Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Process Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021) | Viewed by 38326

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Agrifood Industry and Food Quality, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA), Alameda del Obispo, Avda. Menéndez Pidal, SN, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: alcoholic beverages; volatile; phenolic; chromatographic techniques; aromatic quality
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agroindustry and Food Quality, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA), Avenida Menendez-Pidal, SN, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: food quality and traceability; specifically on the characterization of sensory; bioactive compounds of different food matrixes using several techniques (e.g., GC-MS/GC-FID, UHPLC-HRMS and EA(GC)-C-IRMS)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agrifood Industry and Food Quality, Andalusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA), Alameda del Obispo, Avda. Menéndez Pidal, SN, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
Interests: bioactive compounds in food; polyphenols; organosulfur compounds; LC-MS and GC-MS techniques; metabolomics; bioavailability; bioactivity; effect of processing on bioactive compounds
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phenolic compounds are secondary plant metabolites known for being one of the most important natural antioxidant sources for humans in the diet. These compounds have been shown to play important roles in long term health and reduction in the risk of chronic and degenerative diseases. Apart from the biological capacities shown by phenolics in in vivo and in vitro studies, they present protective effect against deterioration of foods and beverages because of their intrinsic nature as antioxidants. For all these reasons, the search for new sources of natural antioxidants, nutraceuticals and functional foods, have been the subject of study in recent years. However, such compounds are potentially vulnerable to different factors of plant processing (such as light, temperature, pH, oxygen, etc.) for obtaining different food and beverage products, and consequently, substantial modifications on their structure and concentration could occur leading to changes in their potential biological activities. In recent times, the effort to find plant processing methods, and techniques of stabilizing plant-base products that do not alter their phenolic content and therefore the antioxidant capacity and other biological activities, have also been of particular importance.

This special issue on “Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood products” seeks high quality works focus, on the one hand, on developing new functional food and nutraceutical products with high phenolic content and antioxidant potential, and on the other hand, on the impact that conventional and advanced food processing technologies [e.g. pulsed electric fields (PEF), pulsed-light (PL), ultraviolet (UV)-light; high pressure processing or high hydrostatic pressure (HPP/HHP); ultrasound; extrusion technology, etc.] have on the phenolic and bioactivity characteristics of industrial foods.

Dr. Raquel Rodríguez Solana
Prof. Dr. José Manuel Moreno-Rojas
Prof. Dr. Gema Pereira Caro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Phenolics
  • Antioxidant capacity
  • Functional foods
  • Plant foods
  • Food processing
  • Food preservation
  • Emerging technologies

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 214 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products
by Raquel Rodríguez-Solana, Gema Pereira-Caro and José Manuel Moreno-Rojas
Processes 2022, 10(10), 1950; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10101950 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 868
Abstract
Phenolic compounds are secondary plant metabolites known to be one of the most important sources of natural antioxidants in the human diet [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)

Research

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20 pages, 3175 KiB  
Article
Effects of Novel Extraction Strategies on the Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Associated Antioxidant Properties from Buckwheat Hull (Fagopyrum esculentum)
by Shaba Noore, Akanksha Joshi, Bibha Kumari, Ming Zhao, Colm O’Donnell and Brijesh Kumar Tiwari
Processes 2022, 10(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10020365 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2610
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of novel extraction technologies, including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pulsed electric field (PEF), high-pressure processing (HPP), enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), and conventional extraction, on the recovery of phenolic compounds and associated antioxidant properties from buckwheat hull ( [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of novel extraction technologies, including ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pulsed electric field (PEF), high-pressure processing (HPP), enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), and conventional extraction, on the recovery of phenolic compounds and associated antioxidant properties from buckwheat hull (Fagopyrum esculentum). Initially, twenty-four extraction strategies were investigated. Based on the results of the total phenolic content and antioxidant properties (DPPH and FRAP), twelve strategies (i.e., US (n = 2), PEF (n = 1), MW (n = 4), HPP (n = 4), and a control method) were selected for phenolic profiling carried out using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Forty-one phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts, and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was also carried out on the treated residues to analyze the surface damage post-treatments. The results showed that samples treated with US (16.14 ± 0.06), PEF (9.94 ± 0.02), MW (12.63 ± 0.13), and HPP (21.76 ± 0.78) contained the highest total phenolic content (mg GAE/100 mg of DW). In the case of the antioxidant activities, the highest DPPH activities were obtained using HPP, MAE, and UAE, while no clear pattern was recorded in the case of FRAP activities. The highest DPPH and FRAP activities observed were 80.91 ± 0.22% and 23.98 ± 0.2 mg Trolox equivalents/100 mg, respectively. Additionally, the LC-MS results identified eleven different groups of phenolic compounds in buckwheat hull extracts, including anthocyanin, flavanol, flavanones, flavones, flavonol, phenolic acids, isoflavones, lignans, and quinones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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14 pages, 2329 KiB  
Article
Biscuits Polyphenol Content Fortification through Herbs and Grape Seed Flour Addition
by Ondřej Král, Zdeňka Javůrková, Dani Dordevic, Matej Pospiech, Simona Jančíková, Kseniia Fursova and Bohuslava Tremlová
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1455; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081455 - 20 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2674
Abstract
The study aimed to verify whether the addition of selected herbs and spices will affect the content of polyphenols in biscuits and their antioxidant capacity, as well as what impact it will have on their sensory properties and attractiveness to consumers. Ground cloves, [...] Read more.
The study aimed to verify whether the addition of selected herbs and spices will affect the content of polyphenols in biscuits and their antioxidant capacity, as well as what impact it will have on their sensory properties and attractiveness to consumers. Ground cloves, cinnamon, mint, and grape flour were added to the biscuits in concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 10.0%. The total content of polyphenols in spices and biscuit samples was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteau solution and, subsequently, the antioxidant capacity was measured by FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition). Polyphenols were transferred through spices and herbs into the biscuits in all samples and thus their antioxidant capacity was increased. The antioxidant capacity of the control sample measured by the DPPH method was 15.41%, and by the FRAP method 1.02 μmol Trolox/g. There was an increase in antioxidant capacity in all samples with the addition of spices and herbs. The highest increase was recorded in the sample with cloves, namely with the addition of 10% of cloves there was an increase measured by the DPPH method to 92.6% and by the FRAP method to 208.42 μmol Trolox/g. This also corresponds to the measured TPC (Total Polyphenol Content) in the pure clove, which was 219.09 mg GAE/g, and in the samples where the content gradually grew up to 4.51 mg GAE/g in the sample with the addition of 10%, while the polyphenol content of the control sample was 0.2 mg GAE/g. For other parameters, changes were also observed, depending on the addition of spices/herbs. There was a reduction in both texture parameters, hardness and fracturability, depending on the addition of spices/herbs, which was confirmed by both instrumental measurements and sensory analysis. Colour measurements clearly separated the control from the fortified samples, thus confirming the colour changes. The addition of grape flour shows the smallest difference from the control when the overall impression does not change with the addition. In terms of the combination of increased antioxidant capacity and overall consumer acceptability, the addition of cloves at a concentration of 3.0% appears to be the best option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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14 pages, 881 KiB  
Article
Impact of Abiotic Stresses (Nitrogen Reduction and Salinity Conditions) on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Strawberries
by José L. Ordóñez-Díaz, Vanessa Cardeñosa, José M. Muñoz-Redondo, Federico Ferreres, Gema Pereira-Caro, Evangelina Medrano, José M. Moreno-Rojas and Diego A. Moreno
Processes 2021, 9(6), 1044; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9061044 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
This study evaluated the phenolic profile and the antioxidant capacity of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cv. Primoris) cultivated under reduction of nitrogen and adverse irrigation conditions (high salinity), such as those prevailing in Almeria (south-eastern Spain). The phenolic compound and anthocyanin [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the phenolic profile and the antioxidant capacity of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cv. Primoris) cultivated under reduction of nitrogen and adverse irrigation conditions (high salinity), such as those prevailing in Almeria (south-eastern Spain). The phenolic compound and anthocyanin profiles were analysed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn, and the antioxidant activity. Nineteen phenolic compounds were quantified, mainly ellagitannins, anthocyanins, and flavan-3-ols. The total phenolic content ranged from 731 to 1521 mg/100 g of dried weight. The flavan-3-ols group compounds from the strawberries were positively affected by saline stress, especially the afz-(e)Catechin content in the first sampling. The reduction of nitrogen and the adverse irrigation conditions for the cultivation of strawberries (cv. Primoris) partially affected the phenolic composition, with the harvesting dates having a greater influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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13 pages, 1480 KiB  
Article
Spray-Dried Formulations Rich in Malvidin from Tintorera Grape Wastes: Characterization, Stability, and Storage
by María Dolores López-Belchí, Esteban F. Caamaño, Guillermo Pascual, Felipe Noriega, Paulo Fierro-Morales, María Eugenia Romero-Román, Pamela Jara, Mauricio Schoebitz, Ignacio Serra and Diego A. Moreno
Processes 2021, 9(3), 518; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030518 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
This research was focused on developing means of Tintorera grape (Vitis vinifera L.) waste recovery, devising new value-added uses for that material and optimizing of anthocyanin-rich formulations by spray-drying in order to obtain novel ingredients, all for food industry use. First, the [...] Read more.
This research was focused on developing means of Tintorera grape (Vitis vinifera L.) waste recovery, devising new value-added uses for that material and optimizing of anthocyanin-rich formulations by spray-drying in order to obtain novel ingredients, all for food industry use. First, the identification of phenolic compounds in Tintorera grape extracts by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn enabled characterization of the raw material’s health-promoting characteristics. Maintaining the spray-dried products for 4 weeks’ storage enabled study of the formulation’s loss of anthocyanins and antioxidant properties due to drying process temperatures as well as analysis of the retention and stability of such compounds under different conditions (20 and 40 °C). Tintorera grapes presented a significant amount of Malvidin 3-O-hex (5.66 mg g−1 DW). Anthocyanins in spray-dried formulations were stable for 4 weeks. Optimal conditions in the spray-dryer facilitated the products’ antioxidant capacity; for instance, using 10% maltodextrin (w:v) at 90 °C inlet temperature had a little influence on the reduction in encapsulated malvidin 3-O-hex (15%) and presented 3.35 mg GAE g−1 DW of total polyphenol contents, 98.62 µmol Trolox (FRAP assay), and 39.97 µmol Trolox (DPPH assay). Principal component analyses (PCA) showed a high degree of dependence between anthocyanin content and maintenance of antioxidant capacity during storage. These results offer a promising alternative for the industrial management of wine-making wastes in order to implement a sustainable protocol for development of Tintorera grape extracts rich in bioactive compounds for new beverages and functional foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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20 pages, 1891 KiB  
Article
Toxicological and Epigenetic Studies of Two Types of Ale Beer, Tyrosol and Iso-Alpha Humulone
by Tania Merinas-Amo, Rocío Merinas-Amo, Rafael Font, Mercedes del Río Celestino and Ángeles Alonso-Moraga
Processes 2021, 9(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9030485 - 8 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2212
Abstract
Although many benefits drawn from beer consumption are claimed, the epidemiological records are contradictory with respect to cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible health-related activities involving genome safety and the ageing processes of two types of lyophilised [...] Read more.
Although many benefits drawn from beer consumption are claimed, the epidemiological records are contradictory with respect to cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible health-related activities involving genome safety and the ageing processes of two types of lyophilised ale beers (blond and stout), as well as two of their bioactive compounds (tyrosol and iso-alpha humulone). A multipurpose trial set of in vivo toxicity, antitoxicity, mutagenicity, antimutagenicity, lifespan and healthspan assays using Drosophila melanogaster were used. In parallel, several in vitro assays were designed using the cancer cell line HL-60 in order to establish the possible chemopreventive activity of the selected substances, where epigenetic modulation of DNA methylation changes, clastogenic activity and tumour cell inhibition growth were evaluated. The safety of the four substances was confirmed: lyophilised blond ale beer (LBAB), lyophilised stout ale beer (LSAB), tyrosol and iso-alpha humulone were neither toxic nor genotoxic. Moreover, all substances, except tyrosol, revealed the ability to protect individual genomes against oxidative radicals and to exert antimutagenic activity against the genotoxin hydrogen peroxide. With respect to the degenerative process indicators of lifespan and healthspan, tyrosol was the only compound that did not exert any influence on the life extension of Drosophila; LBAB induced a significant lifespan extension in D. melanogaster; LSAB and its distinctive compound iso-alpha humulone induced a reduction in longevity. The in vitro assays showed the cytotoxic activity of LBAB, LSAB and tyrosol against HL-60 cells. Moreover, proapoptotic DNA fragmentation or DNA strand breakage was observed for both types of beers and iso-alpha humulone at different concentrations. Furthermore, the lyophilised ale beers and tyrosol exhibited an increasing genome-wide methylation status, while iso-alpha humulone exhibited a demethylation status in repetitive cancer cell sequences. Although the biological activities assigned to beer consumption cannot be linked to any specific molecule/element due to the complexity of the phenolic profile, as well as the multifactor brewing process, the results obtained let us propose lyophilised ale beers as safe potential nutraceutical beverages when consumed in moderate amounts. The prevention of toxicity and genetic oxidative damage, as well as the induction of tumor cell death and modulation of the methylation status, are the key activities of beer that were shown in the present research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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20 pages, 2690 KiB  
Article
Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Moringa Leaves Grown in Spain Versus 28 Leaves Commonly Consumed in Pre-Packaged Salads
by Jaime González-Romero, Sandra Arranz-Arranz, Vito Verardo, Belén García-Villanova and Eduardo J. Guerra-Hernández
Processes 2020, 8(10), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8101297 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5658
Abstract
Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) evaluated by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ABTS, DPPH, and Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and total polyphenol content (TPC) by Folin–Ciocalteu were determined in Moringa oleifera leaves (MO) grown in Spain, and compared with 28 [...] Read more.
Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) evaluated by ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ABTS, DPPH, and Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and total polyphenol content (TPC) by Folin–Ciocalteu were determined in Moringa oleifera leaves (MO) grown in Spain, and compared with 28 different vegetable leaves pre-packaged for consumption as a salad. Total carotenoids, flavonoids, and chlorophylls were also determined in the samples with highest TAC. Two different extraction procedures were applied to obtain the methanolic fraction and the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions. The highest TAC and TPC contents were found in MO. High values were also found in red chicory, “lollo rosso”, and oak lettuce. The lowest TAC and TPC values were obtained in iceberg lettuce. The correlations between the extraction procedures and methods assayed were high and statistically significant. In the light of these results, we suggest the addition of MO to the existing range of fresh-cut salad foods would increase their antioxidant content by up to six times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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19 pages, 904 KiB  
Article
Effect of Rootstock and Harvesting Period on the Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Two Orange Cultivars (‘Salustiana’ and ‘Sanguinelli’) Widely Used in Juice Industry
by José L. Ordóñez-Díaz, Aurea Hervalejo, Gema Pereira-Caro, José M. Muñoz-Redondo, Estefanía Romero-Rodríguez, Francisco J. Arenas-Arenas and José M. Moreno-Rojas
Processes 2020, 8(10), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8101212 - 26 Sep 2020
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2982
Abstract
Oranges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with recognized benefits for human health. To guarantee high quality and production levels, citrus farms usually employ the combination of selected cultivars with well adapted rootstocks. This study analyzes the impact of four different citrus [...] Read more.
Oranges are a rich source of bioactive compounds with recognized benefits for human health. To guarantee high quality and production levels, citrus farms usually employ the combination of selected cultivars with well adapted rootstocks. This study analyzes the impact of four different citrus rootstocks (Forner-Alcaide no.5, ‘Cleopatra mandarin’, Citrus volkameriana and Carrizo citrange) on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of two orange cultivars (‘Salustiana’ and ‘Sanguinelli’) widely used in the orange juice industry. For the hydrophilic fraction, the phenolic compound, anthocyanin, and organic acid profiles were determined by HPLC-DAD-HRMS, and the antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, and ORAC assays. Besides, the total carotenoids and ABTS concentrations were calculated for the hydrophobic fraction. A set of three flavanones, one flavone, and eight anthocyanins were tentatively identified and quantified in the orange cultivars tested. The predominant phenolic compounds obtained in both orange cultivars were hesperidin and narirutin, while cyanidin-3-O-(6″-malonyl) glucoside followed by cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were the main anthocyanins found in the ‘Sanguinelli’ cultivar. Citric acid, followed by malic, oxalic, and ascorbic acids were the main organic acids. The higher amount of antioxidant compounds was found in fruit from the Forner-Alcaide no.5 rootstock. These results indicate that Forner-Alcaide n.5 affects positively the phenolic and organic acid composition and the antioxidant capacity of ‘Sanguinelli’ and ‘Salustiana’ cultivars, and is therefore a good option for the sector based on the healthy promoting properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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Review

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45 pages, 2846 KiB  
Review
Carob Pulp: A Nutritional and Functional By-Product Worldwide Spread in the Formulation of Different Food Products and Beverages. A Review
by Raquel Rodríguez-Solana, Anabela Romano and José Manuel Moreno-Rojas
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071146 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 7848
Abstract
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod is a characteristic fruit from the Mediterranean regions. It is composed by seeds, the valuable part due to the extraction of locust bean gum, and the pulp, considered a by-product of the fruit processing industry. Carob pulp [...] Read more.
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pod is a characteristic fruit from the Mediterranean regions. It is composed by seeds, the valuable part due to the extraction of locust bean gum, and the pulp, considered a by-product of the fruit processing industry. Carob pulp is a mixture of macro- and micronutrients, such as carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, and secondary metabolites with functional properties. In the last few years, numerous studies on the chemical and biological characteristics of the pulp have been performed to encourage its commercial use. Its potential applications as a nutraceutical ingredient in many recipes for food and beverage elaborations have been extensively evaluated. Another aspect highlighted in this work is the use of alternative processes or conditions to mitigate furanic production, recognized for its toxicity. Furthermore, carob pulp’s similar sensorial, chemical and biological properties to cocoa, the absence of the stimulating alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, as well as its low-fat content, make it a healthier potential substitute for cocoa. This paper reviews the nutritional and functional values of carob pulp-based products in order to provide information on the proclaimed health-promoting properties of this interesting by-product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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14 pages, 1748 KiB  
Review
Technologies and Extraction Methods of Polyphenolic Compounds Derived from Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peels. A Mini Review
by Dimitrios Lampakis, Prodromos Skenderidis and Stefanos Leontopoulos
Processes 2021, 9(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9020236 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 7151
Abstract
The interest in using plant by-product extracts as functional ingredients is continuously rising due to environmental and financial prospects. The development of new technologies has led to the achievement of aqueous extracts with high bioactivity that is preferable due to organic solvents nonuse. [...] Read more.
The interest in using plant by-product extracts as functional ingredients is continuously rising due to environmental and financial prospects. The development of new technologies has led to the achievement of aqueous extracts with high bioactivity that is preferable due to organic solvents nonuse. Recently, widely applied and emerging technologies, such as Simple Stirring, Pressure-Applied Extraction, Enzymatic Extraction, Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Pulsed Electric Fields, High Hydrostatic Pressure, Ohmic Heating, Microwave Assistant Extraction and the use of “green” solvents such as the deep eutectic solvents, have been investigated in order to contribute to the minimization of disadvantages on the extraction of bioactive compounds. This review is focused on bioactive compounds derived from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and highlighted the most attractive extraction methods. It is believed that these findings could be a useful tool for the pomegranate juices industry to apply an effective and economically viable extraction process, transforming a by-product to a high added value functional product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Profiling and Antioxidant Capacity in Agrifood Products)
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