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Article

In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Catabolism of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Pulp Polyphenols

1
Department of Food Science and Health, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA), Alameda del Obispo, Avda. Menéndez-Pidal, s/n, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
2
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Córdoba, Campus Rabanales, Ed. Darwin-anexo, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121836
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 8 December 2020 / Published: 10 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Metabolism and Health Benefits of Bioactive Compounds in Foods)
Mango (Mangifera indica L.), a fruit with sensorial attractiveness and extraordinary nutritional and phytochemical composition, is one of the most consumed tropical varieties in the world. A growing body of evidence suggests that their bioactive composition differentiates them from other fruits, with mango pulp being an especially rich and diverse source of polyphenols. In this study, mango pulp polyphenols were submitted to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation, and aliquots were analyzed by HPLC-HRMS. The main phenolic compounds identified in the mango pulp were hydroxybenzoic acid-hexoside, two mono-galloyl-glucoside isomers and vanillic acid. The release of total polyphenols increased after the in vitro digestion, with an overall bioaccessibility of 206.3%. Specifically, the most bioaccessible mango polyphenols were gallic acid, 3-O-methylgallic acid, two hydroxybenzoic acid hexosides, methyl gallate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acid, which potentially cross the small intestine reaching the colon for fermentation by the resident microbiota. After 48 h of fecal fermentation, the main resultant mango catabolites were pyrogallol, gallic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. This highlighted the extensive transformation of mango pulp polyphenols through the gastrointestinal tract and by the resident gut microbiota, with the resultant formation of mainly simple phenolics, which can be considered as biomarkers of the colonic metabolism of mango. View Full-Text
Keywords: mango polyphenols; simulated in vitro digestion; bioaccessibility; fecal fermentation; degradation products; catabolic pathway mango polyphenols; simulated in vitro digestion; bioaccessibility; fecal fermentation; degradation products; catabolic pathway
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ordoñez-Díaz, J.L.; Moreno-Ortega, A.; Roldán-Guerra, F.J.; Ortíz-Somovilla, V.; Moreno-Rojas, J.M.; Pereira-Caro, G. In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Catabolism of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Pulp Polyphenols. Foods 2020, 9, 1836. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121836

AMA Style

Ordoñez-Díaz JL, Moreno-Ortega A, Roldán-Guerra FJ, Ortíz-Somovilla V, Moreno-Rojas JM, Pereira-Caro G. In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Catabolism of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Pulp Polyphenols. Foods. 2020; 9(12):1836. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121836

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ordoñez-Díaz, José L., Alicia Moreno-Ortega, Francisco J. Roldán-Guerra, Victor Ortíz-Somovilla, José M. Moreno-Rojas, and Gema Pereira-Caro. 2020. "In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion and Colonic Catabolism of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Pulp Polyphenols" Foods 9, no. 12: 1836. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121836

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