Special Issue "Feature Papers in Fuels"

A special issue of Fuels (ISSN 2673-3994).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 May 2023 | Viewed by 18564

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Martin Olazar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Basque Country—UPV/EHU, Leioa, BI, Spain
Interests: biomass to energy; waste to energy; pyrolysis; gasification; pyrolysis-reforming to hydrogen; hydrodynamics of fluidized and spouted bed reactors; catalytic processes for waste valorization

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

This Special Issue of Fuels will comprise a collection of high-quality papers published free of charge in open access form by Editorial Board members and authors invited by the Editorial Office and the Editor-in-Chief. The papers should be review papers or long research papers with a full and detailed summary of the authors’ work completed so far. 

Prof. Dr. Martin Olazar
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fuels is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Torrefaction and Densification of Wood Sawdust for Bioenergy Applications
Fuels 2022, 3(1), 152-175; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels3010010 - 07 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
In this study, wood sawdust as waste residue from wood processing mills was pretreated using torrefaction to improve fuel properties and densified to facilitate transportation. Sawdust was torrefied in a fixed bed reactor using inside temperatures (IT) of 230, 260 and 290 °C [...] Read more.
In this study, wood sawdust as waste residue from wood processing mills was pretreated using torrefaction to improve fuel properties and densified to facilitate transportation. Sawdust was torrefied in a fixed bed reactor using inside temperatures (IT) of 230, 260 and 290 °C for 15, 30 and 45 min, residence time. Due to the low calorific value of the treatments, the outside temperature (OT) of the fixed bed reactor was used instead for a fixed duration of 45 min, which resulted in an increase in energy value by 40% for the most severe conditions. The mechanical strength of the pellets was enhanced by adding 20% binder (steam-treated spruce sawdust) to biochar, which improved the pellet tensile strength by 50%. Liquid by-products from the torrefaction process contained furfural and acetic acid, which can be separated for commercial uses. Thermochemical analysis showed better fuel properties of OT torrefied samples such as high fixed carbon (52%), low volatiles (41%) and lower oxygen contents (27%) compared to IT torrefied samples (18, 77 and 43%, respectively). Low moisture uptake of torrefied pellets compared to raw pellets, along with other attributes such as renewability, make them competent substitutes to fossil-based energy carriers such as coal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Synthesis of Surrogate Blends Corresponding to Petroleum Middle Distillates, Oxidative and Extractive Desulfurization Using Imidazole Ionic Liquids
Fuels 2022, 3(1), 44-74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels3010004 - 25 Jan 2022
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Surrogate fuels are composed of a few pure components, mixed together in order to imitate a real fuel’s characteristics regarding its combustion and emission. In this study, four surrogate feeds were synthesized, corresponding to petroleum middle distillates. The desulfurization of the surrogate blends [...] Read more.
Surrogate fuels are composed of a few pure components, mixed together in order to imitate a real fuel’s characteristics regarding its combustion and emission. In this study, four surrogate feeds were synthesized, corresponding to petroleum middle distillates. The desulfurization of the surrogate blends was performed using the hydrogen peroxide–acetic acid oxidative system. Consequently, extractive desulfurization was carried out using imidazolium-based ionic liquids, namely 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [BMIM][Br] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate [BMIM][HSO4], in a multiple extraction cycle procedure. Both ionic liquids were synthesized and characterized with spectroscopic techniques. The influence of the extraction temperature process was studied. In each extraction cycle, the sulfur concentration and the physical properties of the surrogate extraction products were estimated. The used ionic liquids were regenerated with a reasonably effective method. The synthesized and recycled ionic liquids showed high desulfurization efficiency, while [BMIM][Br] prevailed. Additionally, extractive desulfurization in oxidized surrogate LCO using ionic liquids is comparable with that using acetonitrile, since it has an advantage in terms of mass yield. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Assessing NO2-Hydrocarbon Interactions during Combustion of NO2/Alkane/Ar Mixtures in a Shock Tube Using CO Time Histories
Fuels 2022, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels3010001 - 04 Jan 2022
Viewed by 778
Abstract
Modern gas turbines use combustion chemistry during the design phase to optimize their efficiency and reduce emissions of regulated pollutants such as NOx. The detailed understanding of the interactions during NOx and natural gas during combustion is therefore necessary for this optimization step. [...] Read more.
Modern gas turbines use combustion chemistry during the design phase to optimize their efficiency and reduce emissions of regulated pollutants such as NOx. The detailed understanding of the interactions during NOx and natural gas during combustion is therefore necessary for this optimization step. To better assess such interactions, NO2 was used as a sole oxidant during the oxidation of CH4 and C2H6 (the main components of natural gas) in a shock tube. The evolution of the CO mole fraction was followed by laser-absorption spectroscopy from dilute mixtures at around 1.2 atm. The experimental CO profiles were compared to several modern detailed kinetics mechanisms from the literature: models tuned to characterize NOx-hydrocarbons interactions, base-chemistry models (C0–C4) that contain a NOx sub-mechanism, and a nitromethane model. The comparison between the models and the experimental profiles showed that most modern NOx-hydrocarbon detailed kinetics mechanisms are not very accurate, while the base chemistry models were lacking accuracy overall as well. The nitromethane model and one hydrocarbon/NOx model were in relatively good agreement with the data over the entire range of conditions investigated, although there is still room for improvement. The numerical analysis of the results showed that while the models considered predict the same reaction pathways from the fuels to CO, they can be very inconsistent in the selection of the reaction rate coefficients. This variation is especially true for ethane, for which a larger disagreement with the data was generally observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Interaction Behavior of Biogenic Material with Electric Arc Furnace Slag
Fuels 2021, 2(4), 420-436; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2040024 - 21 Oct 2021
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are used for steel production, particularly when recycling scrap material. In EAFs, carbonaceous material is charged with other raw materials or injected into molten slag to generate foam on top of liquid metal to increase energy efficiency. However, the [...] Read more.
Electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are used for steel production, particularly when recycling scrap material. In EAFs, carbonaceous material is charged with other raw materials or injected into molten slag to generate foam on top of liquid metal to increase energy efficiency. However, the consumption of fossil carbon leads to greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs). To reduce net GHG emissions from EAF steelmaking, the substitution of fossil carbon with sustainable biogenic carbon can be applied. This study explores the possibility of the substitution of fossil material with biogenic material produced by different pyrolysis methods and from various raw materials in EAF steelmaking processes. Experimental work was performed to study the effect of biogenic material utilization on steel and slag composition using an induction melting furnace with 50 kg of steel capacity. The interaction of biogenic material derived from different raw materials and pyrolysis processes with molten synthetic slag was also investigated using a tensiometer. Relative to other biogenic materials tested, a composite produced with densified softwood had higher intensity interfacial reactions with slag, which may be attributed to the rougher surface morphology of the densified biogenic material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Environmental and Economic Assessment of Portable Systems: Production of Wood-Briquettes and Torrefied-Briquettes to Generate Heat and Electricity
Fuels 2021, 2(3), 345-366; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2030020 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
This study assessed the environmental impacts and economic feasibility of generating heat using wood-briquettes (WBs), and heat and electricity using torrefied-wood-briquettes (TWBs). WBs and TWBs were manufactured from forest residues using portable systems and delivered to either residential consumers or power plants in [...] Read more.
This study assessed the environmental impacts and economic feasibility of generating heat using wood-briquettes (WBs), and heat and electricity using torrefied-wood-briquettes (TWBs). WBs and TWBs were manufactured from forest residues using portable systems and delivered to either residential consumers or power plants in the United States. An integrated cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessment (LCA) and techno-economic analysis (TEA) approach was used to quantify environmental impacts and minimum-selling prices (MSPs) of heat and electricity, respectively. Results illustrated that 82% and 59% of the cradle-to-grave global warming (GW) impact of producing heat resulted from the feedstock preparation in WBs and torrefaction in TWBs, respectively. About 46–54% of total cost in the production of heat were from labor and capital costs only. The GW impact of electricity production with TWBs was dominated by the torrefaction process (48% contribution). Capital cost (50%) was a major contributor to the total cost of electricity production using TWBs. The GW impacts of producing heat were 7–37 gCO₂eq/MJ for WBs, and 14–51 gCO₂eq/MJ for TWBs, whereas producing electricity using TWBs was 146–443 gCO₂eq/kWhe. MSPs of generating heat from WBs and TWBs were €1.09–€1.73 and €1.60–€2.26/MJ, respectively, whereas the MSP of electricity from TWBs was €20–€25/kWhe. Considering carbon and pile-burn credits, MSPs of heat and electricity were reduced by 60–90% compared to the base-case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Process Simulation Modelling of the Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of 4-Propylguaiacol in Microreactors
Fuels 2021, 2(3), 272-285; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2030016 - 16 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1015
Abstract
A process simulation model was created using Aspen Plus to investigate the hydrodeoxygenation of 4-propylguaiacol, a model component in lignin-derived pyrolysis oil, over a presulphided NiMo/Al2O3 solid catalyst. Process simulation modelling methods were used to develop the pseudo-homogeneous packed bed [...] Read more.
A process simulation model was created using Aspen Plus to investigate the hydrodeoxygenation of 4-propylguaiacol, a model component in lignin-derived pyrolysis oil, over a presulphided NiMo/Al2O3 solid catalyst. Process simulation modelling methods were used to develop the pseudo-homogeneous packed bed microreactor. The reaction was conducted at 400 °C and an operating pressure of 300 psig with a 4-propylguaiacol liquid flow rate of 0.03 mL·min−1 and a hydrogen gas flow rate of 0.09 mL·min−1. Various operational parameters were investigated and compared to the experimental results in order to establish their effect on the conversion of 4-propylguaiacol. The parameters studied included reaction temperature, pressure, and residence time. Further changes to the simulation were made to study additional effects. In doing so, the operation of the same reactor was studied adiabatically, rather than isothermally. Moreover, different equations of state were used. It was observed that the conversion was enhanced with increasing temperature, pressure, and residence time. The results obtained demonstrated a good model validation when compared to the experimental results, thereby confirming that the model is suitable to predict the hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Enhanced Power Extraction with Sediment Microbial Fuel Cells by Anode Alternation
Fuels 2021, 2(2), 168-178; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2020010 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) are energy harvesting devices where the anode is buried inside marine sediment, while the cathode stays in an aerobic environment on the surface of the water. To apply this SCMFC as a power source, it is crucial to [...] Read more.
Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) are energy harvesting devices where the anode is buried inside marine sediment, while the cathode stays in an aerobic environment on the surface of the water. To apply this SCMFC as a power source, it is crucial to have an efficient power management system, leading to development of an effective energy harvesting technique suitable for such biological devices. In this work, we demonstrate an effective method to improve power extraction with SMFCs based on anodes alternation. We have altered the setup of a traditional SMFC to include two anodes working with the same cathode. This setup is compared with a traditional setup (control) and a setup that undergoes intermittent energy harvesting, establishing the improvement of energy collection using the anodes alternation technique. Control SMFC produced an average power density of 6.3 mW/m2 and SMFC operating intermittently produced 8.1 mW/m2. On the other hand, SMFC operating using the anodes alternation technique produced an average power density of 23.5 mW/m2. These results indicate the utility of the proposed anodes alternation method over both the control and intermittent energy harvesting techniques. The Anode Alternation can also be viewed as an advancement of the intermittent energy harvesting method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Biogas Production from Organic Wastes: Integrating Concepts of Circular Economy
Fuels 2021, 2(2), 144-167; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2020009 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Anaerobic digestion is traditionally used for treating organic materials. This allows the valorization of biogas and recycling of nutrients thanks to the land application of digestates. However, although this technology offers a multitude of advantages, it is still far from playing a relevant [...] Read more.
Anaerobic digestion is traditionally used for treating organic materials. This allows the valorization of biogas and recycling of nutrients thanks to the land application of digestates. However, although this technology offers a multitude of advantages, it is still far from playing a relevant role in the energy market and from having significant participation in decarbonizing the economy. Biogas can be submitted to upgrading processes to reach methane content close to that of natural gas and therefore be compatible with many of its industrial applications. However, the high installation and operating costs of these treatment plants are the main constraints for the application of this technology in many countries. There is an urgent need of increasing reactor productivity, biogas yields, and operating at greater throughput without compromising digestion stability. Working at organic solid contents greater than 20% and enhancing hydrolysis and biogas yields to allow retention times to be around 15 days would lead to a significant decrease in reactor volume and therefore in initial capital investments. Anaerobic digestion should be considered as one of the key components in a new economy model characterized by an increase in the degree of circularity. The present manuscript reviews the digestion process analyzing the main parameters associated with digestion performance. The novelty of this manuscript is based on the link established between operating reactor conditions, optimizing treatment capacity, and reducing operating costs that would lead to unlocking the potential of biogas to promote bioenergy production, sustainable agronomic practices, and the integration of this technology into the energy grid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Shale Poroelastic Effects on Well Performance Analysis of Shale Gas Reservoirs
Fuels 2021, 2(2), 130-143; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2020008 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
The effect of poroelastic properties of the shale matrix on gas storage and transport mechanisms has gained significant attention, especially during history-matching and hydrocarbon production forecasting in unconventional reservoirs. The common oil and gas industry practice in unconventional reservoir simulation is the extension [...] Read more.
The effect of poroelastic properties of the shale matrix on gas storage and transport mechanisms has gained significant attention, especially during history-matching and hydrocarbon production forecasting in unconventional reservoirs. The common oil and gas industry practice in unconventional reservoir simulation is the extension of conventional reservoir simulation that ignores the dynamic behavior of matrix porosity and permeability as a function of reservoir effective net stress. This approach ignores the significant impact of the poroelastic characteristics of the shale matrix on hydrocarbon production. The poroelastic characteristics of the shale matrix highly relate to the shale matrix geomechanical properties, such as the Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s ratio, bulk modulus, sorption behavior, total organic content (TOC), mineralogy and presence of natural fractures in the multi-scale shale structure. In this study, in order to quantify the effect of the poroelasticity of the shale matrix on gas production, a multi-continuum approach was employed in which the shale matrix was divided into organic materials, inorganic materials and natural fractures. The governing equations for gas transport and storage in shale were developed from the basic fundamentals of mass and momentum conservation equations. In this case, gas transport in organics was assumed to be diffusive, while gas transport in inorganics was governed by convection. Finally, a fracture system was added to the multi-scale shale gas matrix, and the poroelastic effect of the shale matrix on transport and storage was investigated. A modified Palmer and Mansoori model (1998) was used to include the pore compression, matrix swelling/shrinkage and desorption-induced deformation of shale organic matter on the overall pore compressibility of the shale matrix. For the inorganic part of the matrix, relations between rock mechanical properties and the pore compressibility were obtained. A dual Langmuir–Henry isotherm was also used to describe the sorption behavior of shale organic materials. The coupled governing equations of gas storage and transport in the shale matrix were then solved using the implicit finite difference approach using MATLAB. For this purpose, rock and fluid properties were obtained using actual well logging and core analysis of the Marcellus gas well. The results showed the importance of the poroelastic effect on the pressure response and rate of gas recovery from the shale matrix. The effect was found to be mainly due to desorption-induced matrix deformation at an early stage. Coupling the shale matrix gas production including the poroelastic effect in history-matching the gas production from unconventional reservoirs will significantly improve engineering completion design optimization of the unconventional reservoirs by providing more accurate and robust production forecasts for each hydraulic fracture stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Non-Premixed Filtered Tabulated Chemistry: Filtered Flame Modeling of Diffusion Flames
Fuels 2021, 2(2), 87-107; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2020006 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 884
Abstract
The flame front filtering is a well-known strategy in turbulent premixed combustion. An extension of this approach for the non-premixed combustion context has been proposed by means of directly filtering counterflow diffusion flamelets. Promising results were obtained for the non-premixed filtered tabulated chemistry [...] Read more.
The flame front filtering is a well-known strategy in turbulent premixed combustion. An extension of this approach for the non-premixed combustion context has been proposed by means of directly filtering counterflow diffusion flamelets. Promising results were obtained for the non-premixed filtered tabulated chemistry formalism on 1-D and 2-D unresolved counterflow flame configurations. The present paper demonstrates the soundness of this approach on a 3-D real laminar non-premixed coflow flame. The model results are compared against the direct filtering of the fully resolved laminar diffusion flame showing that the formalism adequately describes the underlying physics. The study reveals the importance of the one-dimensional counterflow flamelet hypothesis, so that the model activation under this condition is ensured by means of a flame sensor. The consistent coupling between the model and the flame sensor adequately retrieves the flame lift-off and satisfactorily predicts the profile extension due to the filtering process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
A FactsSage Simulation Study on the Interaction of Synthetic Petcoke Slags with Alumina Crucibles
Fuels 2021, 2(1), 48-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2010004 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 904
Abstract
In entrained flow gasifiers, inorganic species in solid fuels are converted to slag, which flows continuously along the gasifier’s refractory lining. Slag viscosity is critical for its continuous flow and, consequently, reliable operation of the gasifier. Viscosity of synthetic petcoke ash was measured [...] Read more.
In entrained flow gasifiers, inorganic species in solid fuels are converted to slag, which flows continuously along the gasifier’s refractory lining. Slag viscosity is critical for its continuous flow and, consequently, reliable operation of the gasifier. Viscosity of synthetic petcoke ash was measured in a high temperature viscometer (up to 1500 °C) using high alumina crucibles. Crucible material was found to dissolve in slag, causing thinning and leading to formation of holes on the walls. To explain this dissolution, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed in FactSage™ (Thermfact/CRCT, Montreal, QC, Canada and GTT-Technologies, Aachen, Germany) using different synthetic petcoke ash compositions in 100% H2, 5% H2/ 95% N2, 69.5% CO/30.5% CO2, and 100% O2 atmospheres. An inverse correlation was found between crucible dissolution and alumina content in the slag. Rates of dissolution of alumina from crucible into slag varied significantly in the different atmospheres. The correlation was validated experimentally by heating six synthetic slags with varying compositions to 1500 °C in 5% H2/N2 (to simulate viscometer’s atmosphere) gas. SEM-EDS analysis of the samples confirmed that the sample with lower initial content of alumina in the slag showed higher amounts of aluminum at the slag–crucible interface. Additions of alumina in the synthetic petcoke ash (containing up to 49.74% V2O5) mitigated crucible dissolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Comparison of Natural and Synthetic Petroleum Coke Slag Viscosities under Reducing Conditions: Applicability of Predictive Models Using Factsage and Modified Urbain Model
Fuels 2021, 2(1), 37-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2010003 - 05 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
The viscosity of slag from an operating integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant utilising petroleum coke and a synthetic petcoke slag with the same composition made from chemical grade oxides in a reducing environment for gasification application were investigated in this study. A [...] Read more.
The viscosity of slag from an operating integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant utilising petroleum coke and a synthetic petcoke slag with the same composition made from chemical grade oxides in a reducing environment for gasification application were investigated in this study. A high temperature rotating bob-type viscometer was used to measure viscosity between temperatures of 1250–1375 °C. Natural and synthetic ash had similar viscosities above 1300 °C in this study. The viscosity was predicted by using FactSage, a thermodynamic modelling software, in conjunction with different viscosity models, available in the open literature. Percentage deviations of predicted viscosities from different models with experimentally measured values ranged from about 41 to 151%. Crystallisation of the slag was noted in SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy– energy dispersive spectroscopy) and FactSage results. Solid phases from FactSage predictions were used to modify the Kalmanovitch–Frank model with the Roscoe method. It predicted the viscosity of the slag accurately between 1250 and 1375 °C. Average percentage deviation from measured natural ash viscosity was about 11%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Composition of Reduced Mechanisms for Ignition of Biodiesel Surrogates
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 15-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels1010003 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
Chemical kinetics mechanisms describing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) biofuel combustion are quite extensive and cannot be implemented in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of real engine systems. Using the reduction methodology Ant Colony Reduction (ACR), skeletal reduction followed by optimization has been performed [...] Read more.
Chemical kinetics mechanisms describing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) biofuel combustion are quite extensive and cannot be implemented in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of real engine systems. Using the reduction methodology Ant Colony Reduction (ACR), skeletal reduction followed by optimization has been performed for the C-11 FAME biodiesel components methyl decanoate (MD), methyl 5-decenoate (MDe5), and methyl 9-decenoate (MDe9), and for the alkane n-decane. The aim of the present study was to produce small reduced mechanisms accurately describing ignition of the fuels over a wide range of conditions, and in addition to compare the size and composition of reduced mechanisms constructed from two parent mechanisms of different complexity. Reduction targets were ignition delay times over a wide range of equivalence ratios and pressures, for separate temperature ranges of 600–1100 K (LT) and 1100–1500 K (HT). One of the complex mechanisms was constructed to be simplified by a lumping approach and this one included MD and was also used to perform reduction for the alkane n-decane. The most detailed parent mechanism was used to create reduced mechanisms for all the three methyl esters. The lumped complex mechanisms resulted in more compact reduced mechanisms, 157 reactions for LT of MD, compared to 810 reactions for the more detailed mechanism. MD required the largest fuel breakdown subsets while the unsaturated methyl esters could be described by smaller subsets. All mechanisms had similar subsets for the smallest hydrocarbons and H/O chemistry, independent of the fuel and the choice of parent mechanism. The ACR approach for mechanism reduction created reduced mechanisms with high accuracy for all conditions included in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Article
Thermal Transformation of Palm Waste to High-Quality Hydrocarbon Fuel
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 2-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels1010002 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1505
Abstract
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are waste products in the palm oil industry. Upon pressing of EFB, a liquor is produced which contains low grade fats, oils, and greases (FOG). These are the least valuable products of palm oil production, and are often discarded [...] Read more.
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are waste products in the palm oil industry. Upon pressing of EFB, a liquor is produced which contains low grade fats, oils, and greases (FOG). These are the least valuable products of palm oil production, and are often discarded as waste. It is shown here that the EFB pressed liquor can be thermally transformed at or below 350 °C to produce a series of hydrocarbons in the range of kerosene and diesel fuel. This is distinctly different from other studies of biofuels from palm oil, which were based entirely on biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) and biogas production. Furthermore, this transformation takes place without addition of an external catalyst, as was shown by comparison to reactions with the potential Lewis acid catalysts, ferric sulfate, and molecular sieves. The product distribution is similar to that obtained from brown grease, another waste FOG stream obtained from the sewage treatment industry, although the products from palm oil waste are less sensitive to reaction conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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Review

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Review
Organic Waste Gasification: A Selective Review
Fuels 2021, 2(4), 556-650; https://doi.org/10.3390/fuels2040033 - 07 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1931
Abstract
This review considers the selective studies on environmentally friendly, combustion-free, allothermal, atmospheric-pressure, noncatalytic, direct H2O/CO2 gasification of organic feedstocks like biomass, sewage sludge wastes (SSW) and municipal solid wastes (MSW) to demonstrate the pros and cons of the approaches and [...] Read more.
This review considers the selective studies on environmentally friendly, combustion-free, allothermal, atmospheric-pressure, noncatalytic, direct H2O/CO2 gasification of organic feedstocks like biomass, sewage sludge wastes (SSW) and municipal solid wastes (MSW) to demonstrate the pros and cons of the approaches and provide future perspectives. The environmental friendliness of H2O/CO2 gasification is well known as it is accompanied by considerably less harmful emissions into the environment as compared to O2/air gasification. Comparative analysis of the various gasification technologies includes low-temperature H2O/CO2 gasification at temperatures up to 1000 °C, high-temperature plasma- and solar-assisted H2O/CO2 gasification at temperatures above 1200 °C, and an innovative gasification technology applying ultra-superheated steam (USS) with temperatures above 2000 °C obtained by pulsed or continuous gaseous detonations. Analysis shows that in terms of such characteristics as the carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), tar and char content, and the content of harmful by-products the plasma and detonation USS gasification technologies are most promising. However, as compared with plasma gasification, detonation USS gasification does not need enormous electric power with unnecessary and energy-consuming gas–plasma transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
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