Special Issue "Feature Papers in Fuels"

A special issue of Fuels (ISSN 2673-3994).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Martin Olazar
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Basque Country—UPV/EHU, Leioa, BI, Spain
Interests: biomass to energy; waste to energy; pyrolysis; gasification; pyrolysis-reforming to hydrogen; hydrodynamics of fluidized and spouted bed reactors; catalytic processes for waste valorization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

This Special Issue of Fuels will comprise a collection of high-quality papers published free of charge in open access form by Editorial Board members and authors invited by the Editorial Office and the Editor-in-Chief. The papers should be review papers or long research papers with a full and detailed summary of the authors’ work completed so far. 

Prof. Dr. Martin Olazar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fuels is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
A FactsSage Simulation Study on the Interaction of Synthetic Petcoke Slags with Alumina Crucibles
Fuels 2021, 2(1), 48-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2010004 - 26 Feb 2021
Abstract
In entrained flow gasifiers, inorganic species in solid fuels are converted to slag, which flows continuously along the gasifier’s refractory lining. Slag viscosity is critical for its continuous flow and, consequently, reliable operation of the gasifier. Viscosity of synthetic petcoke ash was measured [...] Read more.
In entrained flow gasifiers, inorganic species in solid fuels are converted to slag, which flows continuously along the gasifier’s refractory lining. Slag viscosity is critical for its continuous flow and, consequently, reliable operation of the gasifier. Viscosity of synthetic petcoke ash was measured in a high temperature viscometer (up to 1500 °C) using high alumina crucibles. Crucible material was found to dissolve in slag, causing thinning and leading to formation of holes on the walls. To explain this dissolution, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed in FactSage™ (Thermfact/CRCT, Montreal, QC, Canada and GTT-Technologies, Aachen, Germany) using different synthetic petcoke ash compositions in 100% H2, 5% H2/ 95% N2, 69.5% CO/30.5% CO2, and 100% O2 atmospheres. An inverse correlation was found between crucible dissolution and alumina content in the slag. Rates of dissolution of alumina from crucible into slag varied significantly in the different atmospheres. The correlation was validated experimentally by heating six synthetic slags with varying compositions to 1500 °C in 5% H2/N2 (to simulate viscometer’s atmosphere) gas. SEM-EDS analysis of the samples confirmed that the sample with lower initial content of alumina in the slag showed higher amounts of aluminum at the slag–crucible interface. Additions of alumina in the synthetic petcoke ash (containing up to 49.74% V2O5) mitigated crucible dissolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Natural and Synthetic Petroleum Coke Slag Viscosities under Reducing Conditions: Applicability of Predictive Models Using Factsage and Modified Urbain Model
Fuels 2021, 2(1), 37-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2010003 - 05 Feb 2021
Viewed by 265
Abstract
The viscosity of slag from an operating integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant utilising petroleum coke and a synthetic petcoke slag with the same composition made from chemical grade oxides in a reducing environment for gasification application were investigated in this study. A [...] Read more.
The viscosity of slag from an operating integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant utilising petroleum coke and a synthetic petcoke slag with the same composition made from chemical grade oxides in a reducing environment for gasification application were investigated in this study. A high temperature rotating bob-type viscometer was used to measure viscosity between temperatures of 1250–1375 °C. Natural and synthetic ash had similar viscosities above 1300 °C in this study. The viscosity was predicted by using FactSage, a thermodynamic modelling software, in conjunction with different viscosity models, available in the open literature. Percentage deviations of predicted viscosities from different models with experimentally measured values ranged from about 41 to 151%. Crystallisation of the slag was noted in SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy– energy dispersive spectroscopy) and FactSage results. Solid phases from FactSage predictions were used to modify the Kalmanovitch–Frank model with the Roscoe method. It predicted the viscosity of the slag accurately between 1250 and 1375 °C. Average percentage deviation from measured natural ash viscosity was about 11%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Composition of Reduced Mechanisms for Ignition of Biodiesel Surrogates
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 15-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels1010003 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Chemical kinetics mechanisms describing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) biofuel combustion are quite extensive and cannot be implemented in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of real engine systems. Using the reduction methodology Ant Colony Reduction (ACR), skeletal reduction followed by optimization has been performed [...] Read more.
Chemical kinetics mechanisms describing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) biofuel combustion are quite extensive and cannot be implemented in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of real engine systems. Using the reduction methodology Ant Colony Reduction (ACR), skeletal reduction followed by optimization has been performed for the C-11 FAME biodiesel components methyl decanoate (MD), methyl 5-decenoate (MDe5), and methyl 9-decenoate (MDe9), and for the alkane n-decane. The aim of the present study was to produce small reduced mechanisms accurately describing ignition of the fuels over a wide range of conditions, and in addition to compare the size and composition of reduced mechanisms constructed from two parent mechanisms of different complexity. Reduction targets were ignition delay times over a wide range of equivalence ratios and pressures, for separate temperature ranges of 600–1100 K (LT) and 1100–1500 K (HT). One of the complex mechanisms was constructed to be simplified by a lumping approach and this one included MD and was also used to perform reduction for the alkane n-decane. The most detailed parent mechanism was used to create reduced mechanisms for all the three methyl esters. The lumped complex mechanisms resulted in more compact reduced mechanisms, 157 reactions for LT of MD, compared to 810 reactions for the more detailed mechanism. MD required the largest fuel breakdown subsets while the unsaturated methyl esters could be described by smaller subsets. All mechanisms had similar subsets for the smallest hydrocarbons and H/O chemistry, independent of the fuel and the choice of parent mechanism. The ACR approach for mechanism reduction created reduced mechanisms with high accuracy for all conditions included in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Thermal Transformation of Palm Waste to High-Quality Hydrocarbon Fuel
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 2-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels1010002 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are waste products in the palm oil industry. Upon pressing of EFB, a liquor is produced which contains low grade fats, oils, and greases (FOG). These are the least valuable products of palm oil production, and are often discarded [...] Read more.
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are waste products in the palm oil industry. Upon pressing of EFB, a liquor is produced which contains low grade fats, oils, and greases (FOG). These are the least valuable products of palm oil production, and are often discarded as waste. It is shown here that the EFB pressed liquor can be thermally transformed at or below 350 °C to produce a series of hydrocarbons in the range of kerosene and diesel fuel. This is distinctly different from other studies of biofuels from palm oil, which were based entirely on biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) and biogas production. Furthermore, this transformation takes place without addition of an external catalyst, as was shown by comparison to reactions with the potential Lewis acid catalysts, ferric sulfate, and molecular sieves. The product distribution is similar to that obtained from brown grease, another waste FOG stream obtained from the sewage treatment industry, although the products from palm oil waste are less sensitive to reaction conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Evaluating the Efficiency of Biogas Production from Organic Wastes: Integrating Concepts of Circular Economy
Authors: J. García Cascallana; R. González; X. Gómez
Affiliation: University of León
Abstract: The treatment of organics wastes is a crucial activity to avoid environmental pollution but it also has become in recent years an alternative for the recovery of nutrients, closing economy loops and obtaining energy from residual streams. Thus, the concept of any economic activity has also immersed sustainability issues which in turn gives rise to the definition of circular economy. However, when dealing with organics, several points should be addressed as it is the dispersed location of these residues, their low energy content, the presence of inhibitory compounds among others. Anaerobic digestion is a mature technology widely applied in several countries for the treatment or biodegradable wastes and several pre-treatment alternatives have been developed in an attempt to increase the efficiency of the process and therefore increase biogas yields. In the present manuscript, the conversion of different waste materials into biogas is reviewed along with the efficiency of conversion when pre-treaments are applied.

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