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Open AccessArticle

Electrocardiographic and Electrooculographic Responses to External Emotions and Their Transitions in Bipolar I and II Disorders

1
Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry/School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Zhejiang University College of Science, Hangzhou 310058, China
3
Department of Psychiatry, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou 310058, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050884
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry)
Bipolar disorder has two main types, bipolar I (BD I) and II (BD II), which present different affective states and personality characteristics, they might present different modes of emotional regulation. We hypothesized that the electrocardiogram and electrooculogram to external emotions are different in BD I and BD II. We asked 69 BD I and 54 BD II patients, and 139 healthy volunteers to undergo these tests in response to disgust, erotica, fear, happiness, neutral, and sadness, and their transitions. Their affective states were also measured. The heart rate in BD I was significantly higher under background fear after target neutral. The eyeball movement was quicker in BD I under target happiness after background disgust; in BD I under target sadness after background disgust; and in BD I under background disgust after target neutral. Some electrocardiographic and electrooculographic changes were correlated with affective states in patients. BD I and BD II had different physiological responses to external emotions and their transitions, indicating different pathophysiologies and suggesting different emotional-therapies for BD I and BD II. View Full-Text
Keywords: affective state; bipolar I and II disorders; electrocardiogram; electrooculogram; emotional stimulation affective state; bipolar I and II disorders; electrocardiogram; electrooculogram; emotional stimulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, G.; Wang, C.; Jia, Y.; Wang, J.; Zhang, B.; Shen, C.; Fan, H.; Pan, B.; Wang, W. Electrocardiographic and Electrooculographic Responses to External Emotions and Their Transitions in Bipolar I and II Disorders. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 884.

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