Fruits and Vegetables: Recent Advances in Sustainable Extraction and Processing Technologies

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2024) | Viewed by 12035

Special Issue Editors


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Faculty of Food Technology & Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: food science and technology; food processing and engineering; food preservation; food chemistry; green extraction; functional foods; 3D printing

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Guest Editor
University of Novi Sad, Institute of Technology, Blvd. Cara Lazara 1, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia
Interests: functional food; bioactive compounds; green extraction techniques; natural products; food chemistry; food by-products
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Department of Food Technology, University North, Trg dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
Interests: general statistics; research methodology; experimental design; mathematical modeling; multivariate analysis; novel food processing and extraction technologies
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a growing interest in healthier dieting that is expected to continue in future. Fruits and vegetables are valuable sources of various bioactive compounds that are believed to have many health-promoting effects. They are not only consumed fresh, but also widely subjected to industrial processing and preservation to extend their shelf life. Various thermal and non-thermal technologies, combined or individual (as in the hurdle concept), are now used in the processing and preservation of fruits and vegetables and their products. To that end, sustainable technologies with lower environmental impacts that can warrant good efficiency compared to conventional technologies are subjects of intensive research interest. Fruit and vegetable by-products remaining after processing (e.g., peels, skins and seeds) represent a low-cost material potentially rich in functional ingredients that could be useful for the food industry. Consequently, concentrated work is being conducted on new extraction technologies to improve the yield and functionality of the obtained extracts. Particular attention has been paid to natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) as a means of extracting and improving the bioavailability of bioactives from fruit and vegetable by-products.

The contributions to this Special Issue will cover all research aspects related to sustainable extraction and processing technologies for fruits and vegetables and their by-products, with respect to the production of functional foods and additives.

Dr. Danijela Bursać Kovačević
Prof. Dr. Branimir Pavlic
Dr. Aleksandra Mišan
Prof. Dr. Predrag Putnik 
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • fruits and vegetables
  • fruit and vegetable by-products
  • extraction of bioactive compounds
  • advanced processing technologies (ultrasound, plasma, PEF)
  • sustainability
  • functional foods and additives

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1633 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Lipid Extracts from Different Colors of Peach Palm Fruits—Red, Yellow, Green, and White—Obtained through Ultrasound-Assisted Green Extraction
by Mayara Priscila Lima dos Santos, Orquídea Vasconcelos dos Santos, Leyvison Rafael Vieira da Conceição, Barbara Elisabeth Teixeira-Costa, Lúcia de Fátima Henriques Lourenço and Consuelo Lucia Lima de Sousa
Foods 2024, 13(10), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13101475 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 666
Abstract
This study represents a pioneering investigation and comparative analysis of lipid extracts from four different colors of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunt) fruits—red, yellow, green, and white—by employing a green method based on ethanolic ultrasound-assisted extraction. This study examined the extraction yield, [...] Read more.
This study represents a pioneering investigation and comparative analysis of lipid extracts from four different colors of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunt) fruits—red, yellow, green, and white—by employing a green method based on ethanolic ultrasound-assisted extraction. This study examined the extraction yield, physico-chemical-quality attributes, chromatographic profiles (GC), color measurements, total carotenoid content, differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTA), and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained lipid extracts displayed a high quality, considering the physico-chemical parameters of the Codex Alimentarius, and a fatty acids profile characterized by unsaturated fatty acids, notably omegas (ω-3, ω-6, and ω-9). The indices of atherogenicity (A.I.), thrombogenicity (I.T.), and hypocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic ratios revealed superior outcomes for the red peach palm lipid extract (approximately 0.35, 0.52, and 2.75, respectively), along with higher levels of β-carotene (748.36 µg of β-carotene per 100 g−1 of lipid extract) compared to the yellow, green, and white counterparts. Consequently, this research successfully demonstrates the efficacy of using a green extraction method in preserving the lipid’s quality, which can display cardiovascular functionality and thermal stability. These findings underscore the considerable potential of peach palm lipid extract as a valuable raw material for diverse industrial applications across various sectors. The results support its utilization in the production of functional food products and nutraceuticals due to its favorable fatty acid composition, potent antioxidant properties exhibited by its high β-carotene content, and notable cardiovascular functionality indices. Full article
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19 pages, 1782 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant Capacity, Nitrite and Nitrate Content in Beetroot-Based Dietary Supplements
by Joanna Brzezińska-Rojek, Svitlana Sagatovych, Paulina Malinowska, Kamila Gadaj, Magdalena Prokopowicz and Małgorzata Grembecka
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051017 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4341
Abstract
Due to the high content of bioactive substances, beetroot and its preserves might be a valuable constituent of a diet. Research into the antioxidant capacity and content of nitrate (III) and (V) in beetroot-based dietary supplements (DSs) worldwide is limited. The Folin–Ciocalteu method, [...] Read more.
Due to the high content of bioactive substances, beetroot and its preserves might be a valuable constituent of a diet. Research into the antioxidant capacity and content of nitrate (III) and (V) in beetroot-based dietary supplements (DSs) worldwide is limited. The Folin–Ciocalteu method, CUPRAC, DPPH, and Griess methods were used to determine total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, nitrites, and nitrates content in fifty DSs and twenty beetroot samples. Moreover, the safety of products was evaluated because of the concentration of nitrites, nitrates, and the correctness of labelling. The research showed that a serving of fresh beetroot provides significantly more antioxidants, nitrites, and nitrates than most daily portions of DSs. Product P9 provided the highest dose of nitrates (169 mg/daily dose). However, in most cases, the consumption of DSs would be associated with a low health value. The acceptable daily intake was not exceeded in the cases of nitrites (0.0015–0.55%) and nitrates (0.056–48%), assuming that the supplementation followed the manufacturer’s recommendation. According to European and Polish regulations, 64% of the products tested did not meet all the requirements for labelling food packaging. The findings point to the need for tighter regulation of DSs, as their consumption might be dangerous. Full article
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18 pages, 347 KiB  
Article
Isolation of Cherry Seed Oil Using Conventional Techniques and Supercritical Fluid Extraction
by Ivana Dimić, Branimir Pavlić, Slađana Rakita, Aleksandra Cvetanović Kljakić, Zoran Zeković and Nemanja Teslić
Foods 2023, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12010011 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
This study aims to compare the suitability of three extraction techniques (cold pressing, Soxhlet and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)) to isolate oil from cherry seeds. Oils were examined in terms of extraction yield, fatty acids profile, tocopherols yield and antioxidant activity. Additionally, influence [...] Read more.
This study aims to compare the suitability of three extraction techniques (cold pressing, Soxhlet and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE)) to isolate oil from cherry seeds. Oils were examined in terms of extraction yield, fatty acids profile, tocopherols yield and antioxidant activity. Additionally, influence of SFE parameters was evaluated using one-factor-at-a-time design with pressure (200–350 bar), temperature (40–70 °C), flow rate (0.2–0.4 kg/h) and particle size (<800 µm and >800 µm). Oil yields ranged from 2.50% to 13.02%, whereas the highest yield was achieved with SFE. Samples were rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, regardless of the applied extraction technique. The main fatty acids were linoleic (46.32–47.29%), oleic (40.89–41.65%), palmitic (6.56–8.00%) and stearic (2.21–2.30%) acid. Total tocopherols yield was between 16.63 mg/100 g oil and 60.61 mg/100 g oil, and highest yield was achieved with SFE. Among the tocopherols, γ-tocopherol was the most abundant, followed by α-, δ- and β-tocopherol. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) cation (ABTS) assays, and the results indicated that SFE extracts exhibited better or comparable antioxidant potential compared to traditional techniques. The comparison between modern and conventional extractions for oil recovery demonstrates pros and cons for the possibility of industrial application. Full article

Review

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27 pages, 1060 KiB  
Review
Fruit-Based Fermented Beverages: Contamination Sources and Emerging Technologies Applied to Assure Their Safety
by Alexandra Costina Avîrvarei, Liana Claudia Salanță, Carmen Rodica Pop, Elena Mudura, Antonella Pasqualone, Ofelia Anjos, Natalia Barboza, Jessie Usaga, Cosmin Pompei Dărab, Cristina Burja-Udrea, Haifeng Zhao, Anca Corina Fărcaș and Teodora Emilia Coldea
Foods 2023, 12(4), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12040838 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4105
Abstract
The food and beverage market has become broader due to globalization and consumer claims. Under the umbrella of consumer demands, legislation, nutritional status, and sustainability, the importance of food and beverage safety must be decisive. A significant sector of food production is related [...] Read more.
The food and beverage market has become broader due to globalization and consumer claims. Under the umbrella of consumer demands, legislation, nutritional status, and sustainability, the importance of food and beverage safety must be decisive. A significant sector of food production is related to ensuring fruit and vegetable conservation and utilization through fermentation. In this respect, in this review, we critically analyzed the scientific literature regarding the presence of chemical, microbiological and physical hazards in fruit-based fermented beverages. Furthermore, the potential formation of toxic compounds during processing is also discussed. In managing the risks, biological, physical, and chemical techniques can reduce or eliminate any contaminant from fruit-based fermented beverages. Some of these techniques belong to the technological flow of obtaining the beverages (i.e., mycotoxins bound by microorganisms used in fermentation) or are explicitly applied for a specific risk reduction (i.e., mycotoxin oxidation by ozone). Providing manufacturers with information on potential hazards that could jeopardize the safety of fermented fruit-based drinks and strategies to lower or eliminate these hazards is of paramount importance. Full article
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