Foods are a mixture of substances capable of supplying the human body with nutrients, which, once metabolized, are used mainly for the production of energy, heat, replenishment, and growth material for organs and tissues, ensuring the normal performance of vital functions necessary for growth of the human body. Therefore, the study of the chemical composition of foods and the properties of their constituents helps to define their nutritional and commodity values. Furthermore, it allows for evaluation of the chemical modifications that the constituents of the food undergo following the treatments (Food Technology) to which they are subjected. Analytical chemistry is the branch of chemistry based on the qualitative and quantitative determination of compounds present in a sample under examination. Therefore, through its application, it is possible to determine the quality of a product and/or its nutritional value, reveal adulterations, identify the presence of xenobiotic substances potentially harmful to human health (heavy metals, IPA, pharmaceuticals, etc.). Furthermore, some foods, in particular those of plant origin, contain numerous substances, secondary metabolites, with huge beneficial effects for human health. These functional components can be taken both through a correct diet, but also obtained from different food matrices by technological or biotechnological processes for the formulation of both functional foods and/or nutraceutical products. This Special Issue brings together 10 original studies and two comprehensive reviews on the above topics, in particular: (i) processes of extraction, identification, and characterization of biologically active compounds from different food matrices, (ii) overview of the main techniques applied for the determination of food colors, (iii) newer and greener solid-liquid extraction techniques.
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