Improving the Meat and Meat Products Quality of Rare Pork Breeds and Genetic Types

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 July 2023) | Viewed by 25569

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Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Campus de Santa Apolónia, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: meat science; meat quality; meat products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Department of Animal Science, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Interests: animal science; feed; meat; nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pork is the most consumed meat in many parts of the globe, especially in Asia, Europe and America. However, production has been focused on lean genotypes, while the breeds and genetic types that have a different body lipid deposition patterns have been scarcely studied in relation to their carcass grading, and the physical–chemical and sensory qualities of their meat and processed products (either cooked, dry-cured, and/or smoked, among others), some of which are of great consumption in traditional, ethnic and an integral part of the gastronomic culture of many regions. Likewise, these genotypes are gaining increased interest to produce niche pork with added credence attributes and economic value, thereby contributing to meet the sustainable development goals of the United Nations, related with the maintenance of genetic diversity in food production, and the current consumer demands. In this Special Issue, authors are invited to submit original research and review articles exploring new strategies to improve meat and meat products quality of non-standard pork.

Prof. Dr. Alfredo Jorge Costa Teixeira
Dr. Javier Álvarez-Rodríguez
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • carcass quality
  • body and carcass composition
  • meat quality
  • processed products
  • sensorial quality
  • healthy products

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 1433 KiB  
Article
Did the Addition of Olive Cakes Obtained by Different Methods of Oil Extraction in the Finishing Diet of Bísaro Pigs Affect the Volatile Compounds and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-Cured Loin and “Cachaço”?
by Ana Leite, Lia Vasconcelos, Iasmin Ferreira, Rubén Domínguez, Mirian Pateiro, Sandra Rodrigues, Etelvina Pereira, Paulo C. B. Campagnol, José Angel Pérez-Alvarez, José M. Lorenzo and Alfredo Teixeira
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2499; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132499 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
This study was conducted to determine the effects of different types of olive cake in the basal diet of Bísaro pigs on the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin and “cachaço”. A total of 40 Bísaro breed animals were allocated to [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of different types of olive cake in the basal diet of Bísaro pigs on the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin and “cachaço”. A total of 40 Bísaro breed animals were allocated to four treatments, along with a control group (T1—control, T2—crude olive cake, T3—centrifugation two phases, T4—exhausted, and T5—exhausted with 1% of olive). Various extraction methods (centrifugation, pressing, and exhaustion) were employed for the olive cake used. Furthermore, the extracted olive cake was supplemented with 1% olive oil. Eighty compounds were identified and grouped into eight chemical classes: hydrocarbons, aldehydes, esters, alcohols, ketones, acids, furans, and other compounds. Aldehydes and alcohols were the major groups of compounds, representing 57.06–66.07% and 68.67–75.61% for the loin and “cachaço”, respectively. There were no significant differences between treatments for any of the volatile compounds identified. The major aldehydes were hexanal, heptanal, pentanal, and propanal. These compounds were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in “cachaço”. This significant difference between the two types of dry-cured products was directly related to the amount of total fat content. The major alcohols were 2.3-butanediol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-butanol, 3-methyl, 1-hexanol, benzyl-alcohol, and glycidol. Except for compounds 2,3-butanediol and benzyl-alcohol, the majority in this group were significantly different in terms of the type of dry-cured product. As for the sensory evaluation, for both dry-cured products, the trained tasters did not detect significant differences between the different treatments. The results showed that the olive cake obtained by different methods of oil extraction did not negatively affect the sensory and volatile components of the processed meat products; thus, they maintained their appeal to the consumer. Full article
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12 pages, 20909 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Growth Performance, Pork Quality, and Body Composition in Mangalica Pigs
by Morgan M. Roberts, Stephanie D. Perkins, Brian L. Anderson, Jason T. Sawyer and Terry D. Brandebourg
Foods 2023, 12(3), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030554 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2700
Abstract
European heritage breeds, such as the Blonde (B), Red (R), and Swallow-bellied (SB) Mangalica pig, display an extreme propensity to fatten and are reputed to produce superior quality pork. This suggests that Mangalica pork should command a higher price, and the Mangalica is [...] Read more.
European heritage breeds, such as the Blonde (B), Red (R), and Swallow-bellied (SB) Mangalica pig, display an extreme propensity to fatten and are reputed to produce superior quality pork. This suggests that Mangalica pork should command a higher price, and the Mangalica is a candidate breed to target niche markets within the United States. Our objectives were to test this hypothesis by (1) directly comparing growth performance and carcass merit of purebred Yorkshire (Y), B, R, and SB Mangalica pigs to identify the best breed for adoption, and (2) comparing indices of pork quality in purebred R, Y, and crossbred (R × Y) pigs to determine if crossbreeding represented a viable alternative to the adoption of purebred Mangalica. Daily feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), and feed efficiency were highest in Y and lowest in SB pigs with B and R ranked intermediately (p < 0.001). Backfat thickness was greatest in B and lowest in Y with R and SB ranked intermediately (p < 0.001). Marbling score was greatest in R pigs and lowest in Y pigs with B and SB ranked intermediately (p < 0.01). In contrast, loin eye area (LEA) was greatest in Y pigs compared to B, R, and SB (p < 0.001). Indices of meat quality were then compared in R, R × Y, and Y pigs. Backfat thickness and marbling scores were greater in R than R × Y and Y pigs (p < 0.001) while LEA was greater in Y than R × Y and R pigs (p < 0.001). Loin and ham ultimate pH, color, and firmness scores were significantly greater in R than R × Y or Y pigs (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, cook loss was significantly less in R than Y pigs (p < 0.007) while Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBS) was not different in chops between groups (p < 0.11). These data indicate that though Mangalica exhibit poorer growth performance, Mangalica pork exhibits superior pork quality attributes, suggesting that higher price points for Mangalica pork in niche markets are justified. Full article
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14 pages, 2889 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Dietary Supplementation with Betaine Improves Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Intramuscular Fat Deposition in Growing-Finishing Pigs
by Runqi Fu, Hengzhi Zhang, Daiwen Chen, Gang Tian, Ping Zheng, Jun He, Jie Yu, Xiangbing Mao, Zhiqing Huang, Junning Pu, Wenwu Yang and Bing Yu
Foods 2023, 12(3), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12030494 - 20 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2315
Abstract
This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary betaine supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and muscle lipid metabolism of growing-finishing pigs. Thirty-six crossbred pigs weighing 24.68 ± 0.97 kg were randomly allotted into two treatments consisting of a basal diet [...] Read more.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary betaine supplementation on growth performance, meat quality and muscle lipid metabolism of growing-finishing pigs. Thirty-six crossbred pigs weighing 24.68 ± 0.97 kg were randomly allotted into two treatments consisting of a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 1200 mg/kg betaine. Each treatment included six replications of three pigs per pen. Following 119 days of feeding trial, dietary betaine supplementation significantly enhanced average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0.05) and tended to improve average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p = 0.08) and decreased the feed intake to gain ratio (F/G) (p = 0.09) in pigs during 100~125 kg. Furthermore, a tendency to increase ADG (p = 0.09) and finial body weight (p = 0.09) of pigs over the whole period was observed in the betaine diet group. Betaine supplementation significantly increased a*45 min and marbling and decreased b*24 h and cooking loss in longissimus lumborum (p < 0.05), tended to increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p = 0.08), however had no significant influence on carcass characteristics (p > 0.05). Betaine supplementation influenced the lipid metabolism of pigs, evidenced by a lower serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05), an up-regulation of mRNA abundance of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p < 0.05), and a down-regulation of mRNA abundance of lipolysis-related genes, including the silent information regulators of transcription 1 (p = 0.08), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα (p < 0.05), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (p = 0.07) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (p < 0.05) in longissimus lumborum. Moreover, betaine markedly improved the expression of microRNA-181a (miR-181a) (p < 0.05) and tended to enhance miR-370 (p = 0.08). Overall, betaine supplementation at 1200 mg/kg could increase the growth performance of growing-finishing pigs. Furthermore, betaine had a trend to improve meat quality and IMF content via increasing lipogenesis and down-regulating the abundance of genes associated with lipolysis, respectively, which was associated with the regulation of miR-181a and miR-370 expression by betaine. Full article
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8 pages, 240 KiB  
Communication
Determination of Optimal Harvest Weight for Mangalica Pigs Using a Serial Harvest Approach to Measure Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics
by Courtney E. Charlton, Maegan Reeves Pitts, Jack G. Rehm, Jason T. Sawyer and Terry D. Brandebourg
Foods 2022, 11(24), 3958; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11243958 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
Mangalica pigs are a popular niche breed given their reputation for superior pork quality. However, growth and carcass parameters for this breed are poorly documented. To better characterize optimal harvest weights for the Mangalica, a growth trial was conducted whereby pigs (n = [...] Read more.
Mangalica pigs are a popular niche breed given their reputation for superior pork quality. However, growth and carcass parameters for this breed are poorly documented. To better characterize optimal harvest weights for the Mangalica, a growth trial was conducted whereby pigs (n = 56) were randomly distributed across stratified harvest weights (50, 57, 68, 82, 93, 102, 127 kg) in a completely randomized design. Pigs were fed standard finisher rations with individual daily feed intakes and weekly body weights recorded for all animals. At 24 h postmortem, carcasses were split and ribbed with marbling and loin eye area (LEA) measured at the 10th rib. Primal cuts were fabricated and individually weighed. Fat back was separated from the loin and weighed. As expected, live weight significantly increased across the weight class (p < 0.0001). ADG was similar across classes up to 82 kg live weight, before steadily declining with increasing weight class (p < 0.0025). Likewise, feed efficiency did not differ between classes until weights heavier than 82 kg (p < 0.03). LEA significantly increased by class up to 82 kg and then plateaued as harvest weight increased further (p < 0.003). Marbling score significantly increased with increasing weight class up to 102 kg, where they then plateaued (p < 0.04). Fat back dramatically increased across all weight classes (p < 0.0001) despite negligible increases in LEA or marbling after 102 kg. Primal cut weights for the ham (p < 0.0001), loin (p < 0.0001), Boston butt (p < 0.0001), shoulder (p < 0.0001), and belly (p < 0.0001) all significantly increased with increasing live weight though significant fat deposition contributed to this gain. These data suggest an optimal harvest weight occurs between 82 to 102 kg, while offering little objective justification for harvesting Mangalica pigs at heavier live weights. Full article
15 pages, 3725 KiB  
Article
Integrated Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNA and mRNA to Reveal Putative Candidate Genes Associated with Backfat Quality in Beijing Black Pig
by Xin Liu, Weilong Tian, Ligang Wang, Longchao Zhang, Jing Liang and Lixian Wang
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3654; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223654 - 15 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Pigs’ backfat quality has an important impact on the quality of pork and pork products and has a strong relationship with nutrition and sensory characteristics. This study aimed to identify the related candidate genes of backfat quality and to preliminary clarify the molecular [...] Read more.
Pigs’ backfat quality has an important impact on the quality of pork and pork products and has a strong relationship with nutrition and sensory characteristics. This study aimed to identify the related candidate genes of backfat quality and to preliminary clarify the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying pig backfat quality phenotypes. Expression assessments of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and mRNA profiling in backfat from high-quality (firm and white) and low-quality (soft and yellow) Beijing Black pigs were performed by RNA sequencing. Significantly different expressions were observed in 610 protein-coding genes and 290 lncRNAs between the two groups. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway annotation showed that some candidate differentially expressed genes that participate in lipid-related pathways and pigmentation terms may play a role in backfat quality in pigs. The cis-target and trans-target genes were predicted to explore the regulatory function of lncRNAs, and integrative analyses of different expression lncRNAs targets and different expression genes were performed. The results showed the regulatory networks of lncRNA-mRNA related to backfat quality, and our study obtained strong candidate genes for backfat quality: ELOVL5, SCD, DGAT2, SLC24A5, and TYRP1, which were involved in fat metabolism, adipogenesis regulation, and pigmentation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the molecular genetic mechanisms of backfat quality in pigs, and these findings improve the current understanding of backfat quality mechanisms and provide a foundation for further studies. Full article
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15 pages, 808 KiB  
Article
Chemical, Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Nitrite-Free Dry-Cured Bísaro Shoulders
by Ana Leite, Lia Vasconcelos, Iasmin Ferreira, Ainhoa Sarmiento-García, Rubén Domínguez, Eva María Santos, Paulo C. B. Campagnol, Sandra Rodrigues, José M. Lorenzo and Alfredo Teixeira
Foods 2022, 11(19), 3079; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11193079 - 4 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
The aim of the current experiment was to characterize and evaluate the effect of the dry-curing process on chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and sensory characteristics of the dry-cured Bísaro shoulders. For this purpose, thirty-eight raw forelegs were used, and no nitrites were added [...] Read more.
The aim of the current experiment was to characterize and evaluate the effect of the dry-curing process on chemical composition, physicochemical properties, and sensory characteristics of the dry-cured Bísaro shoulders. For this purpose, thirty-eight raw forelegs were used, and no nitrites were added during the dry-curing process. This process increased protein, fat, ash content, and pH, with a decrease in moisture and water activity (p < 0.001). The dry-cured shoulders were darker (L*), less red (a*), and less yellow (b*) than the raw shoulders (p < 0.001), and this may be mainly due to the moisture reduction. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decreased during processing, whereas the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased (p < 0.001), which could be related with the oxidative degradation. The sensory analysis showed that dry-cured Bísaro shoulders presented similar organoleptic characteristics to other dry-cured meat products. Also, the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the dry-cured Bísaro shoulder showed results comparable to those of other cured products. This study revealed that it is possible to obtain safer and healthier dry-cured Bísaro shoulder products judging by these characteristics, since nitrites were not added in its preparation. These findings, along with the product’s high sensory attributes similar to more popular products such as ham, would give more advantage for its acceptability and market demand. Full article
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14 pages, 4441 KiB  
Article
A Combined Differential Proteome and Transcriptome Profiling of Fast- and Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscle in Pigs
by Wei Wei, Chengwan Zha, Aiwen Jiang, Zhe Chao, Liming Hou, Honglin Liu, Ruihua Huang and Wangjun Wu
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2842; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182842 - 14 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1733
Abstract
Skeletal muscle fiber types can contribute in part to affecting pork quality parameters. Biceps femoris (Bf) (fast muscle or white muscle) and Soleus (Sol) (slow muscle or red muscle) are two typical skeletal muscles characterized by obvious muscle fiber type differences in pigs. [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle fiber types can contribute in part to affecting pork quality parameters. Biceps femoris (Bf) (fast muscle or white muscle) and Soleus (Sol) (slow muscle or red muscle) are two typical skeletal muscles characterized by obvious muscle fiber type differences in pigs. However, the critical proteins and potential regulatory mechanisms regulating porcine skeletal muscle fibers have yet to be clearly defined. In this study, the isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteome was used to identify the key proteins affecting the skeletal muscle fiber types with Bf and Sol, by integrating the previous transcriptome data, while function enrichment analysis and a protein–protein interaction (PPI) network were utilized to explore the potential regulatory mechanisms of skeletal muscle fibers. A total of 126 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) between the Bf and Sol were identified, and 12 genes were found to be overlapping between differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and DAPs, which are the critical proteins regulating the formation of skeletal muscle fibers. Functional enrichment and PPI analysis showed that the DAPs were mainly involved in the skeletal-muscle-associated structural proteins, mitochondria and energy metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acid metabolism, and kinase activity, suggesting that PPI networks including DAPs are the main regulatory network affecting muscle fiber formation. Overall, these data provide valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the formation and conversion of muscle fiber types, and provide potential markers for the evaluation of meat quality. Full article
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12 pages, 1337 KiB  
Article
Processed Meat Characteristics between Commercial Duroc-Sired and Heritage Breed Large Black Pigs
by Yufei Guo, Katharine Sharp, Harvey Blackburn, Brian Richert, Kara Stewart and Stacy M. S. Zuelly
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152310 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
This study examined the meat processing characteristics between Duroc-sired (DS) and heritage breed Large Black (LB) pigs fed high forage (FIB) or commercial diets (CON). Fifty pigs (DS, n = 25; LB, n = 25) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial [...] Read more.
This study examined the meat processing characteristics between Duroc-sired (DS) and heritage breed Large Black (LB) pigs fed high forage (FIB) or commercial diets (CON). Fifty pigs (DS, n = 25; LB, n = 25) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design with breed and diet as fixed effects. Processing traits were measured for fresh bellies, bacon slices, and sausage patties. Results showed that DS bellies were longer (p < 0.001) but thinner (p = 0.026). CON bellies were longer (p = 0.005) and thicker (p < 0.001). LB bellies had decreased lean area (p < 0.001) and processing yield (p = 0.001). DS patties were lighter (L*, p < 0.001) and less red (a*, p < 0.001). LB had increased belly firmness (p = 0.053). The CON diet resulted in better particle definition (p = 0.010) in patties as well as a larger slice area (p = 0.048) in bacon slices. A breed × diet interaction was observed for lipid oxidation (p = 0.001). The findings provided novel insight into the comparison between these breeds and diets. While LB pork may have niche market value, the integration of this breed into commercial bacon processing has limitations in composition that need to be further evaluated to improve the product desirability. Full article
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18 pages, 1859 KiB  
Article
Can the Introduction of Different Olive Cakes Affect the Carcass, Meat and Fat Quality of Bísaro Pork?
by Ana Leite, Rubén Domínguez, Lia Vasconcelos, Iasmin Ferreira, Etelvina Pereira, Victor Pinheiro, Divanildo Outor-Monteiro, Sandra Rodrigues, José Manuel Lorenzo, Eva María Santos, Silvina Cecilia Andrés, Paulo C. B. Campagnol and Alfredo Teixeira
Foods 2022, 11(11), 1650; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11111650 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2863
Abstract
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different olive cakes in the diet of Bísaro pigs on the carcass, meat and fat. The carcasses of 40 animals fed a diet with five treatments (T1—Basic diet and commercial feed; [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different olive cakes in the diet of Bísaro pigs on the carcass, meat and fat. The carcasses of 40 animals fed a diet with five treatments (T1—Basic diet and commercial feed; T2—Basic diet + 10% crude olive cake; T3—Basic diet + 10% olive cake, two phases; T4—Basic diet + 10% exhausted olive cake; T5—Basic diet + 10% exhausted olive cake + 1% olive oil) were used to study the effect on carcass traits, physicochemical meat quality and lipid composition of meat and backfat. There were no significant differences between treatments for the conformation measurements performed, except for the length at the seventh and last rib (p < 0.05). The percentage of prime cuts of the carcass in Bísaro pig is within the values indicated by the Portuguese Standard 2931. No significant differences between treatments for body weight, pH and carcass weight were found. The values of ultimate pH (5.7), L* (51–52), b* (11–12) and SF (3.4–4.2) observed confirm a non-exudative and firm meat without quality deviations, such as DFD or PSE. Thus, as a general conclusion, the inclusion of different olive cakes in the diet of Bísaro pigs did not cause any negative consequences on the carcass characteristics and conformation as well as in the meat and lipidic quality. In addition, the inclusion of this olive industry by-product in the animal diet would be an important contribution to solving the problem of the great environmental impact from olive-mill wastewaters from the extractive industries. Full article
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13 pages, 2054 KiB  
Article
Qualitative Attributes of Commercial Pig Meat from an Italian Native Breed: The Nero d’Abruzzo
by Andrea Ianni, Francesca Bennato, Camillo Martino, Maurizio Odoardi, Agostino Sacchetti and Giuseppe Martino
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1297; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091297 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1842
Abstract
The main objective of this study was to characterize the main qualitative properties of commercial meat obtained from the Nero d’Abruzzo pig, a native breed of Central Italy. In order to valorize this animal production, a direct comparison was made with commercial meat [...] Read more.
The main objective of this study was to characterize the main qualitative properties of commercial meat obtained from the Nero d’Abruzzo pig, a native breed of Central Italy. In order to valorize this animal production, a direct comparison was made with commercial meat products obtained from hybrid pigs. Over a period of 30 days, 76 steaks for each breed were purchased from the market, and samples were analyzed for total lipid content, fatty acids profile, Coenzyme Q10 content, resistance of meat to oxidative processes, volatile profile of cooked meat and electrophoretic profile of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Results showed the Nero d’Abruzzo to be richer in fat, which, however, is characterized by a higher concentration of α-linolenic acid, to which are attributed important health benefits. The native breed was also richer in Coenzyme Q10, a compound credited with antioxidant potential, whose presence could explain the better oxidative stability of meat samples that were cooked and stored for up to 7 days at +4 °C. In support of this last data, our finding of the characterization of the volatile profile of cooked meat, at the end of the storage period, showed in Nero d’Abruzzo a reduction in the accumulation of hexanal, notoriously associated with oxidative events and the development of unpleasant aromatic notes. In conclusion, aspects that can justify the nutritional superiority of this niche production compared to meat coming from cosmopolitan breeds have been identified. Full article
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14 pages, 2988 KiB  
Article
Myostatin Alteration in Pigs Enhances the Deposition of Long-Chain Unsaturated Fatty Acids in Subcutaneous Fat
by Yangli Pei, Yuxin Song, Zheng Feng, Hua Li, Yulian Mu, Saif ur Rehman, Qingyou Liu and Kui Li
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1286; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091286 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
In animals, myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator that inhibits muscle growth and repair. The decreased level of functional MSTN gene expression can change the amount and proportions of fats in pigs. In this study we determined the lipidomics of subcutaneous [...] Read more.
In animals, myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator that inhibits muscle growth and repair. The decreased level of functional MSTN gene expression can change the amount and proportions of fats in pigs. In this study we determined the lipidomics of subcutaneous fat in MSTN single copy mutant pigs and evaluated the variations in lipid contents of the subcutaneous fat from MSTN+/− and wild type Large White (LW) pigs via ultra-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole/Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (MS). The results showed that the quantities of glycerolipids, sphingolipids, fatty acyls and glycerophospholipids were significantly changed, particularly, the molecular diacylglycerol in glycerolipids, long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, and ceramide non-hydroxy fatty acid-sphingosine in sphingolipids were remarkably increased in the MSTN+/− group. Due to their positive bioavailability demonstrated by previous researches, these three lipids might be beneficial for human health. Further, the results of our study confirm that MSTN participates in the regulation of fat metabolism, and reduced expression of MSTN can ultimately influence the accumulation of lipid contents in the subcutaneous fat of pigs. Full article
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15 pages, 858 KiB  
Article
Improvement of Intramuscular Fat in longissimus Muscle of Finishing Thai Crossbred Black Pigs by Perilla Cake Supplementation in a Low-Lysine Diet
by Korawan Sringarm, Niraporn Chaiwang, Watcharapong Wattanakul, Prapas Mahinchai, Apinya Satsook, Rakkiat Norkeaw, Mintra Seel-audom, Tossapol Moonmanee, Supamit Mekchay, Sarana Rose Sommano, Warintorn Ruksiriwanich, Pornchai Rachtanapun, Kittisak Jantanasakulwong and Chaiwat Arjin
Foods 2022, 11(7), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11070907 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2343
Abstract
This study was conducted to find out the effects of perilla cake (PC) supplementation in a low-lysine diet on Thai crossbred finishing pigs’ productivity, carcass and meat quality, and fatty acid composition. For six weeks, a total of 21 barrows of finishing pigs [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to find out the effects of perilla cake (PC) supplementation in a low-lysine diet on Thai crossbred finishing pigs’ productivity, carcass and meat quality, and fatty acid composition. For six weeks, a total of 21 barrows of finishing pigs were fed with three dietary treatments (T1: basal diet, T2: 2.5 percent PC supplementation in a low-lysine diet, and T3: 4.5 percent PC supplementation in a low-lysine diet). The results show that the intramuscular fat and marbling score was significantly increased by T2 and T3. On the other hand, it was found that the boiling loss and shear force value were significantly decreased by T2 and T3 (p < 0.05). In a low-lysine diet, dietary PC supplementation caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels in meat (p < 0.05) compared with the basal diet. It was also shown that alpha-linolenic acid level in backfat and the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle was increased considerably by T2 and T3. Therefore, supplementing PC in a low-lysine diet may be an alternative strategy for improving the meat quality of late-phase pigs. Full article
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