Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Whole Body and Local Muscle Fatigue Using Electromyography and a Perceived Exertion Scale for Squat Lifting
Next Article in Special Issue
Thematic Analysis of Medical Notes Offers Preliminary Insight into Precipitants for Asian Suicide Attempters: An Exploratory Study
Previous Article in Journal
The Epidemiological Significance and Temporal Stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats-Based Method Applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China
Previous Article in Special Issue
Predictors of Response to Ketamine in Treatment Resistant Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessCase Report

Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder

1
Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119074, Singapore
2
Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
3
Division of Neurology, University Medicine Cluster, National University Hospital, Singapore 119074, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040783
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry)
  |  
PDF [669 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Heavy metal poisoning is a rare but important cause of encephalopathy. Manganese (Mn) toxicity is especially rare in the modern world, and clinicians’ lack of recognition of its neuropsychiatric manifestations can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement. We describe the case of a man who presented with recurrent episodes of confusion, psychosis, dystonic limb movement and cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex limbic encephalitis in view of previous positive autoantibodies. His failure to respond to immunotherapy prompted testing for heavy metal poisoning, which was positive for Mn. This is the first report to examine an association between Mn and VGKC antibodies and the effects of Mn on functional brain activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). View Full-Text
Keywords: manganese toxicity; voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies; neuropsychiatric disorder manganese toxicity; voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies; neuropsychiatric disorder
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, C.S.; Ho, R.C.; Quek, A.M. Chronic Manganese Toxicity Associated with Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Complex Antibodies in a Relapsing Neuropsychiatric Disorder. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 783.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top