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Article

Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to Predict Patterns of Marijuana Use among Young Iranian Adults

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Lifestyle Modification Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6719851351, Iran
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Social Development & Health Promotion Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6719851351, Iran
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Behavioral Disorders and Substance Abuse Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan 6719851351, Iran
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Medical Biology Research Center Research, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6719851351, Iran
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Department of Health Promotion, Faculty of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 7134814336, Iran
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Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress und Sleep Disorders, University of Basel, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
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Departments of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35209, USA
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Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah 6719851115, Iran
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Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah 6719851115, Iran
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School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1416753955, Iran
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Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Division of Sport and Psychosocial Health, University of Basel, 4053 Basel, Switzerland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061981
Received: 17 February 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 14 March 2020 / Published: 17 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Psychiatry)
Background: Marijuana use is increasing among adolescents and young adults. Long-term marijuana use magnifies the risk of a wide variety of behavioral, cognitive-emotional, and neurological problems, and can be a gateway to use of other drugs. In the present study, we investigated the cognitive-emotional and behavioral predictors of marijuana use. To this end, young Iranian adults answered questions based on an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and related it to marijuana use. We hypothesized that cognitive-emotional and behavioral factors would predict intention to use marijuana, and that this, in turn, would predict actual consumption. Methods: A total of 166 young Iranian adults (mean age: 20.51 years; 15.7% females) attending a walk-in center for drug use took part in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, frequency of marijuana use per week, along with questionnaires assessing the following dimensions of the TPB: attitude towards marijuana use, subjective norms, self-efficacy to resist marijuana use, environmental constraints, problem-solving skills, and behavioral intention for marijuana use. Results: Mean marijuana use was found to be 4.6 times/week. Attitude towards marijuana use, subjective norms, environmental constraints, and behavioral intention to use marijuana were positively correlated to each other and with marijuana use/week. In contrast, higher self-efficacy and problem-solving skills were associated with lower marijuana use/week. The multiple regression analysis showed that a positive attitude to marijuana use, lower self-efficacy in resisting its use, higher behavioral intention, and poorer problem-solving skills predicted actual use. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that dimensions of TPB can explain marijuana use among young Iranian adults self-admitted to a walk-in center for drug use. Specifically, poor problem-solving skills, low self-efficacy in resisting marijuana use, and positive labelling of its use appeared to be the best predictors of actual use. It follows that prevention programs aimed at improving problem-solving skills and raising self-efficacy, along with educational interventions aimed at highlighting the negative effects of marijuana might decrease the risk of its use among young adults in Iran. View Full-Text
Keywords: marijuana use; theory of planned behavior; young adults; problem-solving skills; self-efficacy marijuana use; theory of planned behavior; young adults; problem-solving skills; self-efficacy
MDPI and ACS Style

Jalilian, F.; Mirzaei-Alavijeh, M.; Ahmadpanah, M.; Mostafaei, S.; Kargar, M.; Pirouzeh, R.; Sadeghi Bahmani, D.; Brand, S. Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to Predict Patterns of Marijuana Use among Young Iranian Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 1981. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061981

AMA Style

Jalilian F, Mirzaei-Alavijeh M, Ahmadpanah M, Mostafaei S, Kargar M, Pirouzeh R, Sadeghi Bahmani D, Brand S. Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to Predict Patterns of Marijuana Use among Young Iranian Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(6):1981. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061981

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jalilian, Farzad, Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Shayan Mostafaei, Mehdi Kargar, Razieh Pirouzeh, Dena Sadeghi Bahmani, and Serge Brand. 2020. "Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to Predict Patterns of Marijuana Use among Young Iranian Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 6: 1981. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061981

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