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Open AccessArticle

Global Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of Suicidal Behavior, Deliberate Self-Harm and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Children and Adolescents between 1989 and 2018: A Meta-Analysis

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Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
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Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
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Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
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Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 1R8, Canada
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Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000, China
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Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
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Vietnam Young Physicians’ Association, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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The China-Singapore (Chongqing) Demonstration Initiative on Strategic Connectivity Think Tank, Chongqing 400043, China
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Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
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Health Innovation and Technology (iHealthtech), National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
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Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224581
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 3 November 2019 / Accepted: 7 November 2019 / Published: 19 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry)
Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the global lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal behavior, deliberate self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic search for relevant articles published between 1989 to 2018 was performed in multiple electronic databases. The aggregate 12-month and lifetime prevalence of suicidal behavior, deliberate self-harm, and non-suicidal self-injury were calculated based on the random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed to compare the prevalence according to school attendance and geographical regions. Results: A total of 686,672 children and adolescents were included. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicide attempts was 6% (95% CI: 4.7–7.7%) and 4.5% (95% CI: 3.4–5.9%) respectively. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal plan was 9.9% (95% CI: 5.5–17%) and 7.5% (95% CI: 4.5–12.1%) respectively. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation was 18% (95% CI: 14.2–22.7%) and 14.2% (95% CI: 11.6–17.3%) respectively. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury was 22.1% (95% CI: 16.9–28.4%) and 19.5% (95% CI: 13.3–27.6%) respectively. The aggregate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of deliberate self-harm was 13.7% (95% CI: 11.0–17.0%) and 14.2% (95% CI: 10.1–19.5%) respectively. Subgroup analyses showed that full-time school attendance, non-Western countries, low and middle-income countries, and geographical locations might contribute to the higher aggregate prevalence of suicidal behaviors, deliberate self-harm, and non-suicidal self-injury. Conclusions: This meta-analysis found that non-suicidal self-injury, suicidal ideation, and deliberate self-harm were the three most common suicidal and self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescents; children; meta-analysis; non-suicidal self-injury; deliberate self-harm; suicide adolescents; children; meta-analysis; non-suicidal self-injury; deliberate self-harm; suicide
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Lim, K.-S.; Wong, C.H.; McIntyre, R.S.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Tran, B.X.; Tan, W.; Ho, C.S.; Ho, R.C. Global Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of Suicidal Behavior, Deliberate Self-Harm and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Children and Adolescents between 1989 and 2018: A Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4581.

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