Next Article in Journal
PM2.5-Bound Toxic Elements in an Urban City in East China: Concentrations, Sources, and Health Risks
Previous Article in Journal
Investigation of the Contributory Factors to the Guessability of Traffic Signs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Depression and Quality of Life among Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in the Era of Universal Treatment Access in Vietnam
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010163

Relationship of Anxiety and Depression with Respiratory Symptoms: Comparison between Depressed and Non-Depressed Smokers in Singapore

1
Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Health System, Singapore 119228, Singapore
2
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117416, Singapore
3
Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
4
Centre of Excellence in Behavioral Medicine, Nguyen Tat Thanh University (NTTU), Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam
5
Faculty of Education, Huaibei Normal University, 100 Dongshan Road, Huaibei, Anhui 235000, China
6
Department of Social & Behavioural Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 20 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry)
Full-Text   |   PDF [341 KB, uploaded 9 January 2019]

Abstract

The rising prevalence of smokers in the community, specifically psychiatric patients, necessitates smoking cessation as an important strategy for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco. This study aims to compare the profiles of depressed and non-depressed smokers and evaluate how psychiatric symptoms influence respiratory symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 276 non-depressed adult smokers in the community and 69 adult smokers who had been formally diagnosed with depression in the outpatient clinic of a University Hospital in Singapore. Participants were administered questionnaires on smoking attitudes and perceptions, psychiatric symptoms, and respiratory symptoms. Correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted. The mean age of smokers in the study was 35.32 ± 13.05 years. Smokers in the community and psychiatric samples were largely similar on all of the sociodemographic factors, except that fewer depressed people were employed (χ2 = 8.35, p < 0.01). Smokers with depression also reported more attempts to quit smoking (χ2 = 7.14, p < 0.05), higher mean depressive, anxiety, and stress symptom (DASS) scores (t = −10.04, p < 0.01), and endorsed more respiratory symptoms than smokers in the community (t = −2.40, p < 0.05). The DASS scores, number of cigarettes smoked daily, years of smoking, general perception of smokers getting heart disease, and presence of lung disease were positively and significantly correlated with respiratory symptoms. On multiple regression, only anxiety symptoms (β = 0.26, p < 0.05) and the presence of lung disease (β = 0.22, p < 0.001) were significantly correlated with respiratory symptoms. Depressed smokers reported greater difficulty in quitting tobacco use, and they perceived more severe respiratory symptoms compared to non-depressed counterparts. Anxiety symptoms were positively associated with the severity of respiratory symptoms. Smoking cessation campaigns need to specifically target psychological symptoms in smokers and focus more psychoeducation on the risk of cardiovascular disease in the middle-aged population. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking cessation; depression; anxiety; respiratory symptoms; cardiovascular disease smoking cessation; depression; anxiety; respiratory symptoms; cardiovascular disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, C.S.; Tan, E.L.; Ho, R.C.; Chiu, M.Y. Relationship of Anxiety and Depression with Respiratory Symptoms: Comparison between Depressed and Non-Depressed Smokers in Singapore. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 163.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top