Special Issue "Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products"

A special issue of Separations (ISSN 2297-8739).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Monica Gallo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini, 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: antioxidants; bioactive compounds; biological fluids; diet; disease prevention; extraction techniques; food; functional foods; health; macro- and micronutrients; nutraceuticals; phytochemicals
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Scientific research has identified a wide variety of substances, almost all of plant origin commonly taken with the diet, which can positively influence health and, thus, contribute to the prevention of diseases. These compounds, called bioactives, are not nutrients in the classical sense, that is to say they are able to develop, grow and maintain a human organism, but they can be defined as substances capable of modulating numerous biological activities and important functions of the organism. The attention shown by the researchers for these compounds and the interesting and promising data that emerge from the research carried out deserves further investigation to clarify the role on health. All this also in relation to the fact that the knowledge of the specific functions of these compounds is accompanied by the development of the so-called "functional foods", for which consumers seem to show great interest. Furthermore, an added value is represented by the extraction of bioactive compounds from waste material obtained from the working processes of the agro-food industry which represents a system to reduce the environmental impact through the recovery and reuse of waste, encouraging the implementation of a full circular economy. In the food sector, greater attention has been paid to food production processes, with a constant search for new technologies with the aim of improving production efficiency, guaranteeing greater safety and quality, and enabling the reduction of energy costs.

Interests: In many industrial processes, the initial phase of preparing a product requires the application of extraction techniques to isolate the extractable material contained in the most varied matrices. Therefore, innovative research into extraction techniques, particularly green ones, for the isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds from different matrices for the formulation of food rather than nutraceuticals, supplements, cosmetics and so on, are of great interest. Furthermore, for the identification of bioactive compounds chromatographic techniques are used that include traditional detectors, such as UV/Vis, but also more advanced methods based on mass spectrometry and NMR.

Dr. Monica Gallo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords


  • Beneficial effects 
  • Bioactives compounds 
  • Eco-friendly 
  • Functional foods 
  • Green extraction
  • Health 
  • Mass Spectrometry 
  • NMR 
  • Recycling 
  • Waste material

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Improved Renoprotection in Diabetes with Combination Therapy of Coccinia indica Leaf Extract and Low-Dose Pioglitazone
Separations 2020, 7(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7040058 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Background: The metabolic changes associated with diabetes can lead to nephropathy eventually resulting in end-stage renal disease. Current antidiabetic therapies do not effectively prevent the onset of diabetic kidney diseases as well as progression. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Coccinia indica leaf [...] Read more.
Background: The metabolic changes associated with diabetes can lead to nephropathy eventually resulting in end-stage renal disease. Current antidiabetic therapies do not effectively prevent the onset of diabetic kidney diseases as well as progression. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Coccinia indica leaf extract alone and in combination with pioglitazone, an antihyperglycemic agent was used to modulate the progressive kidney damage induced by type 2 diabetes in rats. Hypotheses: Pioglitazone causes severe adverse effects when administered for long-term therapy. The hypotheses in this study is to examine the renoprotective effect of Coccinia indica leaf extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) when co-administered with low-dose pioglitazone (7 mg/kg) in type-2-diabetes-induced nephropathy in rats and simultaneously evaluate the hypoglycemic response as well. Methods: Rats (Males, Sprague Dawley) were kept on a high-fat diet and were given a single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce diabetic nephropathy. Treatment groups received either Coccinia indica leaf extract or pioglitazone or pioglitazone with Coccinia indica extract, fenofibrate, or lisinopril for 7 weeks. Blood glucose, antioxidant status, triglycerides, total cholesterol, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and proteinuria levels were estimated and compared with the normal control and disease control (untreated) groups. Results: The untreated diabetic rats showed increased blood glucose levels, lipid profiles, and renal oxidative stress, along with an increase in nephropathy markers such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and proteinuria. Histopathological examination revealed glomerular damage. Combination treatment with Coccinia indica leaf extract and a low dose of pioglitazone normalized the nephropathic markers as well as histopathological changes. Conclusion: Coccinia indica leaf extract when co-administered with a low dose of pioglitazone as antidiabetic therapy showed good glycemic control and a beneficial renoprotective effect. Combination therapy would lower the dose of pioglitazone and also protect kidneys from drug-induced toxicity as observed from normalized nephropathic markers in a diabetic rat model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
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Article
Extraction, Quantification, and Cytokine Inhibitory Response of Bakuchiol in Psoralea coryfolia Linn.
Separations 2020, 7(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7030048 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
(1) Background: The present investigation studies the optimization of extraction, quantification, and cytokine inhibitory effects bakuchiol (BKL) in Psoralea coryfolia Linn. (2) Methods: The seeds of Psoralea coryfolia cleaned, dried, and powdered. Different separation methods maceration, reflux, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The present investigation studies the optimization of extraction, quantification, and cytokine inhibitory effects bakuchiol (BKL) in Psoralea coryfolia Linn. (2) Methods: The seeds of Psoralea coryfolia cleaned, dried, and powdered. Different separation methods maceration, reflux, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) were employed for the isolation of BKL by five pure solvents. The quantity of BKL was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine the highest yield percentage. The effect of optimized BKL was then tested in an animal model of sepsis induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). (3) Results: The UAE method was found to be the best among tested separation methods and yielded highest percentage of BKL in petroleum ether extract. Septic rats showed a significant elevation in levels of biochemical markers like AST, ALT, ALP, BIL, SCr, and BUN in plasma. Proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1) levels were also increased in LPS-induced animals. BKL has been found to significantly reverse these elevated levels as compared to the LPS-induced animals. (4) Conclusion: The present results suggest that BKL has positive effects when administered in animals with pathogenic shock by decreasing the circulating levels of biomarkers. Further studies are necessary to explore the clinical implications of such findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
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Article
Pigments Content (Chlorophylls, Fucoxanthin and Phycobiliproteins) of Different Commercial Dried Algae
Separations 2020, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7020033 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2609
Abstract
Algae are a complex, polyphyletic group of organisms, affordable and naturally rich in nutrients, but also valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive substances such as natural pigments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the polar and non-polar pigment contents of different [...] Read more.
Algae are a complex, polyphyletic group of organisms, affordable and naturally rich in nutrients, but also valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive substances such as natural pigments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the polar and non-polar pigment contents of different commercial dried algae (brown: Himanthalia elongata, Undaria pinnatifida, Laminaria ochroleuca; red: Porphyra spp.; and a blue-green microalga: Spirulina spp.). The pigment extraction was carried out using different solvents (100% methanol, 100% methanol acid free, 100% ethanol, 90% acetone, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide-water (4:1, v/v) and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), selected according to their affinity for each class of pigments. Acetone proved to be an efficient solvent to extract chlorophylls from brown and red algae, but not from Spirulina spp. Porphyra spp. presented considerably higher levels of all pigments compared to brown algae, although Spirulina spp. presented significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids and phycobiliproteins, compared to all macroalgae. The content of fucoxanthin extracted from the three brown algae was highly correlated to the carotenoid content. Within this group, Himanthalia elongata presented the highest fucoxanthin/total carotenoids ratio. Although the yield of extraction depended on the solvent used, the algae studied herein are an interesting source of pigments of great value for a wide range of applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
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Article
Study of the Kinetics of Extraction Process for The Production of Hemp Inflorescences Extracts by Means of Conventional Maceration (CM) and Rapid Solid-Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE)
Separations 2020, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations7020020 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2145
Abstract
In the present work, the kinetics of the extraction process from female inflorescences of Canapa sativa subsp. sativa var. sativa were studied, on the basis of determination of the content of cannabinoids: cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), [...] Read more.
In the present work, the kinetics of the extraction process from female inflorescences of Canapa sativa subsp. sativa var. sativa were studied, on the basis of determination of the content of cannabinoids: cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), before and after decarboxylation in the oven, in order to evaluate the possible use of the hemp extract obtained in the food sector. Therefore, both conventional maceration (CM) and rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE), also known as cyclically pressurized extraction (CPE), were carried out, using parts of the plant approximately of the same size. The alcoholic extracts thus obtained were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in order to calculate the percentages of cannabinoids present in the inflorescences and thus be able to evaluate the degree of decarboxylation. Furthermore, the extracts were dried to calculate the percentage of solid material present in it, that was made mainly by cannabinoids. The amount of substance extracted from the inflorescences was about 10% (w/w), for both cases considered. Therefore, the extraction yield was the same in the two cases examined and the final qualities were almost identical. However, the extraction times were significantly different. In fact, the maceration of hemp inflorescences in ethyl alcohol was completed in no less than 24 h, while with the RSLDE the extraction was completed in only 4 h. Finally, for a better understanding of the extraction process with cyclically pressurized extraction, a numerical simulation was carried out which allowed to better evaluate the influence of extractive parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
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Article
Fatty Acids from Paracentrotus lividus Sea Urchin Shells Obtained via Rapid Solid Liquid Dynamic Extraction (RSLDE)
Separations 2019, 6(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6040050 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Sea urchins (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) are good a source of bioactive compounds belonging to different classes of natural substances. The edible Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus is a renowned animal model for study in different fields of biology, but it is intensively harvested for [...] Read more.
Sea urchins (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) are good a source of bioactive compounds belonging to different classes of natural substances. The edible Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus is a renowned animal model for study in different fields of biology, but it is intensively harvested for high commercial value due to the delicacy of its gonads. Most studies have focused on the composition and the nutritional value of P. lividus gonads (the edible part), but little interest has been taken in the other body parts, such as the shells and spines, which are generally considered waste material. The purpose of this study was to obtain an extract from sea urchin shells, with a green methodology of extraction, and to characterize the lipophilic components for potential applications. The shells of P. lividus were extracted via a very well performing technology based on rapid solid liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE) implemented via an automated device (Naviglio Extractor®). The obtained extract shows the presence of fatty acids and their esters (methyl, ethyl and 1-glycerol esters). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements were used to determine fatty acid abundance in the chromatographic fractions of the extract. Arachidonic acid (ARA), 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), and 11-eicosenoic acids and their esters are the most abundant components. The presence of many polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the extract, even in low percentages allows a future application in nutrition or medical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
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Article
Zerumbone and Kaempferol Derivatives from the Rhizomes of Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr. from Bangladesh
Separations 2019, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6020031 - 17 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr. (Zingiberaceae) is known as “Banada” in Bangladesh, and the rhizomes are frequently used in traditional medicines for the treatment of constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, stomach bloating, and as mosquito repellant. In this study, dried rhizomes were [...] Read more.
Zingiber montanum (J. Koenig) Link ex A. Dietr. (Zingiberaceae) is known as “Banada” in Bangladesh, and the rhizomes are frequently used in traditional medicines for the treatment of constipation, dyspepsia, flatulence, stomach bloating, and as mosquito repellant. In this study, dried rhizomes were extracted successively with 95% and 50% ethanol and the combined extract was then subjected to various column chromatographic methods to isolate one sesquiterpenoid derivative, zerumbone (1) and five kaempferol derivatives, i.e., kaempferol 3-O-methyl ether (2), kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-α-(4”-O-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-α-(3”-O-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside (5), and kaempferol 3-O-α-(3”,4”-di-O-acetyl)rhamnopyranoside (6). All compounds except 1 were isolated for the first time from the title plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
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Article
Extraction and Isolation of Kaempferol Glycosides from the Leaves and Twigs of Lindera neesiana
Separations 2019, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6010010 - 13 Feb 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
The hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and twigs of Lindera neesiana (Wall. ex Nees) Kurz (Lauraceae) was subjected to various column chromatographic methods that isolated five kaempferol glycosides: kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β- glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside ( [...] Read more.
The hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and twigs of Lindera neesiana (Wall. ex Nees) Kurz (Lauraceae) was subjected to various column chromatographic methods that isolated five kaempferol glycosides: kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β- glucopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (1); kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[α-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6)]-β-glucopyranoside (2); kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl(1→2)- α-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (3); kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside (4); and kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside (5). The extract showed moderate free radical scavenging activity and potent pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products)
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