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Open AccessArticle

Nutritional Factors, Physical Health and Immigrant Status Are Associated with Anxiety Disorders among Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Findings from Baseline Data of The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA)

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Health Science, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, Surrey, BC V3W 2M8, Canada
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Department of Psychology, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
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Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work and Institute for Life Course & Aging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1V4, Canada
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Faculty of Health and Community Studies, MacEwan University; Edmonton, AB T5J 4S2, Canada
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Department of Sociology, University of Victoria; Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada
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Department of Family & Community Medicine and Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1V7 & M5T 1P8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051493
Received: 19 January 2020 / Revised: 18 February 2020 / Accepted: 18 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry )
The main purpose of this study was to compare the lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders among foreign-born and Canadian-born adults in middle and later life. Using baseline data of the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (2010–2015), multivariable binary logistic regression was conducted to investigate anxiety diagnosis and immigrant status, while controlling for socio-economic, health-related, and nutrition covariates. Of 26,991 participants (49.3% men, 82.5% Canadian born, 58.5% aged 45–65 years), the overall prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosis of anxiety disorders was 8.5%, with immigrants being lower than Canadian-born respondents (6.4% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001). After accounting for all covariates, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for anxiety disorders was lower among immigrants (aOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.67–0.88) compared to those who were Canadian born. Identified risk factors included: younger age (aORs = 1.79–3.52), being a woman (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.07–1.46), single status (aOR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.09–1.48), lower income (aORs = 1.28–2.68), multi-morbidities (aORs = 2.73–5.13), chronic pain (aOR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.18–1.44), lifetime smoking ≥ 100 cigarettes (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.23–1.48), BMI < 18.5 (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.20–2.92), body fat ≥ 26% (aORs = 1.28–1.79), fruit and vegetable intake (<3/day; aORs = 1.24–1.26), and pastry consumption (>1/day; aOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12–1.15) (p < 0.05). Targeting socio-economic and nutritional risk factors may reduce the burden of anxiety disorders in middle and late adulthood. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrition; immigration; determinants of mental health; CLSA; anxiety disorders nutrition; immigration; determinants of mental health; CLSA; anxiety disorders
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Davison, K.M.; Lin, S.L.; Tong, H.; Kobayashi, K.M.; Mora-Almanza, J.G.; Fuller-Thomson, E. Nutritional Factors, Physical Health and Immigrant Status Are Associated with Anxiety Disorders among Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Findings from Baseline Data of The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1493.

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