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Open AccessArticle

Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Viet-Tiep Friendship Hospital, Hai Phong 180000, Vietnam
Institute for Global Health Innovations, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
Center of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
Institute for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore 119074, Singapore
Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors have equally contributed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 255;
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 12 January 2019 / Accepted: 13 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry)
Depression is considered one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders among patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease and has adverse effects on the disease progression. However, there is a scarcity of studies contributing to the assessement of depression in hepatitis B patients. There is also little research into risk factors, particularly underlying socio-economic factors in Vietnam where the prevalence of hepatitis B is high. This study aimed to examine depression and identify whether differences in socio-economic status is related to the level of depression amongst chronic hepatitis B patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 298 patients with chronic hepatitis B at The Chronic Hepatitis Clinic in the Viet-Tiep Hospital, Hai Phong, Vietnam. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L) were used to assess the severity of depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Of chronic hepatitis B patients, 37.5% experienced depressive symptoms and most of them suffered minimal depressive symptoms (31.4%). According to the result of the multivariate logistic regression model, we found that higher age, lower income level, unemployement, living with spouse/partners were positively associated with having depression. Furthermore, having physical health problems and lower health-related quality of life were also related to a higher risk of depression. We recommend family support, financial support and active participation in consultation should be conducted during treatment to improve the quality of life and the emotional state of HBV patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: socioeconomic; inequality; depressive symptoms; chronic hepatitis B; Vietnam socioeconomic; inequality; depressive symptoms; chronic hepatitis B; Vietnam
MDPI and ACS Style

Vu, T.T.M.; Le, T.V.; Dang, A.K.; Nguyen, L.H.; Nguyen, B.C.; Tran, B.X.; Latkin, C.A.; Ho, C.S.H.; Ho, R.C.M. Socioeconomic Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 255.

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