Special Issue "The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 July 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. José Manuel Moreno-Rojas
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Food Science and Health Department, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA) Alameda del Obispo, Córdoba, Spain
Interests: food quality and traceability; specifically on the characterization of sensory; bioactive compounds of different food matrixes using several techniques (e.g., GC-MS/GC-FID, UHPLC-HRMS and EA(GC)-C-IRMS)
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Gema Pereira Caro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Health, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA), Alameda del Obispo, Avda. Menéndez Pidal, SN, Córdoba 14004, Spain
Interests: bioactive compounds in food; polyphenols; organosulfur compounds; LC-MS and GC-MS techniques; metabolomics; bioavailability; bioactivity; effect of processing on bioactive compounds
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Raquel Rodríguez Solana
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Science and Health Department, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA) Alameda del Obispo, Córdoba, Spain
Interests: My principal research interest is the study of the chemical composition and in vitro biological capacities of foods and alcoholic beverages, through the mineral characterization by techniques such as ICP-MS and AAS/AES; the volatile and phenolic profiles by gas (GC-MS/GC-FID) and liquid (HPLC-MS/HPLC-DAD) chromatographic techniques, respectively; and the antioxidant capacity and the inhibition of enzymes involved in neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes using different spectrophotometric methods.

Special Issue Information

There is growing evidence that plant-derived bioactives, including polyphenols, carotenoids and organosulfur compounds, may have several health benefits by reducing or delaying the incidence of non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Those positive effects are dependent, in the first instance, on the bioavailability, absorption and metabolism of bioactives. In this context, the microbiota play an important role since they transform ingested bioactives that reach the colon into low-molecular-weight phenolic and aromatic metabolites which are absorbed into the circulatory system and, further, are subjected to phase II metabolism by mammalian enzymes, producing metabolites with potential biological activities.

The study of the bioactive metabolites in vivo and the evaluation of their activity against several diseases is challenging, not only because of the diversity of chemical structures and their low and varied concentrations, but also because of the variability in the production of specific metabolites by the population.

This Special Issue welcomes manuscripts on i) the reliable phytochemical characterization of fruit- and vegetable-derived product extracts; ii) in vivo and in vitro studies on the absorption and metabolism of food bioactives using targeted and non-targeted approaches; iii) studies dealing with the potential benefits of the consumption of bioactives using cell-based experiments.

Dr. José Manuel Moreno-Rojas
Dr. Gema Pereira Caro
Dr. Raquel Rodríguez Solana
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Foods is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • organosulfur compounds
  • carotenoids
  • bioavailability
  • gut microbiota
  • bioactivity
  • metabolomics
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular diseases

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Bioaccessibility of Phenolics, Flavonoids, Carotenoids, and Capsaicinoid Compounds: A Comparative Study of Cooked Potato Cultivars Mixed with Roasted Pepper Varieties
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1849; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081849 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 544
Abstract
An in vitro method was used to assess the bioaccessibility of phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoid compounds in different cooked potatoes mixed with roasted peppers (Capsicum annuum), Joe Parker (JP, hot), and Sweet Delilah (SD, sweet). The present study identified differences [...] Read more.
An in vitro method was used to assess the bioaccessibility of phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoid compounds in different cooked potatoes mixed with roasted peppers (Capsicum annuum), Joe Parker (JP, hot), and Sweet Delilah (SD, sweet). The present study identified differences in the bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds among the potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum) Purple Majesty (PM; purple flesh), Yukon Gold (YG; yellow flesh), Rio Grande Russet (RG; white flesh) and a numbered selection (CO 97226-2R/R (R/R; red flesh)). The bioactive compounds and capsaicinoid compounds in potatoes and peppers were estimated before and after in vitro digestion. Before digestion, the total phenolic content of potato cultivars mixed with JP was in the following order: R/R > PM > YG > RG. The highest levels of carotenoids were 194.34 µg/g in YG and 42.92 µg/g in the RG cultivar when mixed with roasted JP. The results indicate that the amount of bioaccessible phenolics ranged from 485 to 252 µg/g in potato cultivars mixed with roasted JP. The bioaccessibility of flavonoids ranged from 185.1 to 59.25 µg/g. The results indicate that the YG cultivar mixed with JP and SD showed the highest phenolic and carotenoid bioaccessibility. In contrast, the PM mixed with JP and SD contained the lowest phenolic and carotenoid bioaccessibility. Our results indicate that the highest flavonoid bioaccessibility occurred in R/R mixed with roasted JP and SD. The lowest flavonoids bioaccessibility occurred in PM and the RG. The maximum bioaccessible amount of capsaicin was observed in YG mixed with JP, while the minimum bioaccessibility was observed with PM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Effect of Freeze Drying and Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion on Phenolic Metabolites and Antioxidant Property of the Natal Plum (Carissa macrocarpa)
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061420 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Natal plums (Carissa macrocarpa) are a natural source of bioactive compounds, particularly anthocyanins, and can be consumed as a snack. This study characterized the impact of freeze drying and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and α-glucosidase [...] Read more.
Natal plums (Carissa macrocarpa) are a natural source of bioactive compounds, particularly anthocyanins, and can be consumed as a snack. This study characterized the impact of freeze drying and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity, and α-glucosidase activity of the Natal plum (Carissa macrocarpa). The phenolic compounds were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode-array detector HPLC-DAD and an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC) with a Waters Acquity photodiode array detector (PDA) coupled to a Synapt G2 quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometer. Cyanidin-3-O-β-sambubioside (Cy-3-Sa) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (Cy-3-G) were the dominant anthocyanins in the fresh and freeze-dried Natal plum powder. Freeze drying did not affect the concentrations of both cyanidin compounds compared to the fresh fruit. Both cyanidin compounds, ellagic acid, catechin, epicatechin syringic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, and quercetin O-glycoside from the ingested freeze-dried Natal plum powder was quite stable in the gastric phase compared to the small intestinal phase. Cyanidin-3-O-β-sambubioside from the ingested Natal plum powder showed bioaccessibility of 32.2% compared to cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (16.3%). The degradation of anthocyanins increased the bioaccessibility of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid significantly, in the small intestinal digesta. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) activities, and inhibitory effect of α-glucosidase activity decreased in the small intestinal phase. Indigenous fruits or freeze-dried powders with Cy-3-Sa can be a better source of anthocyanin than Cy-3-G due to higher bioaccessibility in the small intestinal phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Antioxidant Activity and Bio-Accessibility of Polyphenols in Black Carrot (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) and Two Derived Products during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Fermentation
Foods 2021, 10(2), 457; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020457 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1212
Abstract
Black carrot has been attracting increasing thanks to its high bioactive compound content. This study presents the polyphenol bio-accessibility of black carrot and two derived products (black carrot snack (BC snack) and black carrot seasoning (BC seasoning)) after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and [...] Read more.
Black carrot has been attracting increasing thanks to its high bioactive compound content. This study presents the polyphenol bio-accessibility of black carrot and two derived products (black carrot snack (BC snack) and black carrot seasoning (BC seasoning)) after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation. Additionally, antioxidant activity was measured by 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Nine flavonoids and eight anthocyanins were determined by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) analysis, the predominant compounds being the hydroxycinnamic acids 3-O-feruloylquinic acid, 4-O-feruloylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid. The BC snack (108 µmol/g DW) presented the highest total polyphenol content, followed by BC seasoning (53 µmol/g DW) and black carrot (11.4 µmol/g DW). The main polyphenols still bio-accessible after in vitro digestion were the hydroxycinnamic acids, with mean recovery rates of 113 % for black carrot, 69% for BC snack and 81% for BC seasoning. The incubation of black carrot and its derived products with human faecal bacterial resulted in the complete degradation of anthocyanins and in the formation of mainly 3-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid as the major catabolic event. In conclusion, our results suggest that the black carrot matrix impacts significantly affects the bio-accessibility of polyphenols and, therefore, their potential health benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Changes in the Organosulfur and Polyphenol Compound Profiles of Black and Fresh Onion during Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion
Foods 2021, 10(2), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020337 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
This study aims to determine the changes in, and bioaccessibility of, polyphenols and organosulfur compounds (OSCs) during the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of black onion, a novel product derived from fresh onion by a combination of heat and humidity treatment, and to compare it [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the changes in, and bioaccessibility of, polyphenols and organosulfur compounds (OSCs) during the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of black onion, a novel product derived from fresh onion by a combination of heat and humidity treatment, and to compare it with its fresh counterpart. Fresh and black onions were subjected to in-vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and their polyphenol and OSC profiles were determined by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Although to a lesser extent than in the fresh onion, the phenolic compounds in the black variety remained stable during the digestion process, presenting a higher bioaccessibility index (BI) with recovery corresponding to 41.1%, compared with that of fresh onion (23.5%). As for OSCs, apart from being more stable after the digestion process, with a BI of 83%, significantly higher quantities (21 times higher) were found in black onion than in fresh onion, suggesting that the black onion production process has a positive effect on the OSC content. Gallic acid, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and ɣ-glutamyl-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide were the most bioaccessible compounds in fresh onion, while isorhamnetin, quercetin-diglucoside, ɣ-glutamyl-S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and methionine sulfoxide were found in black onion. These results indicate that OSCs and polyphenols are more bioaccessible in black onion than in fresh onion, indicating a positive effect of the processing treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Colon Bioaccessibility under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion of Different Coffee Brews Chemically Profiled through UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS
Foods 2021, 10(1), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010179 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 867
Abstract
Coffee represents one of the most traditionally consumed beverages worldwide, containing a broad range of human health–related compounds. According to previous studies, regular coffee consumption may display protective effects against colorectal cancer and other chronic diseases. The main goal of this research was [...] Read more.
Coffee represents one of the most traditionally consumed beverages worldwide, containing a broad range of human health–related compounds. According to previous studies, regular coffee consumption may display protective effects against colorectal cancer and other chronic diseases. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of phenolic content and variation in antioxidant capacity of three different types of coffee brews after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. This would allow to elucidate how antioxidant compounds present in coffee may exert their effect on the human body, especially in the colonic stage. Moreover, the content of bioactive compounds namely chlorogenic acids (CGAs, n = 11) and caffeine was also assessed throughout ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography followed by high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS). The three main isomers of caffeoylquinic acid constituted the highest fraction of CGAs present in the samples, accounting for 66.0% to 70.9% of total CGAs. The bioaccessibility of coffee polyphenols significantly increased in digested samples from 45.9% to 62.9% at the end of the colonic passage, compared to the non-digested samples. These results point to the colonic stage as the major biological site of action of the active antioxidant coffee compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
Article
In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Catabolism of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Pulp Polyphenols
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121836 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a fruit with sensorial attractiveness and extraordinary nutritional and phytochemical composition, is one of the most consumed tropical varieties in the world. A growing body of evidence suggests that their bioactive composition differentiates them from other fruits, with [...] Read more.
Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a fruit with sensorial attractiveness and extraordinary nutritional and phytochemical composition, is one of the most consumed tropical varieties in the world. A growing body of evidence suggests that their bioactive composition differentiates them from other fruits, with mango pulp being an especially rich and diverse source of polyphenols. In this study, mango pulp polyphenols were submitted to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation, and aliquots were analyzed by HPLC-HRMS. The main phenolic compounds identified in the mango pulp were hydroxybenzoic acid-hexoside, two mono-galloyl-glucoside isomers and vanillic acid. The release of total polyphenols increased after the in vitro digestion, with an overall bioaccessibility of 206.3%. Specifically, the most bioaccessible mango polyphenols were gallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid, two hydroxybenzoic acid hexosides, methyl gallate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acid, which potentially cross the small intestine reaching the colon for fermentation by the resident microbiota. After 48 h of fecal fermentation, the main resultant mango catabolites were pyrogallol, gallic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. This highlighted the extensive transformation of mango pulp polyphenols through the gastrointestinal tract and by the resident gut microbiota, with the resultant formation of mainly simple phenolics, which can be considered as biomarkers of the colonic metabolism of mango. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Bioaccessibility of Bioactive Compounds of ‘Fresh Garlic’ and ‘Black Garlic’ through In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1582; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111582 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Numerous studies have reported health benefits associated with the consumption of fresh and black garlic, which are characterized by the presence of polyphenols and organosulfur compounds (OS). This study aims to analyze the bioaccessibility of the bioactive compounds in fresh and black garlic [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have reported health benefits associated with the consumption of fresh and black garlic, which are characterized by the presence of polyphenols and organosulfur compounds (OS). This study aims to analyze the bioaccessibility of the bioactive compounds in fresh and black garlic after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion by monitoring the individual profile of these compounds by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Polyphenols decreased from the beginning of the digestive process, is mainly affected during intestinal digestion. Regarding the OS, the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine (SACs) derivatives were more influenced by the acidic conditions of the gastric digestion, while the γ-glutamyl-S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine (GSAk) derivatives were more susceptible to intestinal digestion conditions in both the fresh and black garlic samples. In conclusion, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the compounds with the highest bioaccessibility were vanillic acid (69%), caffeic acid (52%), γ−glutamyl-S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (GSMCS) (77%), and S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine (SAMC) (329%) in fresh garlic. Meanwhile, in black garlic, the main bioaccessible compounds were caffeic acid (65%), GSMCS (89%), methionine sulfoxide (262%), trans-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine (151%), and SAMC (106%). The treatment (heating + humidity) to obtain black garlic exerted a positive effect on the bioaccessibility of OS compounds, 55.3% of them remaining available in black garlic, but only 15% in fresh garlic. Polyphenols showed different behavior regarding bioaccessibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Characterization of Andean Blueberry in Bioactive Compounds, Evaluation of Biological Properties, and In Vitro Bioaccessibility
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101483 - 17 Oct 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1114
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate Andean blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth) from Ecuador as a potential functional ingredient for the food and pharmaceutical industries. The analysis of bioactive compounds by HPLC–DAD–MSn determined a high content of (poly)phenols, mainly anthocyanins, [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate Andean blueberries (Vaccinium floribundum Kunth) from Ecuador as a potential functional ingredient for the food and pharmaceutical industries. The analysis of bioactive compounds by HPLC–DAD–MSn determined a high content of (poly)phenols, mainly anthocyanins, and the presence of the carotenoid lutein. Regarding its biological properties, Andean blueberry did not show toxicity by the zebrafish embryogenesis test, showing also a lack of the antinutrients lectins. Moreover, the results of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity evaluation suggested its possibility to be used as natural antioxidant. This fruit also exhibited antimicrobial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in low doses. Finally, in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion showed a partial bioaccessibility of (poly) phenols (~50% at the final step), showing high antioxidant capacity in the different GI phases. These results revealed Andean blueberry as an interesting candidate for being used as a functional ingredient and the development of further in vivo and clinical assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Vitamin D Intake in a Population-Based Sample of Young Polish Women, Its Major Sources and the Possibility of Meeting the Recommendations
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101482 - 17 Oct 2020
Viewed by 756
Abstract
The recommendations of vitamin D intake are commonly not met, which results from the fact that fish, being its major sources, are commonly rarely consumed. Consequently, a reliable estimation of its habitual intake is also difficult, as its daily intake is highly variable. [...] Read more.
The recommendations of vitamin D intake are commonly not met, which results from the fact that fish, being its major sources, are commonly rarely consumed. Consequently, a reliable estimation of its habitual intake is also difficult, as its daily intake is highly variable. The aim of the study was to analyze vitamin D intake from food, its major sources and the possibility to meet its recommendations in a population-based sample of young Polish women. The study was conducted in a sample of Polish women aged 15–30 years, recruited in cooperation with local students’ and youth organizations from all regions of Poland (convenience sampling with the snowball effect), while the stratified sampling procedure was applied with a random quota sampling for voivodeships (an administrative subdivision), to obtain an adequate distribution regarding the general population of young Polish women (n = 1,032). The vitamin D intake was assessed while using the validated Vitamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire (VIDEO-FFQ) and was compared with the recommended 10 µg. The median vitamin D intake in the study group was 3.09 µg (0.00–24.52 µg) and in 95% of participants was lower than recommended, while the highest vitamin D intake was observed for the following sources: eggs (0.50 µg), meat and meat products (0.49 µg), herring, sardine and tuna products (0.41 µg) and dairy products (0.40 µg). The correlation between total vitamin D intake and its intake from its sources was strongest for eggs (p < 0.0001; R = 0.5989) and for herring, sardine and tuna products (p < 0.0001; R = 0.5314), while the correlation between total vitamin D intake and the number of servings was strongest for herring, sardine and tuna products (p < 0.0001; R = 0.5314). At the same time, while compared with other fish species, consuming herring was the strongest predictor of meeting the recommended vitamin D level of 10 µg (p = 0.0292; odds ratio (OR) = 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07–3.52), but also of 5 µg (p < 0.0001; OR = 2.54; 95% CI 1.85–3.47). Therefore, taking into account the relatively low prices of herring, its high vitamin D content, as well as its influence on total vitamin D intake, it could be beneficial to recommend young women to increase herring intake in order to increase dietary vitamin D intake and to meet its recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Tangerines Cultivated on Madeira Island—A High Throughput Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101470 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 673
Abstract
Tangerines (Citrus reticulata) are popular fruits worldwide, being rich in many bioactive metabolites. The setubalense variety cultivated on Madeira Island has an intense aroma easily distinguishable from other tangerines, being traditionally used to enrich several foods and beverages. Nonetheless, setubalense volatile [...] Read more.
Tangerines (Citrus reticulata) are popular fruits worldwide, being rich in many bioactive metabolites. The setubalense variety cultivated on Madeira Island has an intense aroma easily distinguishable from other tangerines, being traditionally used to enrich several foods and beverages. Nonetheless, setubalense volatile composition has never been characterized, and we aimed to unveil the bioactive potential of peels and juices of setubalense tangerines and compare them with the murcott variety grown in Portugal mainland. Using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS), we identified a total of 128 volatile organic metabolites (VOMs) in the juice and peels, with d-limonene, γ-terpinene, β-myrcene, α- and β-pinene, o-cymene, and terpinolene, the most dominant in both cultivars. In contrast, setubalense juices are richer in terpenes, many of them associated with health protection. Discriminant analysis revealed a pool of VOMs, including β-caryophyllene and E-ocimene, with bioactive properties able to differentiate among tangerines according to variety and sample type (peel vs. juice). This is the first report on the volatile composition of setubalense tangerines grown on Madeira Island revealing that its pungent aroma is constituted by secondary metabolites with specific aroma notes and health properties. This is strong evidence of the higher nutraceutical value of such fruit for the human diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
Green/Roasted Coffee May Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects by Decreasing Body Weight, Abdominal Adiposity and Blood Pressure
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091191 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 935
Abstract
In previous studies, after regularly consuming a green/roasted coffee blend, body weight, body fat%, glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin, leptin, ghrelin, diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly changed in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects. However, glucagon, total-cholesterol (T-C), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol [...] Read more.
In previous studies, after regularly consuming a green/roasted coffee blend, body weight, body fat%, glucose, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), resistin, leptin, ghrelin, diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly changed in healthy and hypercholesterolemic subjects. However, glucagon, total-cholesterol (T-C), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and Homeostasis Model Assessment index to estimate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) only changed in the hypercholesterolemics. This work looks into the antiobesity effects of coffee blend and into the relationship of antiobesity with the aforementioned cardiometabolic modifications in hypercholesterolemics. (1) Methods: Tricipital and subscapular skinfolds, hip, thigh, arm and waist circumference (WC) were measured in normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemics. To understand the relationship between cardiometabolic and antiobesity results in hypercholesterolemics, factor analysis was carried out using baseline values of the variables that changed. (2) Results: WC, WC/hip and WC/height showed significant coffee×group interaction, and in hypercholesterolemics tended to decrease. After factor analysis, three factors emerged, accounting for 29.46, 13.13 and 11.79% of variance. Only factor 1 (main loadings: WC, DBP and SBP, body weight, WC/hip and WC/height ratios, TG and ghrelin, inversely) decreased after coffee intake. (3) Conclusion: Regularly consuming green/roasted coffee may help to control body weight, and in hypercholesterolemics, may reduce cardiovascular risk by reducing abdominal adiposity and blood pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Article
The Human Microbial Metabolism of Quercetin in Different Formulations: An In Vitro Evaluation
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081121 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Quercetin is one of the main dietary flavonols, but its beneficial properties in disease prevention may be limited due to its scarce bioavailability. For this purpose, delivery systems have been designed to enhance both stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds. This study aimed [...] Read more.
Quercetin is one of the main dietary flavonols, but its beneficial properties in disease prevention may be limited due to its scarce bioavailability. For this purpose, delivery systems have been designed to enhance both stability and bioavailability of bioactive compounds. This study aimed at investigating the human microbial metabolism of quercetin derived from unformulated and phytosome-formulated quercetin through an in vitro model. Both ingredients were firstly characterized for their profile in native (poly)phenols, and then fermented with human fecal microbiota for 24 h. Quantification of microbial metabolites was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (uHPLC-MSn) analyses. Native quercetin, the main compound in both products, appeared less prone to microbial degradation in the phytosome-formulated version compared to the unformulated one during fecal incubation. Quercetin of both products was bioaccessible to colonic microbiota, resulting in the production of phenylpropanoic acid, phenylacetic acid and benzoic acid derivatives. The extent of the microbial metabolism of quercetin was higher in the unformulated ingredient, in a time-dependent manner. This study opened new perspectives to investigate the role of delivery systems on influencing the microbial metabolism of flavonols in the colonic environment, a pivotal step in the presumed bioactivity associated to their intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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Review

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Review
Potential Health Benefits of Plant Food-Derived Bioactive Components: An Overview
Foods 2021, 10(4), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040839 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
Plant foods are consumed worldwide due to their immense energy density and nutritive value. Their consumption has been following an increasing trend due to several metabolic disorders linked to non-vegetarian diets. In addition to their nutritive value, plant foods contain several bioactive constituents [...] Read more.
Plant foods are consumed worldwide due to their immense energy density and nutritive value. Their consumption has been following an increasing trend due to several metabolic disorders linked to non-vegetarian diets. In addition to their nutritive value, plant foods contain several bioactive constituents that have been shown to possess health-promoting properties. Plant-derived bioactive compounds, such as biologically active proteins, polyphenols, phytosterols, biogenic amines, carotenoids, etc., have been reported to be beneficial for human health, for instance in cases of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes, as well as for people with gut, immune function, and neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies have reported that bioactive components possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties, in addition to improving intestinal barrier functioning etc., which contribute to their ability to mitigate the pathological impact of various human diseases. This review describes the bioactive components derived from fruit, vegetables, cereals, and other plant sources with health promoting attributes, and the mechanisms responsible for the bioactive properties of some of these plant components. This review mainly compiles the potential of food derived bioactive compounds, providing information for researchers that may be valuable for devising future strategies such as choosing promising bioactive ingredients to make functional foods for various non-communicable disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
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