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Special Issue "Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "C: Energy Economics and Policy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (19 January 2023) | Viewed by 14630

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Brygida Klemens
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Economics and Management; Opole University of Technology, Opole, Poland
Interests: economic development; public policy analysis; energy economics; entrepreneurial economics; sustainable development; rural development
Prof. Dr. Krystian Heffner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Economics, University of Economics in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
Interests: spatial economics; regional policy; foreign migration; rural areas development; small and medium towns
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Challenges related to the topis of sustainable development have been analyzed for many years. Nowadays, we are increasingly aware of the fact that without taking decisive steps towards sustainable production, distribution and consumption, we will not be able to achieve the aims set out in The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The challenges is to ensure the quality of the broadly understood environment and high quality of life. Discussions are underway in many countries on the energy transformation ensuring energy security, green energy, modernization of the economy, fair costs distribution and protection of the most  vulnerable social groups.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to highlight the efforts of researchers from all over the world in theory and practice of sustainable development relevant with economic analysis, especially in the field of broadly defined energy economics. This challenges are related to economic, financial, social, environmental and technological factors and tools.

Issues can be based on a supranational, national, regional or local level. We are open to analyses showing the studied phenomena broken down into rural areas and cities.

In this context, theoretical and practical studies of economic problems related to the sustainable development, economics and energy are required. We welcome original papers which provides new insights into this topics.

We hope you will be a part of this journey.

Dr. Brygida Klemens
Prof. Dr. Krystian Heffner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • economic models
  • economic analysis
  • energy economics
  • energy efficiency
  • energy effectiveness
  • energy finance
  • energy tax
  • circular economy
  • macroeconomic
  • green economy
  • sustainable development
  • sustainable rural development
  • sustainable urban development
  • sustainable quality of life
  • environment, environmental factors
  • climate change
  • carbon emission
  • renewable sources
  • green energy
  • zero/low carbon energy
  • sustainable consumption
  • green consumption
  • energy consumption

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Article
Developing an Integrated Energy–Economy Model Framework for Islands
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031275 - 25 Jan 2023
Viewed by 231
Abstract
This paper presents a new energy–economy system modelling approach, developed specifically for energy system planning in non-interconnected islands, aiming for decarbonization. Energy system planning is an essential tool to shape the energy transition to reach carbon neutrality in the medium- and long-term horizon. [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new energy–economy system modelling approach, developed specifically for energy system planning in non-interconnected islands, aiming for decarbonization. Energy system planning is an essential tool to shape the energy transition to reach carbon neutrality in the medium- and long-term horizon. Islands, as small-scale energy systems, have a limited contribution to the global climate targets, but due to their geographical and natural limitations, they present the potential to become frontrunners in the clean energy transition, especially regarding the efficient use of resources. The specificities and complexities of geographical islands cannot be adequately covered by the available energy modelling tools and new advanced approaches need to be developed to provide the appropriate support in designing the future decarbonized energy systems at insular level. Our methodological approach follows the adaptation and customization of well-established energy–economy modelling tools towards the development of an integrated island-scale energy–economy system model, capturing energy demand and supply by sector, heating/cooling and mobility requirements, energy efficiency potentials and their complex interactions through energy prices, storage, flexibility services and sectoral integration. By soft-linking the energy and economy system modelling tools through the consistent exchange of model parameters and variables, we developed a fully fledged modelling framework called IntE3-ISL, designed for islands with a horizon up to 2050. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
Article
Coal or Biomass? Case Study of Consumption Behaviour of Households in the Czech Republic
Energies 2023, 16(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010192 - 24 Dec 2022
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Renewable sources play a crucial role in the decarbonisation process of the current linear economy, aimed at reaching the 2030 climate objectives and fulfilling the EU’s long-term strategy of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050. All economic subjects, including households, can contribute to the [...] Read more.
Renewable sources play a crucial role in the decarbonisation process of the current linear economy, aimed at reaching the 2030 climate objectives and fulfilling the EU’s long-term strategy of achieving carbon neutrality by 2050. All economic subjects, including households, can contribute to the Green Deal goals. The main goal of this paper is to evaluate households’ consumption of energy sources for heating purposes in the Czech Republic in the period 2003–2020 and depict possible drivers of switching to biomass. For this, various data were collected, such as data published by the Czech Statistical Office, ministries, and other national authorities, as well as data from Eurostat. Concerning methods, data analysis, correlation analysis, and regression analysis were used. Different models focus on the substitution effect, rebound effect, and behaviour of different kinds of households. The results show a substitution effect connected with the consumption of coal, electricity, and biomass for heating purposes. Many households substituted coal for biomass in the observed period. On the other hand, the environmental impact of such substitution is not significant, as carbon emissions and emissions of other pollutants are stable. The substitution of fuels should be accompanied by technological change, e.g., improvement of combustion boilers. Moreover, households of pensioners are the key economic subjects with the highest impact on biomass consumption for heating purposes. Against this background we recommend policies to support households in replacing their boilers for more environmentally friendly ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
The Application of a Multi-Criteria Decision-Making for Indication of Directions of the Development of Renewable Energy Sources in the Context of Energy Policy
Energies 2022, 15(24), 9629; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15249629 - 19 Dec 2022
Viewed by 635
Abstract
This paper presents the application of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) for evaluating what technologies using renewable energy sources (RES) for electricity production have the chance to develop in Poland under the current socio-economic conditions. First, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to [...] Read more.
This paper presents the application of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) for evaluating what technologies using renewable energy sources (RES) for electricity production have the chance to develop in Poland under the current socio-economic conditions. First, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to determine the weights of the optimization criteria. Five main criteria and 30 sub-criteria were identified. Next, the authors modified numerical taxonomy (NT) to rank eight RES technologies (such as onshore and offshore wind farms, photovoltaics, or biogas plants). The results show that offshore wind farms are the RES technology with the greatest development opportunities in Poland. The following three technologies: distributed photovoltaic energy, biogas plants, and biomass power plants, respectively, received a similar rating in the ranking. Hydropower and geothermal were the lowest-ranked technologies. The ranking, which is the result of multi-criteria analysis, in several respects, is significantly different from the directions of activities indicated in the state energy policy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Energy Transition Manifesto: A Contribution towards the Discourse on the Specifics Amid Energy Crisis
Energies 2022, 15(23), 9199; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15239199 - 04 Dec 2022
Viewed by 554
Abstract
The article seeks to describe a more realistic approach to the transition to a carbon-neutral energy model in the current period of economic and geopolitical turbulence, with the high volatility of energy prices, and the disruption of geopolitical and logistic ties, and puts [...] Read more.
The article seeks to describe a more realistic approach to the transition to a carbon-neutral energy model in the current period of economic and geopolitical turbulence, with the high volatility of energy prices, and the disruption of geopolitical and logistic ties, and puts forward a set of fundamental principles for the energy transition. The hypothesis tested is that the development of low-carbon energy is based on the structural-technological diversification of production methods and rationalization of energy consumption through expanded electrification and application of energy demand-side management programs. The analysis of the main approaches to the energy transition across the world shows that many countries now prioritize renewable energy sources, even though, despite their obvious environmental benefits, they are less reliable due to their intermittent nature. The proposed principles of the energy transition draw from a more flexible, compromise approach that implies an optimal balance of mutually reinforcing centralized and distributed technologies of energy generation and their characteristics. The key provisions of the manifesto were verified by means of theoretical generalization and graphical interpretation of data from a number of analytical reports of international energy agencies and the results of an expert opinion survey. The survey was conducted among leading Russian experts from energy companies, who had relevant experience of developing innovation projects in this sphere, and university researchers. Most of them subscribe to the view that, despite the economic downturn, it would be unfeasible to curtail energy transition programs at this point, and even more so, it is important to continue local modernization projects. The results of the study could have a practical application when planning structural, organizational, and market transformations aimed at achieving the objectives of energy transition amid growing uncertainty, including the expansion of the structure of generating capacities in regional energy systems and the active use of low-carbon technologies in the energy sector and related industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Liquefied Natural Gas and Hydrogen Regasification Terminal Design through Neural Network Estimated Demand for the Canary Islands
Energies 2022, 15(22), 8682; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15228682 - 18 Nov 2022
Viewed by 813
Abstract
This publication explores how the existing synergies between conventional liquefied natural gas regasification and hydrogen hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes can be exploited. Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier methodology has been analyzed for hydrogen processes from a thermodynamic point of view to propose an energy [...] Read more.
This publication explores how the existing synergies between conventional liquefied natural gas regasification and hydrogen hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes can be exploited. Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier methodology has been analyzed for hydrogen processes from a thermodynamic point of view to propose an energy integration system to improve energy efficiency during hybridization periods. The proposed neural network can acceptably predict power demand using daily average temperature as a single predictor, with a mean relative error of 0.25%, while simulation results based on the estimated natural gas peak demand show that high-pressure compression is the most energy-demanding process in conventional liquefied natural gas regasification processes (with more than 98% of the total energy consumption). In such a scenario, exceeding energy from liquid organic hydrogen carrier processes have been used as a Rankine’s cycle input to produce both power for the high-pressure compressors and the liquefied natural gas heat exchangers, generating energy savings up to 77%. The designed terminal can securely process up to 158,036 kg/h of liquefied natural gas and 11,829 kg/h of hydrogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
ESG Assessment from the Perspective of the Management Board and Trade Unions on the Example of the Opole Power Plant
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8066; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218066 - 30 Oct 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
The Opole Power Plant is part of the PGE group (Polish Energy Group), the largest power company in Poland. It produces electricity from coal combustion, which means that ESG (environmental, social and corporate governance) policy should be one of the power plant’s strategic [...] Read more.
The Opole Power Plant is part of the PGE group (Polish Energy Group), the largest power company in Poland. It produces electricity from coal combustion, which means that ESG (environmental, social and corporate governance) policy should be one of the power plant’s strategic priorities. The article focuses on evaluating the ESG activities implemented by the power plant and their relation to the standards set at the corporation. The article’s primary hypothesis is that ESG activities are a significant element of the power plant’s strategy, with most of them determined by policies undertaken at the level of the PGE Group as a whole. The secondary hypotheses assume that trade union representatives attach greater importance (than management) to the social elements of ESG (H2) and that individual management representatives rate higher regarding the importance of those ESG areas for which they are personally responsible (H3). The research method used in the article consists of interviews conducted with representatives of the power plant’s board of directors responsible for individual areas of ESG activities and representatives of trade unions. In addition to groups of questions relating to corporate governance, the empirical material was organized from the perspective of power plant stakeholders. The results obtained support the acceptance of the first two hypotheses posed and the rejection of the third one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
Article
Not Fit for 55: Prioritizing Human Well-Being in Residential Energy Consumption in the European Union
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6687; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186687 - 13 Sep 2022
Viewed by 741
Abstract
An analysis of the 27 European Union (EU) member states over the years 2000–2018 examines the relationship between residential energy use per capita and human well-being, measured by the Human Development Index (HDI). The EU’s ‘Fit for 55’ policy package to reduce greenhouse [...] Read more.
An analysis of the 27 European Union (EU) member states over the years 2000–2018 examines the relationship between residential energy use per capita and human well-being, measured by the Human Development Index (HDI). The EU’s ‘Fit for 55’ policy package to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may derail post-communist member states’ convergence (PCMS) to the same level of well-being of households in old member states (OMS). The aim of this article is to assess both the direct and indirect relationship between residential energy use per capita and human well-being. The findings indicate a direct connection in addition to the indirect effect between them. Therefore, reducing or leveling off residential energy consumption in PCMS will prevent human development convergence within the EU. The findings indicate the lack of convergence, because of the ‘Fit for 55’ policy package assumption of a decline of residential energy consumption in all member states could stagnate or lower HDI in PCMS and prevent policy implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Comprehensive Measurement of the Coordinated Development of China’s Economic Growth, Energy Consumption, and Environmental Conservation
Energies 2022, 15(17), 6149; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176149 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
Since the Industrial Revolution, fossil fuels have become the main energy source for economic development. However, fossil fuels have also been linked to serious environmental impacts. China has recently undergone rapid economic growth, but its development model demands large amounts of energy and [...] Read more.
Since the Industrial Revolution, fossil fuels have become the main energy source for economic development. However, fossil fuels have also been linked to serious environmental impacts. China has recently undergone rapid economic growth, but its development model demands large amounts of energy and causes severe pollution. Therefore, there has been a recent shift toward the development of coordinated strategies to achieve economic growth while minimizing energy consumption and preserving the environment. This study sought to explore the spatiotemporal evolution of the coordination degree between economic growth, energy consumption, and environmental conservation (i.e., the “3E” system) in China, thus establishing a basis to improve coordinated development and minimize regional differences. This study evaluated 30 Chinese provinces using mathematical models. Between 2000 and 2019, the coordinated development level of the components of the 3E system in China increased steadily but remained generally low. Clear spatial agglomeration was also identified at the provincial scale, with the highest values occurring on the east coast and lower values occurring in the west and middle provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Environmental and Energy Conditions in Sustainable Regional Development
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5758; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155758 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Climate change is taking place on a global scale and it is substantially affected by human activity, including increasing greenhouse gas emissions. One of the thematic objectives of EU’s new financial objective is a more environmentally friendly low-emission Europe that promotes clean and [...] Read more.
Climate change is taking place on a global scale and it is substantially affected by human activity, including increasing greenhouse gas emissions. One of the thematic objectives of EU’s new financial objective is a more environmentally friendly low-emission Europe that promotes clean and fair energy transformation, green investments, and a circular economy, among others. The Polish economy is mainly based on energy production from conventional sources (fossil fuels). Considering that the demand for electricity in Poland is predicted to increase by as much as 50% until 2040, it is necessary to take action aimed at increasing the share of renewable energy sources. The subject of analysis is the Opolskie Voivodeship (a NUTS 2 type region), the capital of which features the biggest Polish coal power plant. In 2014–2019, it was expanded by two units with 1800 MW in total capacity, thereby indicating that investments in energy obtained from conventional sources are still implemented and to a large extent at that (the expansion has been the biggest infrastructural investment in Poland since 1989). The Opolskie region is characterised by substantial excess in acceptable environmental burden (dust pollution, among others). The aim of the paper is to evaluate the key environmental conditions for the Opolskie region’s development in terms of the assumptions of the domestic and EU energy policies. The Opolskie region’s developmental challenges in the environmental area were determined on the basis of selected indicator estimations up to 2030. The research hypothesis assumes that the environmental conditions for the Opolskie region’s development are unfavourable. The methodological part features an analysis of the cause and effect dependencies in the “environment” area, which enabled an assessment of the Opolskie Voivodeship’s current situation as well as an analysis of the dependencies relevant to the region’s development. This was followed by an estimation of selected indicators in the “environment” area until 2030, which allowed for an assessment of their probable levels and thereby a specification of the region’s development conditions. The estimation was conducted using the data available in public statistics, i.e., Statistics Poland’s data. The indicators estimated for 2030 were presented using three forecasting methods: (a) the monotonic trend, (b) the yearly average change rate, and (c) the logarithmic trend. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Labour Productivity as a Factor of Tangible Investment in Companies Producing Wind Energy Components and Its Impacts: Case of Lithuania
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4925; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134925 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
This paper aims at justifying the significance of investment in the improvement of labour productivity (LP) and importance of the latter on economic performance of companies manufacturing wind energy components (WEC) in Lithuania in terms of value added ( [...] Read more.
This paper aims at justifying the significance of investment in the improvement of labour productivity (LP) and importance of the latter on economic performance of companies manufacturing wind energy components (WEC) in Lithuania in terms of value added (VA) created, profitability and wage earned. The time period covered is 2000–2020. The following methods have been employed: analysis of legal acts, programmes, strategies, and business structure and finance indicators, interdependence (correlation and regression), trend, case analysis, logical economical reasoning and graphical representation. The research results of current status analysis showed that the business of WEC manufacturing is small in regard to their variety of products but increasing in terms of VA and employment in Lithuania. Investment has been found as a driver of improvement in LP. The calculated historical ratio of change in LP to investment showed that, on average, after 1000 EUR per employee has been invested in tangible assets (TA), the LP increased by 0.13 EUR/h. A higher than average ratio was found in the manufacture of other transport and repair and installation of machinery and equipment (1.41), such as rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products (0.17), but lower in the manufacture of electronic and communication (0.12) and metal (0.06) products. Taking into account the linear curves of LP to investment in TA curve and the average volumes of investment in different manufacturing activities, it is estimated that LP could grow by 5.3% a year in the manufacture of electronic products, and communication equipment are expected to increase by two-fold to 33 EUR/h in 2030, but it could grow only by 2.0% a year in the manufacture of rubber, plastic and other non-metallic mineral products to reach 28 EUR/h in 2030. Due to investment related changes in LP, the VA created by WEC companies could increase by 5.9% a year and account to 2.9 billion EUR during 2021–2030. Net profitability and real wages (and salaries) could also increase in future. Seeking to use the potential of companies to manufacture WEC for domestic wind installations and exports, investment supporting programmes are of high importance in the fields of promotion of innovations, development of human capital and adaptation of new technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Make Hay While the Sun Shines: Beneficiaries of Renewable Energy Promotion
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3398; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093398 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 947
Abstract
One of the conditions behind the development of any company is its capability of meeting the constantly changing challenges posed by the surrounding environment. Photovoltaics in Poland has been a boom industry in recent years. On 1 April 2022, new changes in photovoltaics [...] Read more.
One of the conditions behind the development of any company is its capability of meeting the constantly changing challenges posed by the surrounding environment. Photovoltaics in Poland has been a boom industry in recent years. On 1 April 2022, new changes in photovoltaics came into force. A very short transition time will bring about serious problems to companies dealing in the photovoltaics branch since it has had an exceptionally short time to sufficiently prepare for the changes. The article presents results of a questionnaire-based survey conducted among 394 companies dealing in fitting photovoltaic installations in Poland. The subjects were selected for participation according to the purposive sample principle. The aim of the article was to present and analyze the entrepreneurs’ opinions concerning prospects for development in the nearest year to come. The alterations to the system of support of prosumers, which entered into force on 1 April 2022, will limit the interest in photovoltaic installations, which in turn will cause significant changes in the functioning of companies dealing in this business. Consequently, companies must make every effort to monitor and to interpret the events in their environment, to take appropriate actions to survive. About 80% of the companies will tend to use quality as a key differentiator in a crowded market. Firms adapt to the new situation and initiate both reactive and proactive responses. Almost 60% of the enterprises attach great importance to analyses of their competitors’ activities. Enterprises are aware of trends appearing on the market. A total of 28.9% of the surveyed enterprises consider the possibility of introducing new services (e.g., exploitation services) or new products (e.g., photovoltaic roofing-tiles or energy storage). It should be noted that the survey had been completed one week before the military conflict in Ukraine started. This poses limitations to the conclusions, which are too early to assess. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
The Analysis of Public Funds Utilization Efficiency for Climate Neutrality in the European Union Countries
Energies 2022, 15(2), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15020581 - 14 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 888
Abstract
The aim of this article was to assess the efficiency of the utilization of public funds for climate neutrality. It was concluded that the data gathered in public statistics are not adapted to current challenges and hinder the direct measurement of climate policy [...] Read more.
The aim of this article was to assess the efficiency of the utilization of public funds for climate neutrality. It was concluded that the data gathered in public statistics are not adapted to current challenges and hinder the direct measurement of climate policy objective implementation progress. Due to that, an innovative approach to public intervention efficiency analysis was proposed for the sake of decreasing CO2 emission in 27 European Union (EU) countries, based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and soft modeling. Statistical data are derived from the Eurostat database and pertain to the years 2005–2019. It was demonstrated that activity efficiency of the particular EU countries on climate neutrality varied and that together with the increase in public funds spent on environmental protection, the growth of effects in the field of reaching climate neutrality objectives was not observed. The greatest positive impact on achieving climate neutrality objectives was revealed for activities connected with building renewable sources of energy (RES) and there was no correlation detected for expenditures connected with transport infrastructure, which means that public funds used for their construction did not influence climate neutrality. It was established that, in the analyzed period, the decisions on allocating public funds were not taken on the basis of the expected amount of reduction in relation to the volume of outlays. In order to track the reasons for detected inefficiency, 52 projects were analyzed within the case study, which covered 3738 investments in the replacement of heating sources in one region of Poland. It was revealed that the efficiency of those investments varies; however, due to the full availability of data of the acquired results and outlays devoted to them, a synthetic index of efficiency measurement was established that presents the amount of CO2 reduction for EUR 1. When comparing the analyses carried out on macro and micro scales, it was observed that on the scale of the EU, there is a lack of uniform measurements or benchmarks of projects in the field of CO2 emissions reduction. Meanwhile, from the whole EU’s perspective, it should be reasonable to undertake projects with the highest economic efficiency, irrespective of political and geographical aspects. The results obtained should be utilized by decision-makers to elaborate reference methodologies and good practices in order to successfully implement climate objectives and especially the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). What should be established are universal, on the EU scale, measurements and rules for gathering and counting data as well as benchmarks for the particular project types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Environmental and Economic Factors of Migration from Urban to Rural Areas: Evidence from Poland
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8467; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248467 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
The net migration rate is highly diversified and noticeable chiefly in municipalities directly adjacent to large cities. This trend is still maintained in Poland and is now becoming even more visible than previously. Most of the studies conducted to date have not focused [...] Read more.
The net migration rate is highly diversified and noticeable chiefly in municipalities directly adjacent to large cities. This trend is still maintained in Poland and is now becoming even more visible than previously. Most of the studies conducted to date have not focused on extracting economic and environmental factors or determining the role of individual factors in those decisions. Furthermore, they have not analysed the issue of differences in motives and directions of migration. Thus, the aim of the research was to establish the factors that determine contemporary migrations from the city to suburban areas and to outline the role of economic and environmental factors. For this purpose, 164 interviews were conducted with individuals who had migrated from the city to the countryside surrounding one of the most important urban centres in Central Europe—Wrocław. In the research, the multiple snowball sampling technique was used. It was found that the factors with the most significant impact on the decision to move from the city to the countryside were those of an environmental nature, whereas the selection of a specific location (village) was to a greater extent determined by economic factors. Compared to their previous place of residence, the respondents most positively rated the environmental benefits of living in the countryside, whereas economic factors, especially insufficient sewage and energy infrastructure, in addition to poor services and transport, were downvoted. The results therefore imply the need for better planning of suburban settlement patterns that takes account of the availability and development of the infrastructure network. The settlement dispersion, as shown through spatial studies, leads to higher unit costs, which generate higher public services costs and thus increasing local expenditures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Prospects and Constraints of Sustainable Marketing Mix Development for Poland’s High-Energy Consumer Goods
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8437; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248437 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1532
Abstract
The research examined awareness, prospects and constraints of sustainable marketing mix development (SMD) from the perspective of Poland’s high-energy consumer goods (HECG), i.e., confectionery products, as an example of the Polish food industry. A questionnaire survey was designed for this purpose. The purpose [...] Read more.
The research examined awareness, prospects and constraints of sustainable marketing mix development (SMD) from the perspective of Poland’s high-energy consumer goods (HECG), i.e., confectionery products, as an example of the Polish food industry. A questionnaire survey was designed for this purpose. The purpose of the survey questions was to evaluate selected areas of SMD; thus, a reference value ratio was proposed. An original approach to pairwise comparisons technique was applied to rank the value of each survey to provide an intensity measure for each examined area, i.e., a non-heuristic approach with verifiable accuracy and reliability. It was found that a high level of awareness among respondents exists in relation to SMD. Considering all aspects of constraints intensity for SMD, it could be concluded that SMD for Poland’s HECG is at a quite high level. However, considering all aspects of prospects intensity for SMD, this evaluation supported the conclusion that its level for Poland’s HECG is moderate only. It was also found that prices of sustainable products constitute the highest ranked determinant of SMD. Considering these research findings regarding awareness, limitations and perspectives for the development of a sustainable marketing mix in the enterprises operating in Poland’s HECG sector, it can be concluded that there are many more problems and difficulties in implementing sustainable marketing mix programs than there are prospects for the development of this concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Article
Bottom-Up Initiatives Undertaken by Local Governments to Support Entrepreneurship
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6328; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196328 - 03 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
The present paper deals with issues related to activities undertaken by local government. The article focuses on the identification and assessment of the significance of local government’s different bottom-up initiatives that support development of local entrepreneurship. The article also indirectly discusses the importance [...] Read more.
The present paper deals with issues related to activities undertaken by local government. The article focuses on the identification and assessment of the significance of local government’s different bottom-up initiatives that support development of local entrepreneurship. The article also indirectly discusses the importance of activities referring to energy efficiency. Through the digitization process and by using digital tools, LGs realize projects, improve local actors’ awareness, and finally achieve new challenges such as a higher proportion of gross final energy consumption being from renewable sources. The aim of the paper is to present the relationship between the LGs’ entrepreneurial activities, which we call bottom-up initiatives, and the local entrepreneurship level, understood as the number of entrepreneurs active on the territory of a LG. This paper presents the results of research carried out on the bottom-up initiatives undertaken by Polish local governments to support entrepreneurship. The research was based on survey and statistical tools and stepwise regression analysis. In the paper, bottom-up initiatives undertaken by local governments (such as organizing events at the national or regional scale that enable networking among entrepreneurs or establishing departments for supporting local entrepreneurship that offer cooperation with local entrepreneurs) were found to influence the number of entrepreneurs active in local government territories. The paper concludes that local governments and their bottom-up activities are an important factor influencing local entrepreneurship development. The presented research results have implications for policy makers and may be useful for local governments in Poland and in other countries in the context of supporting entrepreneurship by undertaking bottom-up initiatives at the local level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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Exploring Energy Trading Markets in Smart Grid and Microgrid Systems and Their Implications for Sustainability in Smart Cities
Energies 2023, 16(2), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16020801 - 10 Jan 2023
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Abstract
Smart cities are aimed at connecting urban infrastructures to enhance the efficiency of their operation and services while taking sustainability goals into consideration. As a result of the intermittency associated with renewable generation, smart city systems such as smart grids and microgrids may [...] Read more.
Smart cities are aimed at connecting urban infrastructures to enhance the efficiency of their operation and services while taking sustainability goals into consideration. As a result of the intermittency associated with renewable generation, smart city systems such as smart grids and microgrids may not be able to ensure the security of supply. This can be mitigated by allowing these systems to trade surplus energy with other neighboring systems through local energy markets based on peer-to-peer schemes. Such an approach can play an important role on achieving sustainability due to the positive impacts at the economic, social, and environmental level. Therefore, this work explores the design of local energy markets to help determine how they are relevant to smart grid and microgrid applications and what their contributions are to sustainability in smart cities. Essentially, this is achieved by performing a literature review to address key characteristics related to the design of local energy markets while considering their relationship with urban sustainability. In addition, the concept of game theory and its potential to evaluate market designs are also introduced and discussed. Finally, the suitability of centralized, decentralized, and distributed market designs for each dimension of sustainability is estimated based on their design characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development, Energy Economics and Economic Analysis)
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