patients who were diagnosed with fractures were 4.5-times more likely to report psychological distress. Our finding highlights the need for psychological screening to reduce disabilities associated with non-fatal injury related to road traffic crashes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Validity and Reliability of the Korean Version of the Anesthesia Surrendering Instrument
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3065; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093065 - 28 Apr 2020
Abstract
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the anesthesia surrendering instrument (ASI), which was originally developed to measure anesthesia surrendering in Swedish adults. The study population consisted of 306 patients who received general anesthesia for abdominal, breast, knee, [...] Read more.
This study examined the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the anesthesia surrendering instrument (ASI), which was originally developed to measure anesthesia surrendering in Swedish adults. The study population consisted of 306 patients who received general anesthesia for abdominal, breast, knee, hip, lower back, or shoulder surgery in ten hospitals across five regions of Korea from June to September 2019. The validity of the content, construct, and criterion used, and the reliability of the ASI were assessed. The results showed that the instrument had appropriate content validity; the item-level content validity index ranged between 0.80 and 1.00, and the scale-level content validity index was 0.90. The construct validity test results confirmed four sub-categories with a total of 26 items, and the internal consistency reliability tests showed Cronbach’s alpha values ranging between 0.71 and 0.88. The study findings confirmed the applicability of this instrument for measuring anesthesia surrendering in Korean adults. These results provide a foundation for future studies on anesthesia surrendering in Korean adult patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Depressive Symptoms, Suicidal Ideation, and Mental Health Service Use of Industrial Workers: Evidence from Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082929 - 23 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation substantially reduce industrial workers’ productivity and performance. This study was performed to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and identify associated factors among industrial workers in different provinces of Vietnam. Materials and Methods [...] Read more.
Background: Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation substantially reduce industrial workers’ productivity and performance. This study was performed to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and identify associated factors among industrial workers in different provinces of Vietnam. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in industrial zones of four provinces of Vietnam. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was employed to screen depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine factors related to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Results: Of 1200 industrial workers, 30.5% and 33.6% industrial workers had positive depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in the last two weeks, respectively. There were 38.3% ever using mental health services in the last 12 months. High school education (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44–0.95); living in dormitory (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = 1.51–6.24), living with siblings (OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.32–6.75), having two children or more (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.03–2.03), high years of experience (OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.89–0.98), suffering from burnout, alcohol use disorder (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.72–3.28), and smoking status (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.23–0.61) were associated with positive depressive symptoms. Living with children, working in mechanical/metallurgy/electronics factories, completely exhausted and often thinking of quitting, and alcohol use disorder were positively related to suicidal ideation. Conclusions: This study found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation among industrial workers in Vietnam. Regular screening and detecting high-risk groups, along with interventions to reduce health risk behaviors, burnout and on-site medical service quality improvement, are recommended to alleviate the burden of depression in industrial workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Correlation Analysis of the Quality of Family Functioning and Subjective Quality of Life in Rehabilitation Patients Living with Schizophrenia in the Community
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072481 - 05 Apr 2020
Abstract
Background: Recently, the community rehabilitation model for schizophrenia patients has become increasingly popular, and the Shanghai Pudong New Area has developed a relatively complete community rehabilitation model. This study analyzed the correlation between family function and subjective quality of life in the rehabilitation [...] Read more.
Background: Recently, the community rehabilitation model for schizophrenia patients has become increasingly popular, and the Shanghai Pudong New Area has developed a relatively complete community rehabilitation model. This study analyzed the correlation between family function and subjective quality of life in the rehabilitation of patients living with schizophrenia in the community. Methods: This study evaluated persons living with schizophrenia using the Family Assessment Device and the Subjective Quality of Life Scale. A convenient sampling method was used to select 281 rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community and 166 hospitalized persons living with schizophrenia. Results: There was a significant difference in the Family Assessment Device scores between rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community and hospitalized persons living with schizophrenia (p < 0.0001). The difference in the scores of the subjective quality of life assessment between rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community and hospitalized persons living with schizophrenia was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The regression analysis showed that quality of family function had a significant effect on the subjective quality of life in rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community and hospitalized persons living with schizophrenia. (F = 10.770 p < 0.001), (F = 2.960 p < 0.01). Conclusions: The quality of family function plays an important role in improving the subjective quality of life in rehabilitation patients living with schizophrenia in the community. It may be beneficial to add some methods to improve family function in the current model of rehabilitation in the community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to Predict Patterns of Marijuana Use among Young Iranian Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061981 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Marijuana use is increasing among adolescents and young adults. Long-term marijuana use magnifies the risk of a wide variety of behavioral, cognitive-emotional, and neurological problems, and can be a gateway to use of other drugs. In the present study, we investigated [...] Read more.
Background: Marijuana use is increasing among adolescents and young adults. Long-term marijuana use magnifies the risk of a wide variety of behavioral, cognitive-emotional, and neurological problems, and can be a gateway to use of other drugs. In the present study, we investigated the cognitive-emotional and behavioral predictors of marijuana use. To this end, young Iranian adults answered questions based on an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and related it to marijuana use. We hypothesized that cognitive-emotional and behavioral factors would predict intention to use marijuana, and that this, in turn, would predict actual consumption. Methods: A total of 166 young Iranian adults (mean age: 20.51 years; 15.7% females) attending a walk-in center for drug use took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, frequency of marijuana use per week, along with questionnaires assessing the following dimensions of the TPB: attitude towards marijuana use, subjective norms, self-efficacy to resist marijuana use, environmental constraints, problem-solving skills, and behavioral intention for marijuana use. Results: Mean marijuana use was found to be 4.6 times/week. Attitude towards marijuana use, subjective norms, environmental constraints, and behavioral intention to use marijuana were positively correlated to each other and with marijuana use/week. In contrast, higher self-efficacy and problem-solving skills were associated with lower marijuana use/week. The multiple regression analysis showed that a positive attitude to marijuana use, lower self-efficacy in resisting its use, higher behavioral intention, and poorer problem-solving skills predicted actual use. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that dimensions of TPB can explain marijuana use among young Iranian adults self-admitted to a walk-in center for drug use. Specifically, poor problem-solving skills, low self-efficacy in resisting marijuana use, and positive labelling of its use appeared to be the best predictors of actual use. It follows that prevention programs aimed at improving problem-solving skills and raising self-efficacy, along with educational interventions aimed at highlighting the negative effects of marijuana might decrease the risk of its use among young adults in Iran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051729 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 90
Abstract
Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim [...] Read more.
Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Nutritional Factors, Physical Health and Immigrant Status Are Associated with Anxiety Disorders among Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Findings from Baseline Data of The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051493 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The main purpose of this study was to compare the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders among foreign-born and Canadian-born adults in middle and later life. Using baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2010–2015), multivariable binary logistic regression was conducted to [...] Read more.
The main purpose of this study was to compare the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders among foreign-born and Canadian-born adults in middle and later life. Using baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2010–2015), multivariable binary logistic regression was conducted to investigate anxiety diagnosis and immigrant status, while controlling for socio-economic, health-related, and nutrition covariates. Of 26,991 participants (49.3% men, 82.5% Canadian born, 58.5% aged 45–65 years), the overall prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosis of anxiety disorders was 8.5%, with immigrants being lower than Canadian-born respondents (6.4% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001). After accounting for all covariates, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for anxiety disorders was lower among immigrants (aOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67–0.88) compared to those who were Canadian born. Identified risk factors included: younger age (aORs = 1.79–3.52), being a woman (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.07–1.46), single status (aOR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09–1.48), lower income (aORs = 1.28–2.68), multi-morbidities (aORs = 2.73–5.13), chronic pain (aOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.18–1.44), lifetime smoking ≥ 100 cigarettes (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.23–1.48), BMI < 18.5 (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.20–2.92), body fat ≥ 26% (aORs = 1.28–1.79), fruit and vegetable intake (<3/day; aORs = 1.24–1.26), and pastry consumption (>1/day; aOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12–1.15) (p < 0.05). Targeting socio-economic and nutritional risk factors may reduce the burden of anxiety disorders in middle and late adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Anxiety and Depression Associated with Anal Sexual Practices among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Western China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020464 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the prevalence and influencing factors of anxiety and depression among human immunodeficiency virus negative (HIV-negative) men who have sex with men (MSM) based on anal sex roles, so as to provide a scientific basis for the management of [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the prevalence and influencing factors of anxiety and depression among human immunodeficiency virus negative (HIV-negative) men who have sex with men (MSM) based on anal sex roles, so as to provide a scientific basis for the management of mental health conditions. Data were obtained from the baseline in a cohort study with a two-year follow-up period in western China. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale were used to assess anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively. The prevalence of anxiety and depression in 1771 MSM was 26.03% and 37.83%. Among them, 182 anal sex role “0” MSM who only had receptive anal sex with men reported the highest prevalence of anxiety and depression (31.32% and 46.15%), 467 anal sex role “1” MSM who only had insertive anal sex with men (22.27% and 32.76%), and 1122 anal sex role “0.5” MSM who engaged equally in both insertive and receptive anal sex intercourse with men (26.74% and 38.59%), respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the influencing factors of anxiety include anal sex role “0”/”0.5”, low educational level, female sexual partners, frequently searching partners on the Internet, sexually transmitted diseases (STD) diagnosed by doctors, and no HIV counseling. Anal sex role “0”/”0.5”, rural area, casual male partners, female partners, STD diagnosed by doctors, frequently searching partners on the Internet, no HIV counseling, no condom use, and daily alcohol use were found to be associated with depression. In conclusion, early identification and intervention of anxiety and depression symptoms in HIV-negative MSM should be carried out, especially for anal sex role “0” MSM. Furthermore, key intervention and psychological counseling should be taken into consideration for MSM with a low education level, high-risk behaviors, and high-risk perceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Overview of Stigma against Psychiatric Illnesses and Advancements of Anti-Stigma Activities in Six Asian Societies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010280 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Background: In psychiatry, stigma is an attitude of disapproval towards people with mental illnesses. Psychiatric disorders are common in Asia but some Asians receive inadequate treatment. Previous review found that Asians with mental illness were perceived to be dangerous and aggressive. There [...] Read more.
Background: In psychiatry, stigma is an attitude of disapproval towards people with mental illnesses. Psychiatric disorders are common in Asia but some Asians receive inadequate treatment. Previous review found that Asians with mental illness were perceived to be dangerous and aggressive. There is a need for renewed efforts to understand stigma and strategies which can effectively reduce stigma in specific Asian societies. The objective of this systematic review was to provide an up-to-date overview of existing research and status on stigma experienced by psychiatric patients and anti-stigma campaigns in China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, Korea, and Thailand. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the following databases, including PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, and local databases. Studies published in English and the official language of included countries/territories were considered for inclusion in the systematic review. Any article on stigma related to any form of psychiatric illness in the six Asian societies was included. Results: One hundred and twenty-three articles were included for this systematic review. This review has six major findings. Firstly, Asians with mental illnesses were considered as dangerous and aggressive, especially patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; second, psychiatric illnesses in Asian societies were less socially-acceptable and were viewed as being personal weaknesses; third, stigma experienced by family members was pervasive and this is known as family stigma; fourth, this systemic review reported more initiatives to handle stigma in Asian societies than a decade ago; fifth, there have been initiatives to treat psychiatric patients in the community; and sixth, the role of supernatural and religious approaches to psychiatric illness was not prevailing. Conclusion: This systematic review provides an overview of the available scientific evidence that points to areas of needed intervention to reduce and ultimately eliminate inequities in mental health in Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Depression and Anxiety Symptoms of British Adoptive Parents: A Prospective Four-Wave Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 5153; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245153 - 17 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The mental health of birth parents has gained attention due to the serious negative consequences for personal, family, and child outcomes, but depression and anxiety in adoptive parents remains under-recognized. Using a prospective, longitudinal design, we investigated anxiety and depression symptoms in 96 [...] Read more.
The mental health of birth parents has gained attention due to the serious negative consequences for personal, family, and child outcomes, but depression and anxiety in adoptive parents remains under-recognized. Using a prospective, longitudinal design, we investigated anxiety and depression symptoms in 96 British adoptive parents over four time points in the first four years of an adoptive placement. Depression and anxiety symptom scores were relatively stable across time. Growth curve analysis showed that higher child internalizing scores and lower parental sense of competency at five months post-placement were associated with higher initial levels of parental depressive symptoms. Lower parental sense of competency was also associated with higher initial levels of parental anxiety symptoms. Parents of older children and those with higher levels of parental anxiety and sense of competency at five months post-placement had a steeper decrease in depressive symptoms over time. Support for adoptive families primarily focuses on child adjustment. Our findings suggest that professional awareness of parental mental health post-placement may be necessary, and interventions aimed at improving parents’ sense of competency may be beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients Who Underwent Mastectomy Versus Breast-Conserving Surgery: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4970; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244970 - 06 Dec 2019
Abstract
The purpose of our study was to carry out a meta-analysis of current literature to determine whether total mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery induce different outcomes in quality of life, based on the breast-cancer-specific module of the European Organizaation for Research and Treatment of [...] Read more.
The purpose of our study was to carry out a meta-analysis of current literature to determine whether total mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery induce different outcomes in quality of life, based on the breast-cancer-specific module of the European Organizaation for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23) used postoperatively. A systematic literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted. Observational clinical studies that compared the quality of life in different surgery groups and presented empirical findings were selected. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Breast-conserving surgery has statistically significant better outcomes than mastectomy in three of the eight outcomes measured in the EORTC QLQ-BR23, namely body image (standard mean difference, SMD = 1.742, 95% CI 0.579–2.905, p = 0.003), future perspective (SMD = 0.606, 95% CI 0.075–1.138, p = 0.025) and systemic therapy side effects (SMD = −0.641, 95% CI 0.101–1.181, p = 0.020). Our study highlighted that breast-conserving surgery was preferred over mastectomy because breast-conserving surgery leads to better outcomes in body image, future perspectives and less systemic side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Psychopathic Disorder Subtypes Based on Temperament and Character Differences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(23), 4761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16234761 - 27 Nov 2019
Abstract
The concept of psychopathy has shifted from people who commit crimes to those with a particular personality and deviant behaviors. Although antisocial personality disorder is associated with psychopathy, it also seems common in individuals with narcissistic personality traits. Psychopathy may be the expression [...] Read more.
The concept of psychopathy has shifted from people who commit crimes to those with a particular personality and deviant behaviors. Although antisocial personality disorder is associated with psychopathy, it also seems common in individuals with narcissistic personality traits. Psychopathy may be the expression of earlier, persistent patterns of individual characteristics as personality. The psychobiological model of personality can be useful for determining whether the expression of psychopathy differs in accordance with personality dimensions and specific personality disorders. The aim was to compare temperament and character dimensions between individuals with psychopathy with comorbid predominant antisocial or narcissistic personality traits and control subjects and to determine which dimensions distinguish these groups. Control subjects (n = 80) and individuals with psychopathy (n = 80) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Reviewed, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II disorders and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Reward dependence and Self-Directedness distinguish psychopathic individuals with predominant narcissistic personality traits whereas Novelty Seeking and Self-Transcendence characterize those with antisocial personality traits. Individuals with antisocial or narcissistic psychopathy could be identified by their temperament and character traits. The expression of psychopathy differed in accordance with biologically based, environmentally shaped personality traits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Global Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of Suicidal Behavior, Deliberate Self-Harm and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Children and Adolescents between 1989 and 2018: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224581 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the global lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal behavior, deliberate self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic search for relevant articles published between 1989 to 2018 was performed in multiple electronic databases. The [...] Read more.
Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the global lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal behavior, deliberate self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic search for relevant articles published between 1989 to 2018 was performed in multiple electronic databases. The aggregate 12-month and lifetime prevalence of suicidal behavior, deliberate self-harm, and non-suicidal self-injury were calculated based on the random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the prevalence according to school attendance and geographical regions. Results: A total of 686,672 children and adolescents were included. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicide attempts was 6% (95% CI: 4.7–7.7%) and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.4–5.9%) respectively. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal plan was 9.9% (95% CI: 5.5–17%) and 7.5% (95% CI: 4.5–12.1%) respectively. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation was 18% (95% CI: 14.2–22.7%) and 14.2% (95% CI: 11.6–17.3%) respectively. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury was 22.1% (95% CI: 16.9–28.4%) and 19.5% (95% CI: 13.3–27.6%) respectively. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of deliberate self-harm was 13.7% (95% CI: 11.0–17.0%) and 14.2% (95% CI: 10.1–19.5%) respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that full-time school attendance, non-Western countries, low and middle-income countries, and geographical locations might contribute to the higher aggregate prevalence of suicidal behaviors, deliberate self-harm, and non-suicidal self-injury. Conclusions: This meta-analysis found that non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, and deliberate self-harm were the three most common suicidal and self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Metacognitive Training on Cognitive Insight in a Sample of Patients with Schizophrenia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224541 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
Metacognitive training (MCT) is a group intervention that addresses cognitive biases and distortions that could help maintain delusions and hallucinations in people with schizophrenia. This program has proven its effectiveness in reducing the symptoms, but its impact on cognitive insight has scarcely been [...] Read more.
Metacognitive training (MCT) is a group intervention that addresses cognitive biases and distortions that could help maintain delusions and hallucinations in people with schizophrenia. This program has proven its effectiveness in reducing the symptoms, but its impact on cognitive insight has scarcely been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the program’s impact on cognitive insight in patients with long-term schizophrenia. A sample of 22 patients with schizophrenia was divided into two groups: one received 16 sessions of MCT (n = 11), while the other received the usual treatment (n = 11). They were assessed using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale which measures two components, self-reflection and self-certainty, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The experimental group showed high levels of adherence, an increase in self-reflection, and a decrease in self-assurance levels as hypothesized. We found statistically significant differences between the control and experimental groups in excitation, hostility, positive symptomatology total score, hallucinatory behavior, and suspicion. In the usual treatment group, a non-significant decrease in positive symptoms was also observed. The findings showed that the implementation of the MCT program in real clinical settings can contribute to an improvement in the metacognitive ability and symptomatology of people with schizophrenia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Factors Associated with Psychological Distress among Older Adults Admitted to Hospitals After Fall Injuries in Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4518; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224518 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Although psychological distress is one of the major health issues among aging populations, little is known about how this challenge affects older patients after falls. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thai Binh province, Vietnam, to explore the prevalence of psychological distress and [...] Read more.
Although psychological distress is one of the major health issues among aging populations, little is known about how this challenge affects older patients after falls. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Thai Binh province, Vietnam, to explore the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among 405 older patients after falls. The 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6) was used to measure psychological distress. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate Tobit and Logistic regressions were used to determine factors associated with psychological distress. The prevalence of psychological distress among participants was 26.2%. Patients who were alone or older had a higher likelihood of psychological distress. Patients with a history of falls in the past 12 months were more likely to suffer from psychological distress (OR = 2.87, 95%CI = 1.74; 4.72). Having two and three comorbidities was significantly associated with greater K6 scores and a higher risk of psychological distress. This study underlined a significantly high prevalence of psychological distress among older patients after falls. Providing frequent mental health monitoring, screening, treatment, and facilitating social engagements are important implications to improve the mental health of this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Polysubstance Use among Patients Enrolling in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program in a Vietnam Province with Drug-Driven HIV Epidemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183277 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been scaled up significantly in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of polysubstance use in 395 MMT patients and its contextualized associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in three outpatient MMT clinics in Nam [...] Read more.
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been scaled up significantly in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of polysubstance use in 395 MMT patients and its contextualized associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in three outpatient MMT clinics in Nam Dinh Province. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with polysubstance use status. The mean MMT duration and the current MMT dose was 3.3 years and 69.2 mg, respectively. Among participants, 24.8% reported daily alcohol use, 68.6% smoked regularly, and 6% used illicit drugs. Peer pressure and MMT suboptimal adherence were found to associate with continual usage of drugs (47.8%). Participants who lived with a spouse/partner, were self-employed, and smoked were more likely to drink alcohol. Those who drink were also more likely to smoke, and vice versa. Recommendations for policymakers include community-based education and promotional programs aiming to decrease substance usage in the community as well as encouraging and supporting the private health sector in establishing private MMT services and clinics. Further longitudinal studies on polysubstance usage among MMT patients should also be conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Determining Risk for Depression among Older People Residing in Vietnamese Rural Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152654 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
(1) Background: Major causes of the burden of disease in older persons include mental disorders and neurological diseases, such as depression. This study aims to explore the prevalence of older people at risk for depression and identify the factors associated with this risk [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Major causes of the burden of disease in older persons include mental disorders and neurological diseases, such as depression. This study aims to explore the prevalence of older people at risk for depression and identify the factors associated with this risk in rural Vietnam. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Soc Son, Hanoi with 523 community dwelling elders aged 60 and over. Face-to-face interviews were performed to collect data about socioeconomic status, risk for depression, health status, and health utilization. The Geriatric Depression Scale-4 items (GDS-4) was used to assess the risk for depression occurrence. Multivariable logistic regression was employed for determining the factors associated with the risk for depression. (3) Results: Among 523 participants, there were 26.4% of participants at risk for depression. The proportion of females at risk for depression (29.0%) was significantly higher than males (20.4%). Differences were found in economic status (near poor group had higher risk for depression compared to the poor group) (p < 0.01). Older adults living with spouse/partner, living in near-poor household, and suffering pain/discomfort were all more likely to be at risk for depression. (4) Conclusions: Being female, living in a near poor household, being in pain or experiencing discomfort are all factors strongly correlated to high risk for depression. These findings highlight the urgent need for additional research among Vietnamese community-dwelling older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Indices of Change, Expectations, and Popularity of Biological Treatments for Major Depressive Disorder between 1988 and 2017: A Scientometric Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132255 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Background. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disorder with high prevalence and disease burden. Biological treatments of MDD over the last several decades include a wide range of antidepressants and neurostimulation therapies. While recent meta-analyses have explored the efficacy and [...] Read more.
Background. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is the most common psychiatric disorder with high prevalence and disease burden. Biological treatments of MDD over the last several decades include a wide range of antidepressants and neurostimulation therapies. While recent meta-analyses have explored the efficacy and tolerability of antidepressants, the changing trends of biological treatments have not been evaluated. Our study measured the indices of change, expectations, and popularity of biological treatments of MDD between 1988 and 2017. Methods. We performed a scientometric analysis to identify all relevant publications related to biological treatments of MDD from 1988 to 2017. We searched the Web of Science websites for publications from 1 January 1988 to 31 December 2017. We included publications of fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline, amitriptyline, fluvoxamine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, desvenlafaxine, levomilnacipran, clomipramine, nortriptyline, bupropion, trazodone, nefazodone, mirtazapine, agomelatine, vortioxetine, vilazodone, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We excluded grey literature, conference proceedings, books/book chapters, and publications with low quality as well as publications not related to medicine or human health. The primary outcomes assessed were indices of change, expectations, and popularity. Results. Of 489,496 publications identified, we included 355,116 publications in this scientometric analysis. For the index of change, fluoxetine, sertraline and ECT demonstrated a positive index of change in 6 consecutive periods. Other neurostimulation therapies including rTMS, VNS, DBS and tDCS had shown a positive index of change since 1998. We calculated the index of change of popularity index (PI), which indicates that from 2013 to 2017, the number of publications on tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were reduced by 85.0% and 81.3% respectively, as compared with the period 2008–2012. For the index of expectation, fluoxetine and ECT showed the highest index of expectations in six consecutive periods and remained the highest in 2013–2017. For popularity, the three antidepressants with highest PI were fluoxetine (4.01), paroxetine (2.09), and sertraline (1.66); the three antidepressants with lowest PI were desvenlafaxine (0.08), vilazodone (0.04) and levomilnacipran (0.03). Among neurostimulation therapies, ECT has the highest PI (2.55), and tDCS the lowest PI (0.14). The PI of SSRI remained the highest among all biological treatments of MDD in 2013–2017. In contrast, the PI of ECT was reduced by approximately 50% during the period 2008 to2012 than that in the period 2013 to 2017. Conclusions. This scientometric analysis represents comprehensive evidence on the popularity and change in prospects of biological treatments for MDD from 1988 to 2017. The popularity of SSRI peaked between 1998 and 2002, when their efficacy, tolerability and safety profile allowed them to replace the TCAs and MAOIs. While the newer neurostimulation therapies are gaining momentum, the popularity of ECT has sustained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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The Current Research Landscape on the Artificial Intelligence Application in the Management of Depressive Disorders: A Bibliometric Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122150 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Artificial intelligence (AI)-based techniques have been widely applied in depression research and treatment. Nonetheless, there is currently no systematic review or bibliometric analysis in the medical literature about the applications of AI in depression. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the current research [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence (AI)-based techniques have been widely applied in depression research and treatment. Nonetheless, there is currently no systematic review or bibliometric analysis in the medical literature about the applications of AI in depression. We performed a bibliometric analysis of the current research landscape, which objectively evaluates the productivity of global researchers or institutions in this field, along with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and latent dirichlet allocation (LDA). From 2010 onwards, the total number of papers and citations on using AI to manage depressive disorder have risen considerably. In terms of global AI research network, researchers from the United States were the major contributors to this field. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the most well-studied application of AI was the utilization of machine learning to identify clinical characteristics in depression, which accounted for more than 60% of all publications. Latent dirichlet allocation identified specific research themes, which include diagnosis accuracy, structural imaging techniques, gene testing, drug development, pattern recognition, and electroencephalography (EEG)-based diagnosis. Although the rapid development and widespread use of AI provide various benefits for both health providers and patients, interventions to enhance privacy and confidentiality issues are still limited and require further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Depression among Patients with HIV/AIDS: Research Development and Effective Interventions (GAPRESEARCH)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101772 - 19 May 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Depression in people living with HIV (PLWH) has become an urgent issue and has attracted the attention of both physicians and epidemiologists. Currently, 39% of HIV patients are reported to suffer from depression. This population is more likely to experience worsening disease states [...] Read more.
Depression in people living with HIV (PLWH) has become an urgent issue and has attracted the attention of both physicians and epidemiologists. Currently, 39% of HIV patients are reported to suffer from depression. This population is more likely to experience worsening disease states and, thus, poorer health outcomes. In this study, we analyzed research growth and current understandings of depression among HIV-infected individuals. The number of papers and their impacts have been considerably grown in recent years, and a total of 4872 publications published from 1990–2017 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. Research landscapes related to this research field include risk behaviors and attributable causes of depression in HIV population, effects of depression on health outcomes of PLWH, and interventions and health services for these particular subjects. We identified a lack of empirical studies in countries where PLWH face a high risk of depression, and a modest level of interest in biomedical research. By demonstrating these research patterns, highlighting the research gaps and putting forward implications, this study provides a basis for future studies and interventions in addressing the critical issue of HIV epidemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Depressive Symptoms among Industrial Workers in Vietnam and Correlated Factors: A Multi-Site Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091642 - 11 May 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Depressive disorders have been found to be a significant health issue among industrial workers, resulting from work-related factors and causing serious burdens for the workers as well as their employers. Literature on mental health problems of Vietnamese industrial workers has been limited, despite [...] Read more.
Depressive disorders have been found to be a significant health issue among industrial workers, resulting from work-related factors and causing serious burdens for the workers as well as their employers. Literature on mental health problems of Vietnamese industrial workers has been limited, despite the rapid foreign investment-fueled industrialization process of the country. This study aimed to fill the gap in literature by examining the prevalence of depressive disorders and their potential associated factors among a cohort of Vietnamese industrial workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 industrial areas in Hanoi and Bac Ninh. A total of 289 workers agreed to participate in the study. Generalized linear mixed models were applied to identify associated factors with depression status of respondents. 38.6% of participants reported suffering depression. Factors found to be positively associated with the possibility of having depression and higher PHQ9 score were long working hours, suffering more health problems, and health hazards exposure at work. Meanwhile, being females, having more children, living with parents, engaging in smoking, and being local workers were found to correlate with lower likelihood of being depressed. The findings suggested the importance of regular health screening, work safety assurance, and social support outside of workplace on the mental health of the workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
A Meta-Analysis of the Rates of Suicide Ideation, Attempts and Deaths in People with Epilepsy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081451 - 24 Apr 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between epilepsy and suicide. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science for studies that reported the prevalence of suicidality in the form of suicide ideation, attempts and deaths among people with epilepsy (PWE). [...] Read more.
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between epilepsy and suicide. We systematically searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science for studies that reported the prevalence of suicidality in the form of suicide ideation, attempts and deaths among people with epilepsy (PWE). Studies were included if they reported the numbers of patients who died by suicide and concurrently suffered from epilepsy, assessed suicide ideation, or studied suicide attempts in PWE by validated instruments or diagnostic interviews. We used the random effects model to calculate the pooled odds ratios (OR) and standard mean differences (SMDs). We performed subgroup analyses. Seven case-control studies were included in the comparison of rates of suicide attempts between PWE and controls, with a total of 821,594 participants. Our analyses demonstrated a positive association between epilepsy and suicide attempts (pooled OR = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.69–3.92, p < 0.001), indicating that PWE have an elevated risk of suicide. The pooled prevalence for suicide ideation (24 studies) and suicide attempts (18 studies) were 23.2% (95% CI: 0.176–0.301) and 7.4% (95% CI: 0.031–0.169) respectively. The pooled rate of death due to suicide (10 studies) was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.002–0.016). Meta-regression showed that mean age and proportion of male gender were significant moderators for prevalence of suicide attempts and death due to suicide in PWE. Young PWE could be triggered by relationship problems and male PWE might use more lethal methods to attempt suicide. This meta-analysis provides the most up-to-date information on the prevalence of suicide among people with epilepsy and guidance on strategies to improve current psychiatric services provided for this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Bipolar Patients: The Role of Psychiatrists in Its Detection and Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071132 - 29 Mar 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Bipolar patients have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which are associated with cardiovascular diseases as the leading cause of death in this group. Additionally, there is growing evidence that impaired glucose metabolism in bipolar patients is associated with rapid [...] Read more.
Bipolar patients have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity, which are associated with cardiovascular diseases as the leading cause of death in this group. Additionally, there is growing evidence that impaired glucose metabolism in bipolar patients is associated with rapid cycling, poor response to mood stabilizers and chronic course of illness. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and other types of impaired glucose metabolism in bipolar patients along with an evaluation of the Fasting Triglycerides and Glucose Index (TyG) as a method of the insulin sensitivity assessment. The analysis of fasting glycemia, insulinemia and lipid profile in euthymic bipolar patients was performed, and the Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and TyG were computed. Type 2 diabetes was observed in 9% and insulin resistance with HOMA-IR in 48% of patients. The TyG and HOMA-IR indices were correlated (p < 0.0001), the TyG index value of 4.7 had the highest sensitivity and specificity for insulin resistance detection. The usefulness of TyG in the recognition of insulin resistance in bipolar patients was suggested. The significant role of psychiatrists in the detection and management of impaired glucose metabolism in bipolar patients was presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Concomitant Psychiatric Symptoms in Neurological Outpatients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050860 - 09 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
To estimate the prevalence of concomitant psychiatric disorders in neurological outpatients and to assess the value of simple screening questionnaires in the identification of psychiatric symptoms, we analyzed a total of 803 patients who visited neurology clinics with neurological symptoms over a six-month [...] Read more.
To estimate the prevalence of concomitant psychiatric disorders in neurological outpatients and to assess the value of simple screening questionnaires in the identification of psychiatric symptoms, we analyzed a total of 803 patients who visited neurology clinics with neurological symptoms over a six-month period. Using self-reported questionnaires, we assessed psychiatric symptoms, such as stress (Perceived Stress Scale, PSS), depression (Patient Health Question 9, PHQ9), and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7, GAD7). According to the disease subtypes, we analyzed the psychiatric scales based on gender and age group. The prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities was lowest in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and highest among patients with cognitive decline and epilepsy. The overall prevalence of psychiatric symptoms markedly decreased with age. This decline was statistically significant for all questionnaires (PSS ≥ 14, p for trend = 0.027; PQH9 ≥ 10, p for trend = 0.005; GAD7 ≥ 10, p for trend = 0.002) and was more pronounced in males. Considering the high incidence of undetected psychiatric comorbidities and their associated burden, proactive psychiatric management should be included in neurological care. Psychiatric questionnaires could also be an effective screening tool for identifying psychiatric symptoms accompanying neurological symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessCommunication
Incorporating Participatory Action Research in Attention Bias Modification Interventions for Addictive Disorders: Perspectives
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050822 - 06 Mar 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Participatory action research was introduced in the 1960s and early 1970s, but it has only been more widely adopted in the recent years. Such methodologies have since been applied to several web & mobile-based interventions in psychiatry. To date no prior review has [...] Read more.
Participatory action research was introduced in the 1960s and early 1970s, but it has only been more widely adopted in the recent years. Such methodologies have since been applied to several web & mobile-based interventions in psychiatry. To date no prior review has scoped the extent of the application of such methodologies for web & mobile-based interventions in psychiatry. In this article, a scoping literature review was performed, and seven articles have been identified. The most common methodologies are that of co-design workshops; and increasingly service users and participants are included in these workshops. There remains a lack of application of such methodologies for addiction research. Increasingly, attention and cognitive bias modification interventions are more commonplace, given that they have been found to be effective in modifying underlying biases amongst individuals with addictive disorders. Unfortunately, there remains to be inherent limitations with web and mobile versions of attention and cognitive bias modification interventions. Participatory design research methods could help address these limitations and future research involving the conceptualization of new attention or cognitive bias modification applications ought to consider the incorporation of these research methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms in Secondary Stalked Children of Danish Stalking Survivors—A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050725 - 28 Feb 2019
Abstract
There is a lack of research examining secondary stalking and its effect on children who, in many cases, can be direct targets, or secondary survivors, of the stalking of their parent. The present study examines trauma reactions in children of stalking survivors in [...] Read more.
There is a lack of research examining secondary stalking and its effect on children who, in many cases, can be direct targets, or secondary survivors, of the stalking of their parent. The present study examines trauma reactions in children of stalking survivors in a Danish sample. It investigates the differences and similarities of such reactions across three age groups. Fifty-seven children were divided into groups depending on their age. The symptoms of the youngest group, 0–6-year-olds, were investigated by way of a maternal diagnostic interview. The two older groups, 7–11- and 12–19-year-olds completed the age-appropriate questionnaires, “Darryl” and “HTQ”, respectively, online. Twenty-two percent of the youngest group met the criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Eighty-five percent of the middle age group and 58% of the older age group met PTSD diagnostic criteria. The findings illustrate that reactions to secondary stalking were predominantly within the arousal cluster of PTSD symptomology, with sleep disturbances and irritability commonly reported. The overall prevalence of children meeting PTSD diagnostic criteria in the sample was 56%. Future studies will benefit from larger samples and from knowledge of any pre-existing relationship between parent and stalker. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Robustness and Findings of a Web-Based System for Depression Assessment in a University Work Context
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040644 - 21 Feb 2019
Abstract
Depression is associated with absenteeism and presentism, problems in workplace relationships and loss of productivity and quality. The present work describes the validation of a web-based system for the assessment of depression in the university work context. The basis of the system is [...] Read more.
Depression is associated with absenteeism and presentism, problems in workplace relationships and loss of productivity and quality. The present work describes the validation of a web-based system for the assessment of depression in the university work context. The basis of the system is the Spanish version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). A total of 185 participants completed the BDI-II web-based assessment, including 88 males and 97 females, 70 faculty members and 115 staff members. A high level of internal consistency reliability was confirmed. Based on the results of our web-based BDI-II, no significant differences were found in depression severity between gender, age or workers’ groups. The main depression risk factors reported were: “Changes in sleep”, “Loss of energy”, “Tiredness or fatigue” and “Loss of interest”. However significant differences were found by gender in “Changes in appetite”, “Difficulty of concentration” and “Loss of interest in sex”; males expressed less loss of interest in sex than females with a statistically significant difference. Our results indicate that the data collected is coherent with previous BDI-II studies. We conclude that the web-based system based on the BDI-II is psychometrically robust and can be used to assess depression in the university working community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Mortality Risk and Risk Factors in Patients with Posttraumatic Epilepsy: A Population-Based Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040589 - 18 Feb 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Aim: Use the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to determine whether patients with posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) have an increased risk of mortality. Methods: Patients ≥20 years old ever admitted because of head injury (per International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical [...] Read more.
Aim: Use the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to determine whether patients with posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) have an increased risk of mortality. Methods: Patients ≥20 years old ever admitted because of head injury (per International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 850–854 and 959.01) during 2000–2012 were enrolled into a traumatic brain injury (TBI) cohort. The TBI cohort was divided into with PTE (ICD-9-CM code 345) and posttraumatic nonepilepsy (PTN) cohorts. We compared the PTE and PTN cohorts in terms of age, sex, and comorbidities. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality risk in these cohorts. Results: Patients with PTE had a higher incidence rate (IR) of mortality than did patients with TBI alone (IR per 1000 person-years: 71.8 vs. 27.6), with an aHR 2.31 (95% CI = 1.96–2.73). Patients with PTE aged 20–49, 50–64, and ≥65 years had, respectively, 2.78, 4.14, and 2.48 times the mortality risk of the PTN cohort. Patients with any comorbidity and PTE had 2.71 times the mortality risk as patients in the PTN cohort. Furthermore, patients with PTE had 28.2 increased hospital days and 7.85 times as frequent medical visits per year compared with the PTN cohort. Conclusion: Taiwanese patients with PTE had approximately 2 times the mortality risk and an increased medical burden compared to patients with TBI only. Our findings provide crucial information for clinicians and the government to improve TBI outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessArticle
Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020255 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Depression is considered one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders among patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease and has adverse effects on the disease progression. However, there is a scarcity of studies contributing to the assessement of depression in hepatitis B [...] Read more.
Depression is considered one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders among patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease and has adverse effects on the disease progression. However, there is a scarcity of studies contributing to the assessement of depression in hepatitis B patients. There is also little research into risk factors, particularly underlying socio-economic factors in Vietnam where the prevalence of hepatitis B is high. This study aimed to examine depression and identify whether differences in socio-economic status is related to the level of depression amongst chronic hepatitis B patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 patients with chronic hepatitis B at The Chronic Hepatitis Clinic in the Viet-Tiep Hospital, Hai Phong, Vietnam. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) were used to assess the severity of depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Of chronic hepatitis B patients, 37.5% experienced depressive symptoms and most of them suffered minimal depressive symptoms (31.4%). According to the result of the multivariate logistic regression model, we found that higher age, lower income level, unemployement, living with spouse/partners were positively associated with having depression. Furthermore, having physical health problems and lower health-related quality of life were also related to a higher risk of depression. We recommend family support, financial support and active participation in consultation should be conducted during treatment to improve the quality of life and the emotional state of HBV patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Relationship of Anxiety and Depression with Respiratory Symptoms: Comparison between Depressed and Non-Depressed Smokers in Singapore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010163 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 14
Abstract
The rising prevalence of smokers in the community, specifically psychiatric patients, necessitates smoking cessation as an important strategy for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco. This study aims to compare the profiles of depressed and non-depressed smokers and evaluate how psychiatric symptoms influence [...] Read more.
The rising prevalence of smokers in the community, specifically psychiatric patients, necessitates smoking cessation as an important strategy for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco. This study aims to compare the profiles of depressed and non-depressed smokers and evaluate how psychiatric symptoms influence respiratory symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 276 non-depressed adult smokers in the community and 69 adult smokers who had been formally diagnosed with depression in the outpatient clinic of a University Hospital in Singapore. Participants were administered questionnaires on smoking attitudes and perceptions, psychiatric symptoms, and respiratory symptoms. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The mean age of smokers in the study was 35.32 ± 13.05 years. Smokers in the community and psychiatric samples were largely similar on all of the sociodemographic factors, except that fewer depressed people were employed (χ2 = 8.35, p < 0.01). Smokers with depression also reported more attempts to quit smoking (χ2 = 7.14, p < 0.05), higher mean depressive, anxiety, and stress symptom (DASS) scores (t = −10.04, p < 0.01), and endorsed more respiratory symptoms than smokers in the community (t = −2.40, p < 0.05). The DASS scores, number of cigarettes smoked daily, years of smoking, general perception of smokers getting heart disease, and presence of lung disease were positively and significantly correlated with respiratory symptoms. On multiple regression, only anxiety symptoms (β = 0.26, p < 0.05) and the presence of lung disease (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) were significantly correlated with respiratory symptoms. Depressed smokers reported greater difficulty in quitting tobacco use, and they perceived more severe respiratory symptoms compared to non-depressed counterparts. Anxiety symptoms were positively associated with the severity of respiratory symptoms. Smoking cessation campaigns need to specifically target psychological symptoms in smokers and focus more psychoeducation on the risk of cardiovascular disease in the middle-aged population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Depression and Quality of Life among Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in the Era of Universal Treatment Access in Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122888 - 17 Dec 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) access has been universal in recent years, few studies have examined if this policy contributes to the mental health of the patients. This study assessed depression and its relations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which is defined as [...] Read more.
Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) access has been universal in recent years, few studies have examined if this policy contributes to the mental health of the patients. This study assessed depression and its relations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which is defined as the status of general well-being, physical, emotional, and psychological, among HIV patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 482 patients at five outpatient clinics. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) were used to assess the severity of depression and HRQOL. About one-fifth of patients reported symptoms of depression. According to the result of a multivariate logistic regression model, patients who had a lower number of CD4 cells at the start of ART, who received ART in the clinic without HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services, who had a physical health problem, and who experienced discrimination were more likely to have depression. Depression was associated with significantly decreased HRQOL. Depression is prevalent and significantly negatively associated with HRQOL of HIV/AIDS patients. We recommend screening for depression and intervening in the lives of depressed individuals with respect to those who start ART late, and we also recommend community-based behavioral change campaigns to reduce HIV discrimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
The Comorbidity of Gambling Disorder among Macao Adult Residents and the Moderating Role of Resilience and Life Purpose
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2774; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122774 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Macao, China’s only city with legalized casinos, has maintained a high prevalence of gambling participation and gambling disorder (GD) over the past decade. The mental health risks associated with such high levels have been overlooked. In order to estimate the comorbid prevalence of [...] Read more.
Macao, China’s only city with legalized casinos, has maintained a high prevalence of gambling participation and gambling disorder (GD) over the past decade. The mental health risks associated with such high levels have been overlooked. In order to estimate the comorbid prevalence of GD with depression, anxiety, and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and to explore the potential buffering effect of psychological resilience and purpose in life, this study obtained a representative adult Chinese sample (N = 1000, 44% male, aged 18–97 years) from a telephone survey conducted between October and November of 2016. As hypothesized, the highest psychiatric comorbid prevalence was observed in the GD subgroup (n = 19, 21.1% probable IGD, 26.3% probable depression, and 37.0% probable anxiety). All these mental health problems could increase one’s proclivity to GD, and vice versa. Psychological resilience was found to buffer the association between anxiety symptoms and probable GD (χ2(1) = 4.30, p = 0.04/GD symptoms, Fchange (1,162) = 6.29, p = 0.01), whereas purpose in life did not display any hypothesized moderating effect. These results indicate the usefulness of mental health screening for GD, taking into consideration its associated risks, and of fostering psychological resilience in prevention and treatment programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Media Exposure and General Trust as Predictors of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Ten Years after the 5.12 Wenchuan Earthquake in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112386 - 27 Oct 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
There is a paucity of literature on the roles of media exposure, general trust, and their interactions in long-term post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after a natural disaster. Trying to address this knowledge gap, our study aimed to (a) investigate whether exposure to [...] Read more.
There is a paucity of literature on the roles of media exposure, general trust, and their interactions in long-term post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after a natural disaster. Trying to address this knowledge gap, our study aimed to (a) investigate whether exposure to media coverage during the traumatic event and general trust directly affected adult survivors’ long-term PTSD symptoms 10 years after the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake, and (b) to identify the potential differential pattern of the influence of media exposure on PTSD symptoms for adult survivors with various levels of general trust. Using cross-sectional methodology, we surveyed participants (N = 1000) recruited from six disaster-affected counties. We assessed PTSD symptoms, media exposure, general trust, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and earthquake exposure. Data were analyzed descriptively and with Tobit regression analyses. Reversed relationships between general trust and PTSD were verified, whereas no direct links were found between media exposure and PTSD. Interaction tests revealed that media exposure alleviated PTSD for high-trust survivors, but aggravated PTSD for low-trust survivors. These results suggest that general trust building should be considered in post-disaster construction activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Depression Negatively Impacts Survival of Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2148; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102148 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The prevalence of depression in patients with cancer is high, especially for patients with advanced cancer. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of depression in prostate cancer patients in Taiwan and the association between depression and mortality in prostate cancer. This study [...] Read more.
The prevalence of depression in patients with cancer is high, especially for patients with advanced cancer. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of depression in prostate cancer patients in Taiwan and the association between depression and mortality in prostate cancer. This study included 1101 newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer. We tracked the medical information of these patients from diagnosis until the end of 2012. Patients were divided into two groups according to presence or absence of depression diagnosis, and were further divided into three stages by initial treatments: localized or locally advanced, metastatic, and castration-resistant prostate cancer. Of 1101 participants, 267 (24.3%) had depression. By the end of the follow-up period (M = 8.30 ± 3.12 years), 77 (28.8%) patients in the depression group and 194 (23.3%) in the non-depressed group died. Depression was associated with higher mortality risk, (aHR 1.37; 95% CI [ 1.04–1.80]; p value 0.01). Patients in the metastatic prostate cancer group with depression had a significantly higher mortality risk compared to the non-depressed group, (aHR, 1.49; 95% CI [1.05–2.11]; p value 0.02). The impact of depression on mortality risk was not significant in either the localized or locally advanced or the castration-resistant prostate cancer groups. Our study showed that depression is related to an increased mortality risk for patients with prostate cancer, especially for metastatic prostate cancer. These results indicate that urologists should pay attention to the mood and psychiatric disorders of patients with prostate cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Investigation of the Effects of Purpose in Life, Grit, Gratitude, and School Belonging on Mental Distress among Chinese Emerging Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102147 - 29 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Given the high prevalence of mental distress indicators, such as depression, among emerging adults, it is imperative to identify not only factors that place them at risk for mental distress, but also those that protect against it. This study tested the direct and [...] Read more.
Given the high prevalence of mental distress indicators, such as depression, among emerging adults, it is imperative to identify not only factors that place them at risk for mental distress, but also those that protect against it. This study tested the direct and indirect effects (via purpose in life) of gratitude, two aspects of grit (i.e., consistency of interest and perseverance of effort), and school belonging on three indicators of mental distress (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress). A total of 468 Chinese university students (58.3% female), aged 18 to 27, in Macao, China responded to an anonymous questionnaire between April to May, 2016. As expected, all psychosocial factors were negatively associated with all three indicators of mental distress (r = −0.15 to −0.42, p < 0.05), with the exception of perseverance of effort, which had a significant, negative association with depression only. The results of path analysis showed that purpose in life significantly mediated the effect of school belonging and perseverance of effort on depression, whereas school belonging, gratitude, and consistency of interest all had direct effects on all three indicators of mental distress (p < 0.05). Our results also suggested that the two components of grit may have differential effects on mental distress among Chinese emerging adults. School-based programs should consider positive psychology interventions in Chinese populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Factors Associated with the Risk of Developing Coronary Artery Disease in Medicated Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102073 - 21 Sep 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with high Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in medicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: We examined 61 medicated patients with MDD (mean age 37.77 ± 7.67, 90.2% women) and 43 non-depressed [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with high Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in medicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: We examined 61 medicated patients with MDD (mean age 37.77 ± 7.67, 90.2% women) and 43 non-depressed controls (mean age 38.26 ± 9.20, 90.7% women). We administered the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and measured systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial BP (MAP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), intima-media thickness (IMT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and triglycerides. Results: We found that medicated patients with MDD had significantly higher levels of HAM-D score (p < 0.01), SBP (p = 0.015), MAP (p = 0.037), IL−6 level (p = 0.007), as compared with controls. Medicated patients who remained moderately to severely depressed showed significantly higher SBP (p = 0.049), DBP (p = 0.009), MAP (p = 0.024), IL−6 level (p = 0.019), left PWV (p = 0.004) and average PWV (p = 0.026) than those with mild depression. Multivariate regression showed that the interaction effect between HAM-D score and triglyceride level (p = 0.018) was significantly associated with FRS in medicated patients with MDD. Conclusions: This study highlights that the interaction effect of the severity of depression and the triglyceride level, was a modifiable factor positively associated with high FRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Core Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder among Palliative Care Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081758 - 16 Aug 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
A valid method to diagnose depression in palliative care has not been established. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of depression and the discriminant validity of the items of four sets of diagnostic criteria in palliative care. This is a [...] Read more.
A valid method to diagnose depression in palliative care has not been established. In this study, we aim to determine the prevalence of depression and the discriminant validity of the items of four sets of diagnostic criteria in palliative care. This is a cross-sectional study on 240 palliative care patients where the presence of depression was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM–IV Criteria, Modified DSM–IV Criteria, Cavanaugh Criteria, and Endicott’s Criteria’s. Anxiety, depression, and distress were measured with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Distress Thermometer. The prevalence of depression among the palliative care patients was highest based on the Modified DSM–IV Criteria (23.3%), followed by the Endicott’s Criteria (13.8%), DSM–IV Criteria (9.2%), and Cavanaugh Criteria (5%). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the depressive symptoms showed by DSM–IV item 1 (dysphoric mood), item 2 (loss of interest or pleasure), and Endicott’s criteria item 8 (brooding, self-pity, or pessimism) among the palliative patients, even after adjustment for the anxiety symptoms and distress level. We found that dysphoric mood, loss of interest, and pessimism are the main features of depression in palliative patients. These symptoms should be given more attention in identifying depression in palliative care patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Horticultural Therapy on Asian Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081705 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 22
Abstract
The effect of horticultural therapy (HT) on immune and endocrine biomarkers remains largely unknown. We designed a waitlist-control randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of HT in improving mental well-being and modulating biomarker levels. A total of 59 older adults was recruited, [...] Read more.
The effect of horticultural therapy (HT) on immune and endocrine biomarkers remains largely unknown. We designed a waitlist-control randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of HT in improving mental well-being and modulating biomarker levels. A total of 59 older adults was recruited, with 29 randomly assigned to the HT intervention and 30 to the waitlist control group. The participants attended weekly intervention sessions for the first 3 months and monthly sessions for the subsequent 3 months. Biological and psychosocial data were collected. Biomarkers included IL-1β, IL-6, sgp-130, CXCL12/SDF-1α, CCL-5/RANTES, BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), hs-CRP, cortisol and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone). Psychosocial measures examined cognitive functions, depression, anxiety, psychological well-being, social connectedness and satisfaction with life. A significant reduction in plasma IL-6 level (p = 0.02) was observed in the HT intervention group. For the waitlist control group, significant reductions in plasma CXCL12 (SDF-1α) (p = 0.003), CXCL5 (RANTES) (p = 0.05) and BDNF (p = 0.003) were observed. A significant improvement in social connectedness was also observed in the HT group (p = 0.01). Conclusion: HT, in reducing plasma IL-6, may prevent inflammatory disorders and through maintaining plasma CXCL12 (SDF-1α), may maintain hematopoietic support to the brain. HT may be applied in communal gardening to enhance the well-being of older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Misophonia in Singaporean Psychiatric Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071410 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
Misophonia, also known as selective sound sensitivity syndrome, is a condition characterized by strong dislike of specific sounds with accompanying distressing reactions. To date, misophonia is still poorly understood. This study aimed to identify factors associated with severity of misophonic symptoms in Singaporean [...] Read more.
Misophonia, also known as selective sound sensitivity syndrome, is a condition characterized by strong dislike of specific sounds with accompanying distressing reactions. To date, misophonia is still poorly understood. This study aimed to identify factors associated with severity of misophonic symptoms in Singaporean psychiatric patients. Ninety-two psychiatric patients were recruited from a large teaching hospital in Singapore in a cross-sectional study. Socio-demographics, severity of depression, anxiety and stress, and severity of misophonic symptoms were analyzed. Correlation analysis showed that anxiety, depression, and stress scores—as measured by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21)—were significantly positively correlated with the Amsterdam Misophonia Scale (A-MISO-S) scores. After adjustment for confounding factors, multivariate regression analysis showed that anxiety (β = 0.385, p = 0.029) remained significantly associated with A-MISO-S. Age, gender, depression, and stress were not significantly associated with the severity of misophonia. The findings showed that the severity of anxiety was associated with severity of misophonia in Singaporean psychiatric patients. Further research is needed to explore the nature of misophonia and its relationship with other psychiatric disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
ADHD Symptoms in Pathological and Problem Gamblers in Singapore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071307 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: There is relatively little research examining the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and gambling addiction. This study seeks to explore for ADHD symptoms in adult gambling addiction patients and to evaluate their gambling-related cognitions. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey [...] Read more.
Background: There is relatively little research examining the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and gambling addiction. This study seeks to explore for ADHD symptoms in adult gambling addiction patients and to evaluate their gambling-related cognitions. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at National Addictions Management Service, Institute of Mental Health, in Singapore. Patients presenting for gambling treatment were screened for ADHD symptoms and assessed for severity of gambling-related cognitions. The primary objective was to observe the rate of patients screening positive for ADHD. Results: 20% of the sample screened positive for ADHD. These individuals also had lower levels of gambling-related cognitions. No significant correlation was noted between ADHD symptoms and gambling-related cognition scores. Conclusions: Positive screening results for ADHD occurred frequently in our sample of Pathological Gambling (PG) and Problem Gambling patients and these affected individuals also exhibited lower levels of gambling-related cognitions. This finding may suggest that the gambling behavior in patients with ADHD-PG comorbidity is driven by impulsivity rather than gambling-related cognitions, which has implication on treatment considerations. Further research with a larger sample size is indicated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Quality of Life, Depression and Anxiety in Asian Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061095 - 28 May 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
This study explored the effect of cardiac rehabilitation on quality of life, depression, and anxiety in Asian patients in Singapore. Out of the 194 patients who were recruited into the study, 139 patients (71.6%) completed both the pre- and post-cardiac rehabilitation questionnaires. Their [...] Read more.
This study explored the effect of cardiac rehabilitation on quality of life, depression, and anxiety in Asian patients in Singapore. Out of the 194 patients who were recruited into the study, 139 patients (71.6%) completed both the pre- and post-cardiac rehabilitation questionnaires. Their ages ranged from 28 to 80 (M = 56.66, SD = 8.88), and 103 patients (74.1%) were males and 21 patients (15.1%) were females. As hypothesized, there was a statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-cardiac rehabilitation scores on the combined dependent variables, F (4, 135) = 34.84, p < 0.001; Wilks’ Lambda = 0.49; partial eta squared = 0.51. An inspection of the mean scores indicated that patients reported higher levels of physical and mental quality of life and lower levels of depression post-cardiac rehabilitation. The findings were discussed in regards to implications in cardiac rehabilitation in Singapore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Which Patients Are Prescribed Escitalopram?: Predictors for Escitalopram Prescriptions and Functional Outcomes among Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061085 - 28 May 2018
Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that antidepressants could enhance functional recovery via neuroplasticity beyond solely treating depression. However, since Koreans typically show a greater aversion to seeking psychiatric care than citizens of Western countries, the number of antidepressant prescriptions is low. Through this study, [...] Read more.
Recent studies have demonstrated that antidepressants could enhance functional recovery via neuroplasticity beyond solely treating depression. However, since Koreans typically show a greater aversion to seeking psychiatric care than citizens of Western countries, the number of antidepressant prescriptions is low. Through this study, we aim to identify the factors that lead to the prescription of antidepressants in subjects with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in clinical practice. A total of 775 patients with ischemic stroke (IS) participated in this study from March 2010 to May 2013. We used binary logistic regression to find predictors for escitalopram prescriptions. To reveal predictors for short-term functional outcomes, we used an adjusted regression model using a propensity score. Among the 775 participants, 39 (5.03%) were prescribed escitalopram. The duration of hospital stay (odds ratio (OR) = 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04–1.10) and the use of mechanical ventilation were significantly more closely related to escitalopram prescriptions as compared to non-escitalopram prescriptions (OR = 5.15; 95% CI = 1.53–17.40). The use of escitalopram, on the other hand, was not significantly associated with short-term functional outcomes (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 0.50–3.25). Duration of hospital stay and use of mechanical ventilation were significantly related to escitalopram prescriptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Metabolic Syndrome in First Episode Schizophrenia, Based on the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in a General Hospital in Malaysia: A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050933 - 07 May 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Schizophrenia has been linked with various medical comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome. The number of studies on this aspect is lacking in Malaysia. (1) Objective: To investigate metabolic syndrome rates and its associated factors. (2) Method: This is the first 10-year retrospective-outcome study of [...] Read more.
Schizophrenia has been linked with various medical comorbidities, particularly metabolic syndrome. The number of studies on this aspect is lacking in Malaysia. (1) Objective: To investigate metabolic syndrome rates and its associated factors. (2) Method: This is the first 10-year retrospective-outcome study of patients with first episode schizophrenia in Malaysia. Out of 394 patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia and registered with the National Mental Health Registry of Schizophrenia (NMHR) in the General Hospital Kuala Lumpur (GHKL) in 2004–2005, 174 patients consented to participate in the study. They were interviewed using a Schizophrenia outcome questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made using the National Cholesterol Education Program—Third Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III). (3) Results: All patients’ weight, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, and blood pressure are significantly increased. Sixty-three subjects (36.2%) developed metabolic syndrome while 36 (23.2%) were hypertensive, and 41 (28.1%) were diabetic. Use of fluphenthixol depot (CI = 1.05–5.09, OR: 0.84, p = 0.039), reduced physical activity (CI = 0.13–1.00, OR: −1.04, p = 0.049), and substance use disorder (CI = 1.40, 13.89, OR: 1.48, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome based on univariate analysis. In further multivariate analysis, comorbid substance abuse was the only significant factor associated with metabolic syndrome after adjusting for physical activity and intramuscular depot. (4) Conclusion: Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of metabolic syndrome. It is important to address substance use problems as an important risk factor of this comorbidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Electrocardiographic and Electrooculographic Responses to External Emotions and Their Transitions in Bipolar I and II Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050884 - 28 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Bipolar disorder has two main types, bipolar I (BD I) and II (BD II), which present different affective states and personality characteristics, they might present different modes of emotional regulation. We hypothesized that the electrocardiogram and electrooculogram to external emotions are different in [...] Read more.
Bipolar disorder has two main types, bipolar I (BD I) and II (BD II), which present different affective states and personality characteristics, they might present different modes of emotional regulation. We hypothesized that the electrocardiogram and electrooculogram to external emotions are different in BD I and BD II. We asked 69 BD I and 54 BD II patients, and 139 healthy volunteers to undergo these tests in response to disgust, erotica, fear, happiness, neutral, and sadness, and their transitions. Their affective states were also measured. The heart rate in BD I was significantly higher under background fear after target neutral. The eyeball movement was quicker in BD I under target happiness after background disgust; in BD I under target sadness after background disgust; and in BD I under background disgust after target neutral. Some electrocardiographic and electrooculographic changes were correlated with affective states in patients. BD I and BD II had different physiological responses to external emotions and their transitions, indicating different pathophysiologies and suggesting different emotional-therapies for BD I and BD II. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Differentiating Medicated Patients Suffering from Major Depressive Disorder from Healthy Controls by Spot Urine Measurement of Monoamines and Steroid Hormones
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050865 - 26 Apr 2018
Cited by 11
Abstract
Introduction: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder. Currently, there is no objective, cost-effective and non-invasive method to measure biological markers related to the pathogenesis of MDD. Previous studies primarily focused on urinary metabolite markers which are not proximal to [...] Read more.
Introduction: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disorder. Currently, there is no objective, cost-effective and non-invasive method to measure biological markers related to the pathogenesis of MDD. Previous studies primarily focused on urinary metabolite markers which are not proximal to the pathogenesis of MDD. Herein, we compare urinary monoamines, steroid hormones and the derived ratios amongst MDD when compared to healthy controls. Methods: Morning urine samples of medicated patients suffering from MDD (n = 47) and healthy controls (n = 41) were collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to measure five biomarkers: cortisol, dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and sulphate derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS). The mean urinary levels and derived ratios of monoamines and steroid hormones were compared between patients and controls to identify potential biomarkers. The receiver operative characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance of potential biomarkers. Results: Medicated patients with MDD showed significantly higher spot urine ratio of DHEAS/serotonin (1.56 vs. 1.19, p = 0.004) and lower ratio of serotonin/dopamine (599.71 vs. 888.60, p = 0.008) than healthy controls. A spot urine serotonin/dopamine ratio cut-off of >667.38 had a sensitivity of 73.2% and specificity of 51.1%. Conclusions: Our results suggest that spot urine serotonin/dopamine ratio can be used as an objective diagnostic method for adults with MDD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Online Gambling among Treatment-Seeking Patients in Singapore: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040832 - 23 Apr 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Given that technology has greatly facilitated easier access to gambling in previous years, it is timely to look in-depth into online gambling activities and behaviors. There have been several studies that examined online gambling. However, most of the current studies to date have [...] Read more.
Given that technology has greatly facilitated easier access to gambling in previous years, it is timely to look in-depth into online gambling activities and behaviors. There have been several studies that examined online gambling. However, most of the current studies to date have focused on determining the prevalence and the epidemiology of problem gambling arising from online gambling in Western cohorts. There remains a paucity of research looking at the problem of online gambling among Asian individuals. The objectives of the current study are to elucidate the characteristics of online gambling among an Asian cohort and to explore the harm associated with online gambling and the potential mechanisms by which harm associated with online gambling could be minimized. It is hoped that the findings of the current paper will bridge the existing gaps in the research literature. A cross-sectional study design was utilized to recruit 100 participants who were attending outpatient services at the National Addictions Management Service (NAMS) from March 2014 to October 2015. The majority of the participants were male, of Chinese ethnicity and under the age of 30 years old (48%). Mobile phones and smartphones were the most commonly utilized platforms for gambling online. The median largest ever debt incurred as a result of online gambling ($20,000) was significantly more than that due to offline gambling ($500) (Z = −4.17, p < 0.001). As for the biggest ever loss, participants had incurred a significantly larger median loss from online gambling ($7000) (Z = −2.73, p < 0.01) compared to offline gambling ($2000). A total of 18.4% of participants had waited between 1 to 2 years from their first online gambling experience to seek treatment and 17.3% had waited for more than 10 years. This is perhaps one of the first Asian studies to investigate the serious harm involved in online gambling. The findings from our study are intended to guide further interventions in the treatment of online gambling related disorders; and would be of interest to governmental organizations in their planning of regulations for online gambling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Thematic Analysis of Medical Notes Offers Preliminary Insight into Precipitants for Asian Suicide Attempters: An Exploratory Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040809 - 20 Apr 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
One important dynamic risk factor for suicide assessment includes suicide precipitant. This exploratory study used a qualitative paradigm to look into the themes surrounding precipitants for suicide attempts in Singapore. Medical records related to suicide attempters who were admitted to the emergency department [...] Read more.
One important dynamic risk factor for suicide assessment includes suicide precipitant. This exploratory study used a qualitative paradigm to look into the themes surrounding precipitants for suicide attempts in Singapore. Medical records related to suicide attempters who were admitted to the emergency department of a large teaching hospital in Singapore over a three year period were subjected to analysis. A total of 666 cases were examined (69.2% females; 63.8% Chinese, 15% Malays, 15.8% Indians), ages ranged from 10 years old to 85 years old (Mean = 29.7, Standard Deviation = 16.1). The thematic analysis process that was applied to the textual data elicited key concepts labelled as Relationship issues, Financial strain, Socio-legal-academic—environmental stress, and Physical and mental illness and pain. Interpreted with other recent local research on suicide attempters in Singapore, the findings have implications for informing suicide interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Predictors of Response to Ketamine in Treatment Resistant Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 771; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040771 - 17 Apr 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Objectives: Extant evidence indicates that ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) symptoms as a part of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The identification of depressed sub-populations that are more likely to benefit from ketamine treatment remains a [...] Read more.
Objectives: Extant evidence indicates that ketamine exerts rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressive (TRD) symptoms as a part of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). The identification of depressed sub-populations that are more likely to benefit from ketamine treatment remains a priority. In keeping with this view, the present narrative review aims to identify the pretreatment predictors of response to ketamine in TRD as part of MDD and BD. Method: Electronic search engines PubMed/MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles from inception to January 2018. The search term ketamine was cross-referenced with the terms depression, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, predictors, and response and/or remission. Results: Multiple baseline pretreatment predictors of response were identified, including clinical (i.e., Body Mass Index (BMI), history of suicide, family history of alcohol use disorder), peripheral biochemistry (i.e., adiponectin levels, vitamin B12 levels), polysomnography (abnormalities in delta sleep ratio), neurochemistry (i.e., glutamine/glutamate ratio), neuroimaging (i.e., anterior cingulate cortex activity), genetic variation (i.e., Val66Met BDNF allele), and cognitive functioning (i.e., processing speed). High BMI and a positive family history of alcohol use disorder were the most replicated predictors. Conclusions: A pheno-biotype of depression more, or less likely, to benefit with ketamine treatment is far from complete. Notwithstanding, metabolic-inflammatory alterations are emerging as possible pretreatment response predictors of depressive symptom improvement, most notably being cognitive impairment. Sophisticated data-driven computational methods that are iterative and agnostic are more likely to provide actionable baseline pretreatment predictive information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessArticle
Suicide Precipitants Differ Across the Lifespan but Are Not Significant in Predicting Medically Severe Attempts
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 691; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040691 - 05 Apr 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
An important risk factor for suicide assessment is the suicide precipitant. This study explores suicide attempt precipitants across the lifespan. Three years of medical records related to suicide attempters who were admitted to the emergency department of a large teaching hospital in Singapore [...] Read more.
An important risk factor for suicide assessment is the suicide precipitant. This study explores suicide attempt precipitants across the lifespan. Three years of medical records related to suicide attempters who were admitted to the emergency department of a large teaching hospital in Singapore were subjected to analysis. These cases were divided into three age groups: Adolescence, Early Adulthood, and Middle Adulthood. A total of 540 cases were examined (70.9% females; 63.7% Chinese, 13.7% Malays, 15.9% Indians), whose ages ranged from 12 to 62. There were eight cases above the age of 65 years which were excluded from the analysis. Significant differences were found in precipitants for suicide attempts across the lifespan. Middle adults had relatively fewer relationship problems, and adolescents had comparatively fewer financial and medical problems. The models to predict medically severe attempts across the age groups using suicide precipitants were not significant. The findings were discussed in regards to implications in suicide assessment and primary prevention in Singapore, as well as limitations and recommendations for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Gaming Disorders in Southeast Asia: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072582 - 09 Apr 2020
Abstract
This meta-analytic review aimed to examine the pooled prevalence rates of Internet addiction and gaming disorders in Southeast Asia. Several databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Central were searched and a total of 24 studies were included in [...] Read more.
This meta-analytic review aimed to examine the pooled prevalence rates of Internet addiction and gaming disorders in Southeast Asia. Several databases including PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Central were searched and a total of 24 studies were included in this study. The selection of studies was conducted in accordance to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Two meta-analyses were conducted to examine data on Internet addiction and gaming disorders separately. A random-effects model was employed to derive the pooled prevalence rate. Mixed-effects meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to examine the moderators of the between-study heterogeneity. Publication bias was tested using the Egger’s regression test and funnel plot. Only seven out of the 11 Southeast Asian countries were represented in the literature. All except for two of the included studies were cross-sectional in nature. The findings revealed a pooled prevalence rate of 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 14.5%–27.0%) and 10.1% (95% confidence interval: 7.3%–13.8%) for Internet addiction and gaming disorders respectively. Mean age and study population were significant moderators of the between-study heterogeneity in the prevalence rates of gaming disorders such that samples involving older participants showed higher prevalence rate than those involving younger individuals. Country of study was found to be significant moderator of the between-heterogeneity for both Internet addiction and gaming disorders, however the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small and unbalanced sample sizes. There was no significant publication bias. Such epidemiology research should be extended to the Southeast Asian countries that have not been studied or are under-studied. Given that the prevalence rates appear to be higher in Southeast Asia than in other world regions, future research should also explore the factors behind these inter-regional differences. Further longitudinal studies should also be conducted to examine the trajectories of such disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessReview
The Global Prevalence of Anxiety Among Medical Students: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152735 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Anxiety, although as common and arguably as debilitating as depression, has garnered less attention, and is often undetected and undertreated in the general population. Similarly, anxiety among medical students warrants greater attention due to its significant implications. We aimed to study the global [...] Read more.
Anxiety, although as common and arguably as debilitating as depression, has garnered less attention, and is often undetected and undertreated in the general population. Similarly, anxiety among medical students warrants greater attention due to its significant implications. We aimed to study the global prevalence of anxiety among medical students and the associated factors predisposing medical students to anxiety. In February 2019, we carried out a systematic search for cross-sectional studies that examined the prevalence of anxiety among medical students. We computed the aggregate prevalence and pooled odds ratio (OR) using the random-effects model and used meta-regression analyses to explore the sources of heterogeneity. We pooled and analyzed data from sixty-nine studies comprising 40,348 medical students. The global prevalence rate of anxiety among medical students was 33.8% (95% Confidence Interval: 29.2–38.7%). Anxiety was most prevalent among medical students from the Middle East and Asia. Subgroup analyses by gender and year of study found no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of anxiety. About one in three medical students globally have anxiety—a prevalence rate which is substantially higher than the general population. Administrators and leaders of medical schools should take the lead in destigmatizing mental illnesses and promoting help-seeking behaviors when students are stressed and anxious. Further research is needed to identify risk factors of anxiety unique to medical students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessReview
Prevalence of Burnout in Medical and Surgical Residents: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(9), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091479 - 26 Apr 2019
Cited by 22
Abstract
The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal achievement. Uncertainty exists about the prevalence of burnout among medical and surgical residents. Associations between burnout and gender, age, specialty, and geographical location of training are unclear. In this meta-analysis, we [...] Read more.
The burnout syndrome is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal achievement. Uncertainty exists about the prevalence of burnout among medical and surgical residents. Associations between burnout and gender, age, specialty, and geographical location of training are unclear. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to quantitatively summarize the global prevalence rates of burnout among residents, by specialty and its contributing factors. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science to identify studies that examined the prevalence of burnout among residents from various specialties and countries. The primary outcome assessed was the aggregate prevalence of burnout among all residents. The random effects model was used to calculate the aggregate prevalence, and heterogeneity was assessed by I2 statistic and Cochran’s Q statistic. We also performed meta-regression and subgroup analysis. The aggregate prevalence of burnout was 51.0% (95% CI: 45.0–57.0%, I2 = 97%) in 22,778 residents. Meta-regression found that the mean age (β = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.28–0.40, p < 0.001) and the proportion of males (β = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.10–0.69, p = 0.009) were significant moderators. Subgroup analysis by specialty showed that radiology (77.16%, 95% CI: 5.99–99.45), neurology (71.93%, 95% CI: 65.78–77.39), and general surgery (58.39%, 95% CI: 45.72–70.04) were the top three specialties with the highest prevalence of burnout. In contrast, psychiatry (42.05%, 95% CI: 33.09–51.58), oncology (38.36%, 95% CI: 32.69–44.37), and family medicine (35.97%, 95% CI: 13.89–66.18) had the lowest prevalence of burnout. Subgroup analysis also found that the prevalence of burnout in several Asian countries was 57.18% (95% CI: 45.8–67.85); in several European countries it was 27.72% (95% CI: 17.4–41.11) and in North America it was 51.64% (46.96–56.28). Our findings suggest a high prevalence of burnout among medical and surgical residents. Older and male residents suffered more than their respective counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessReview
Smartphone Applications for Mindfulness Interventions with Suicidality in Asian Older Adults: A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122810 - 10 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Elderly suicide is a rising concern. Despite the advent of mobile technology, there remained a gap in the evidence base as to whether smartphone applications could be used for mindfulness intervention for suicidality in Asian older adults. This paper aimed to review recent [...] Read more.
Elderly suicide is a rising concern. Despite the advent of mobile technology, there remained a gap in the evidence base as to whether smartphone applications could be used for mindfulness intervention for suicidality in Asian older adults. This paper aimed to review recent research relevant to smartphone applications that could be used in providing mindfulness interventions for suicidality to Asian older adults. The inclusion criteria for this review were papers published in peer-reviewed journals from 2008 to 2018 with the usage of specific search terms, namely, ‘smartphone application’, ‘mobile application’, and ‘mindfulness’, assessed against the inclusion criteria and screened by an experienced Asian clinician to be of clinical utility for mindfulness intervention for suicidality with Asian older adults. Initial search on databases yielded 236 results. A total of 35 full text papers that fit the inclusion criteria were assessed for eligibility and 10 papers were included in the current review. This review highlighted the paucity of rigorous empirically validated research into effective smartphone applications that can be used for mindfulness interventions for suicidality with Asian older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessReview
Prevalence of Depression among Migrants: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1986; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091986 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
As the number of migrants worldwide increases, it is worthwhile to examine the extent to which depression has affected this group of often vulnerable individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the aggregate prevalence of depression among international [...] Read more.
As the number of migrants worldwide increases, it is worthwhile to examine the extent to which depression has affected this group of often vulnerable individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the aggregate prevalence of depression among international migrants and to explore the variations in prevalence with demographic and educational factors. A search was conducted on the online databases PubMed and ScienceDirect whole using the terms “depression”, “depressive disorder”, “immigration”, “immigrant”, “migration”, and “migrant”. A total of 25 studies met our inclusion criteria. A random-effects model meta-analysis calculated an aggregate prevalence of 15.6% among migrants. Heterogeneity was identified by meta-regression and subgroup analyses, and the level of educational attainment, employment status, and length of residency spent in country of migration were found to be significant moderators contributing to depression prevalence. In conclusion, newly arrived migrants appear to be susceptible to developing depression and it is imperative that more in the form of preventive strategies and increased assistance be incorporated to ensure their psychological wellbeing and improve their mental health outcomes. Further research should be conducted to better understand the risk of psychiatric disorders among members of this subpopulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine on Heart Rate and Systolic Blood Pressure in Young People and Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081789 - 20 Aug 2018
Cited by 20
Abstract
Objectives: This meta-analysis aims to study the effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and a number of adverse cardiac events on patients receiving treatment for attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in comparison to placebo and between [...] Read more.
Objectives: This meta-analysis aims to study the effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidate on heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and a number of adverse cardiac events on patients receiving treatment for attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) in comparison to placebo and between atomoxetine and methylphenidate. Methods: We searched the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect. Meta-analysis was performed on studies that examined the relationships between methylphenidate or atomoxetine and HR, SBP, as well as a number of adverse cardiac events. These studies were either placebo-controlled or comparison studies between methylphenidate and atomoxetine. Meta-regression identified patient- and treatment-related factors that may contribute to heterogeneity. Results: Twenty-two studies were included and the total number of participants was 46,107. Children/adolescents and adults treated with methylphenidate had more significant increases in post- vs. pre-treatment HR (p < 0.001) and SBP (p < 0.001) than those treated by placebo. Children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine had more significant increases post- vs. pre-treatment HR (p = 0.025) and SBP (p < 0.001) than those treated with methylphenidate. Meta-regression revealed mean age of participants, mean dose, and duration of atomoxetine and methylphenidate as significant moderators that explained heterogeneity. There were no differences in the number of adverse cardiac events between participants with methylphenidate treatment and placebo or atomoxetine. Conclusions: Children/adolescents and adults treated with methylphenidate resulted in significant increases in post- vs. pre-treatment HR and SBP as compared to placebo. Similarly, children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine had significant increases in post- vs. pre-treatment HR and SBP than those treated with methylphenidate. These findings have potential implications for continuous monitoring of HR and SBP throughout the course of treatment although the risk for adverse cardiac events were insignificant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessReview
Prevalence of All-Cause Mortality and Suicide among Bariatric Surgery Cohorts: A Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071519 - 18 Jul 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Introduction: Prior meta-analysis has reported mortality rates among post-operative bariatric patients, but they have not considered psychiatric factors like suicide contributing to mortality. Objectives: The current meta-analysis aims to determine the pooled prevalence for mortality and suicide amongst cohorts using reported suicides post [...] Read more.
Introduction: Prior meta-analysis has reported mortality rates among post-operative bariatric patients, but they have not considered psychiatric factors like suicide contributing to mortality. Objectives: The current meta-analysis aims to determine the pooled prevalence for mortality and suicide amongst cohorts using reported suicides post bariatric surgery. It is also the aim of the current meta-analytical study to determine moderators that could account for the heterogeneity found. Results: In our study, the pooled prevalence of mortality in the studies which reported suicidal mortality was 1.8% and the prevalence of suicide was 0.3%. Mean body mass index (BMI) and the duration of follow-up appear to be significant moderators. Conclusions: Given the prevalence of suicide post bariatric surgery, it is highly important for bariatric teams to consider both the medical and psychiatric well-being of individuals pre- and post-operatively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessReview
The Effects of Temperament on Depression According to the Schema Model: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061231 - 11 Jun 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Background: Recent studies have shown that not every depressed patient responds to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and some of those who do relapse upon termination. Due to its dual focus on the past and present, Schema Model (SM) represents a promising alternative model [...] Read more.
Background: Recent studies have shown that not every depressed patient responds to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and some of those who do relapse upon termination. Due to its dual focus on the past and present, Schema Model (SM) represents a promising alternative model to understand depression. However, studies examining SM often operationalize the same construct differently, resulting in inconsistent evidence of change. There is no known review clarifying (1) how best to assess schema constructs; and (2) the relevant pathways to depression, without which, the empirical basis for SM cannot be examined. Methods: A scoping review was conducted in accordance to PRISMA guidelines to map evidence of the relationship between constructs of SM and depression, and measures used to assess the constructs. 2463 articles were identified with 49 primary research studies included. This paper is a subset of the scoping review and focuses on the five studies examining effects of temperament on depression. Results: Two models were used to operationalize temperament: The Five Factor Model (FFM) and the Psychobiological Model of Personality (PBM). The variables of neuroticism and harm avoidance were positively associated with depressive symptoms while self-directedness and cooperativeness were negative associated with depressive symptoms. Conclusion: The FFM is more suited to operationalize temperament in studies of SM and depression due to its theoretical compatibility with SM, established psychometric properties of its measures, and widespread use among studies of SM. Out of the five factors in the FFM, only neuroticism exerts direct and indirect effects on depression. These findings are limited by homogeneous sampling, hence future research studies should consider extending it to adult clinical samples. Nevertheless, this review represents a first step in the systematic examination of the empirical basis of SM and a contribution to treatment innovation and practice for depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review of Attention Biases in Opioid, Cannabis, Stimulant Use Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061138 - 01 Jun 2018
Cited by 6
Abstract
Background: Opiates, cannabis, and amphetamines are highly abused, and use of these substances are prevalent disorders. Psychological interventions are crucial given that they help individuals maintain abstinence following a lapse or relapse into substance use. Advances in experimental psychology have suggested that [...] Read more.
Background: Opiates, cannabis, and amphetamines are highly abused, and use of these substances are prevalent disorders. Psychological interventions are crucial given that they help individuals maintain abstinence following a lapse or relapse into substance use. Advances in experimental psychology have suggested that automatic attention biases might be responsible for relapse. Prior reviews have provided evidence for the presence of these biases in addictive disorders and the effectiveness of bias modification. However, the prior studies are limited, as they failed to include trials involving participants with these prevalent addictive disorders or have failed to adopt a systematic approach in evidence synthesis. Objectives: The primary aim of this current systematic review is to synthesise the current evidence for attention biases amongst opioid use, cannabis use, and stimulant use disorders. The secondary aim is to determine the efficacy of attention bias modification interventions and other addictions related outcomes. Methods: A search was conducted from November 2017 to January 2018 on PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Cochrane Central, and Scopus. The selection process of the articles was in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. A qualitative synthesis was undertaken. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results: Six randomised trials were identified. The evidence synthesized from these trials have provided strong evidence that attentional biases are present in opioid and stimulant use disorders. Evidence synthesis for other secondary outcome measures could not be performed given the heterogeneity in the measures reported and the limited number of trials. The risk of bias assessment for the included trials revealed a high risk of selection and attrition bias. Conclusions: This review demonstrates the potential need for interventions targeting attention biases in opiate and cocaine use disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessProtocol
Gamified M-Health Attention Bias Modification Intervention for Individuals with Opioid Use Disorder: Protocol for a Pilot Randomised Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030752 - 24 Jan 2020
Abstract
Introduction: Globally, there is an epidemic of opioid use disorders. Locally, in Singapore, there is an increase in the number of individuals abusing opioids. The advances in experimental psychology have highlighted the need to modify unconscious, automatic biases. These automatic, unconscious biases [...] Read more.
Introduction: Globally, there is an epidemic of opioid use disorders. Locally, in Singapore, there is an increase in the number of individuals abusing opioids. The advances in experimental psychology have highlighted the need to modify unconscious, automatic biases. These automatic, unconscious biases result in individuals having preferential attention to substance-related cues in their natural environment, thus leading to a slip or relapse back into their underlying addictive disorders. Prior studies have demonstrated not only the presence of robust attentional biases amongst individuals with opioid use disorder, even when maintained on methadone; and the effectiveness of bias modification amongst these individuals. There remains limited evaluation of attention bias modification amongst a treatment-seeking cohort of Asian individuals. The objective of this pilot is to ensure that the methods of the planned definitive randomized trial could be conducted. Methods and Analysis: A non-blinded pilot randomized trial will be conducted. A total of 30 participants will be randomized to receive either the conventional application or the newly designed co-designed application. In order to identify these 30 participants, 60 participants will be recruited and screened to determine if they have baseline biases. Participants will be recruited from the inpatient unit at the National Addictions Management Service (NAMS) Singapore. All participants who are enrolled into the trial will complete a baseline assessment task, and a bias modification assessment and modification task daily. They will have to complete a baseline demographic and clinical information questionnaire, as well as a cravings rating scale before and after the intervention daily. Perspectives—that of self-reported experiences—will be sought from the participants following their completion of three intervention tasks. Descriptive statistical analyses will be performed, and chi-square and ANOVA analyses will be performed. Qualitative analyses will be undertaken for the perspectives shared. Ethics and Dissemination: Ethical approval has been obtained from the National Healthcare Group’s Domain Specific Research Board (DSRB) (approval number that of 2019/00934). The findings arising from this study will be disseminated by means of conferences and publications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessDiscussion
Variations in the Visual Probe Paradigms for Attention Bias Modification for Substance Use Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183389 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Advances in experimental psychology have provided evidence for the presence of attentional and approach biases in individuals with substance use disorders. Traditionally, reaction time tasks, such as the Stroop or the Visual Probe Task, are commonly used in the assessment of attention biases. [...] Read more.
Advances in experimental psychology have provided evidence for the presence of attentional and approach biases in individuals with substance use disorders. Traditionally, reaction time tasks, such as the Stroop or the Visual Probe Task, are commonly used in the assessment of attention biases. The Visual Probe Task has been criticized for its poor reliability, and other research has highlighted that variations remain in the paradigms adopted. However, a gap remains in the published literature, as there have not been any prior studies that have reviewed stimulus timings for different substance use disorders. Such a review is pertinent, as the nature of the task might affect its effectiveness. The aim of this paper was in comparing the different methods used in the Visual Probe Task, by focusing on tasks that have been used for the most highly prevalent substance disorders—that of opiate use, cannabis use and stimulant use disorders. A total of eight published articles were identified for opioid use disorders, three for cannabis use disorders and four for stimulant use disorders. As evident from the synthesis, there is great variability in the paradigm adopted, with most articles including only information about the nature of the stimulus, the number of trials, the timings for the fixation cross and the timings for the stimulus set. Future research examining attentional biases among individuals with substance use disorders should take into consideration the paradigms that are commonly used and evaluate the optimal stimulus and stimulus-onset asynchrony timings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessCase Report
Dangers of Mixed Martial Arts in the Development of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020254 - 17 Jan 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) was first discovered in professional boxers after they exhibited memory impairments, mood and behavioral changes after years of boxing. However, there is now a growing acceptance that CTE can develop in athletes of other sports due to the repetitive [...] Read more.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) was first discovered in professional boxers after they exhibited memory impairments, mood and behavioral changes after years of boxing. However, there is now a growing acceptance that CTE can develop in athletes of other sports due to the repetitive head trauma they receive. We present a case of a middle-aged male who presented with worsening memory, poor concentration, and behavioral changes for a year. On further cognitive testing, it was revealed that he had difficulties with short-term memory and processing speed as well as difficulties in organizing and multitasking. He had been practicing mixed martial arts (MMA) for 10 years, and later was an instructor of the sport. Through a detailed examination of his history, it was discovered that he sustained recurrent minor head concussions due to his line of work. To date, there has been limited large-scale research on head trauma in MMA. There is thus an urgent need for more studies in this area as CTE can be a chronic and debilitating illness with incapacitating neuropsychiatric sequelae. This case highlights the importance of public awareness of the risks of MMA and the dangers it poses to the brain, especially with more young people being attracted to this sport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessViewpoint
Enhancing the Quality and Utility of Content Analyses for Addictive Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1389; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071389 - 02 Jul 2018
Abstract
The advances in Mobile Health (M-health) technologies has led to an increase in the numbers of alcohol and drugs applications on the commercial stores. Content analyses and reviews of applications to date have demonstrated that most of these applications are for entertainment or [...] Read more.
The advances in Mobile Health (M-health) technologies has led to an increase in the numbers of alcohol and drugs applications on the commercial stores. Content analyses and reviews of applications to date have demonstrated that most of these applications are for entertainment or information purposes. More recent content analyses have identified common behavioural change techniques in substance applications. Nevertheless, there remain several limitations of existing content analyses and reviews of applications. There is an increasing prevalence of other substance-related disorders, such as that of stimulants and opioids, but the existing content analyses are limited to an analysis of alcohol and cannabis applications. Only two of the content analyses performed to date have attempted to identify applications that have their basis on a theoretical approach, based on the identification of behavioural change techniques or motivational techniques. There is a need to identify applications on the commercial stores that replicate conventional psychological interventions, or at least provide elements of conventional psychological interventions using behavioural change techniques that are integrated into the application. Further evaluative research could be done on these applications to determine if they are efficacious before using them for patient care. To address the limitation that existing content analyses have only focused on reviews of alcohol and cannabis applications, we propose for there to be updated content analyses for alcohol and cannabis, and new content analyses for other substances of abuse (such as opioids and stimulants). We like to suggest that future reviews consider keywords such as abstinence or recovery, and ones that relate to psychological therapies, such as self-determination or attention bias retraining, as commercial applications that have an underlying psychological basis might be categorised differently, under different keyword terms. We have evidence of how a better search strategy identifies previously unrecognised applications for attentional bias modification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
Open AccessCase Report
Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040783 - 18 Apr 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man [...] Read more.
Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic encephalitis in view of previous positive autoantibodies. His failure to respond to immunotherapy prompted testing for heavy metal poisoning, which was positive for Mn. This is the first report to examine an association between Mn and VGKC antibodies and the effects of Mn on functional brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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Open AccessPerspective
Recent Advances in Attention Bias Modification for Substance Addictions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040676 - 04 Apr 2018
Cited by 7
Abstract
Research on attentional bias modification has increased since 2014. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates evidence for bias modification for substance disorders, including alcohol and tobacco use disorders. Several pharmacological trials have shown that pharmacological agents can attenuate and modify such attentional bias. The pharmacological [...] Read more.
Research on attentional bias modification has increased since 2014. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates evidence for bias modification for substance disorders, including alcohol and tobacco use disorders. Several pharmacological trials have shown that pharmacological agents can attenuate and modify such attentional bias. The pharmacological trials that have appeared to date have produced mixed results, which has clinical implications. Developments in Internet and mobile technologies have transformed how attention bias modification is currently being achieved. There remains great potential for further research that examines the efficacy of technology-aided attention bias interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
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