Special Issue "Urban and Regional Planning in Post-socialist Countries"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 10864

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Krystian Heffner
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Guest Editor
College of Economics, University of Economics in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
Interests: spatial economics; regional policy; foreign migration; rural areas development; small and medium towns
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Piotr Gibas
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Economics, University of Economics in Katowice, 40-287 Katowice, Poland
Interests: development studies; local and regional development; spatial economy; spatial planning; cartography and geo-information; urban and rural geography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Adam Czarnecki
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-330 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: spatial economics; rural-urban relations; rural areas; local development; multifunctional countryside; multifunctional agriculture; behavioural economics; rural tourism; second homes; small towns
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urban and regional planning in post-socialist countries during the period after the political transformation is going through a difficult evolution.

On the one hand, entry into the structures of the European Union and huge infrastructure investments and development programs related to cohesion policy are resulting in far-reaching changes in the spatial structures of each country, region, and urban center. On the other hand, the new development conditions did not stop the spontaneous processes of urbanization and deurbanization in urban agglomerations. Depopulation has occurred in many regions, especially peripheral ones, in addition to accelerated suburbanization, visible not only near large urban centers.

 The question is very timely, because countries of Central and Eastern Europe run
strongly divergent policies on regional development and planning and realize different concepts of urban development. The effects on spatial development, improvement of residents’ living conditions, and the reduction of environmental pressure are very diverse
and refer to the objectives of EU regional policy to varying degrees.  The discussion is still open on the concept of development based on leading urban centers or the implementation of the concept of polycentric development. The problem is spontaneous suburbanization, covering large, previously agricultural, areas. The emergence of a large number of regions with features of permanent marginalization and developmental backwardness is becoming a challenge for the regional policy of post-socialist countries, but also for the regional policy of the European Union. In the opinion of the Guest Editors, these issues should be considered and assessed, and may indicate directions for further development. Studies and texts on both countries and regions or selected urban systems could give a picture of the situation in the field of spatial development in the group of post-socialist countries.

They can also indicate important and perhaps common goals for regional development and urban policy in the future.

Prof. Krystian Heffner
Dr. Piotr Gibas
Dr. Adam Czarnecki
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
European Land Use Spatial Data Sources and Their Role in Integrated Planning: Opportunities and Challenges for Poland
Land 2021, 10(11), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10111138 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 834
Abstract
One of the 34 themes of the spatial datasets of Directive 2007/2/EC INSPIRE is ‘land use’, rightly described independently of ‘land cover’. Laws in most countries, apart from the Netherlands, do not consider the electronic form of plans as a legally binding document. [...] Read more.
One of the 34 themes of the spatial datasets of Directive 2007/2/EC INSPIRE is ‘land use’, rightly described independently of ‘land cover’. Laws in most countries, apart from the Netherlands, do not consider the electronic form of plans as a legally binding document. As far as the elaboration step and the adoption step are concerned, the main land use requirement is related to the datasets that describe existing land use at present and in the past. Surveys and case studies concern Poland and were carried out in two stages, I in 2011–2013 and II in 2017–2019. Previous research on this subject concerned ‘planned land use’, especially attempts to standardize the classification of sub-local zoning plans and omit the creation of a metadata profile for existing land use. The main goal of the qualitative research is to assess the completeness of the available spatial datasets of existing and planned land use, conditioned by the needs of users. The author recommends the establishment in Poland of a new type of regulatory ‘Land Use Plan’ for the area of an entire municipality. As a summary, the author’s model of ‘The spatial planning system in the integrated development system of Poland’ was presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Regional Planning in Post-socialist Countries)
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Article
Place-Based Policy in the “Just Transition” Process: The Case of Polish Coal Regions
Land 2021, 10(10), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10101072 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
One of the pillars of the European Union’s Green Deal is the “Just Transition Mechanism”, which is interpreted here as providing fair access to diverse resources; above all, as a far-reaching reorientation of the approach to regional development and policy-making processes. Rooted in [...] Read more.
One of the pillars of the European Union’s Green Deal is the “Just Transition Mechanism”, which is interpreted here as providing fair access to diverse resources; above all, as a far-reaching reorientation of the approach to regional development and policy-making processes. Rooted in a normative approach to the development of just and fair place-based policy towards promoting growth in Poland, this paper aims to highlight the challenges posed by the Just Transition Mechanism in two selected Polish transition territories (Upper Silesia and Bełchatów Basin). The research methodology employs literary critical analysis along with an examination of pertinent documents, strategic plans and programs created at national and regional EU member levels. Additionally, interviews were conducted with key actors across the spectrum of the process. The authors argue that place-based policy, viewed as a new model of shaping regional policy, seeks to meet the expectations of the Just Transition Mechanism and can successfully face the challenges it encounters. The research reveals a significant gap between the analyzed transition territories in terms of knowledge and substantive preparation towards enacting the process. Visible deficits were noted in both regions concerning approaches to programming, particularly with reference to information policy and networking with partners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Regional Planning in Post-socialist Countries)
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Article
Marketplace Trade in Large Cities in Poland
Land 2021, 10(9), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10090933 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1379
Abstract
Traditional marketplace trade brings many socio-economic benefits: it affects the local labour market, entrepreneurship, and tourism. In many countries, activities are undertaken to support the operation of marketplaces. In recent years, new threats to the development of marketplaces have emerged, such as cheap [...] Read more.
Traditional marketplace trade brings many socio-economic benefits: it affects the local labour market, entrepreneurship, and tourism. In many countries, activities are undertaken to support the operation of marketplaces. In recent years, new threats to the development of marketplaces have emerged, such as cheap discount shops, supermarkets, and online shops. The inhabitants of many cities still enjoy shopping at traditional marketplaces. The aim of the research is to assess the development of marketplace trade in large cities in Poland. Eurostat does not provide detailed data on marketplaces in Poland. We decided to fill this gap. Additionally, we assessed the attractiveness of large cities in Poland in terms of the development of marketplace trade in the years 2008–2019 by means of linear ordering of objects (Hellwig’s composite measure of development). In the years 1995–2019, the number of marketplaces in Poland remained at a constant level, but since 2003 their area has decreased. However, the total number of marketplaces has increased compared to 1995. In the whole research period, Kraków and Katowice were the most attractive cities with respect to the development of the marketplace trade, while Gdańsk and Sosnowiec were the least attractive. The high position of Kraków results from the nature of the city and its tourist attractions, while the low position of Sosnowiec is caused by the existence of a large bazaar in nearby city of Będzin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Regional Planning in Post-socialist Countries)
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Article
Changes in the Spatial Development of a Satellite Town under the Impact of a Metropolitan City—Evidence from Pruszcz Gdański (Poland)
Land 2021, 10(8), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10080800 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Nowadays, large cities are becoming troublesome to live in in many respects. Due to the high prices of real estate, they are not attractive to young people. The literature often presents analyses of the phenomenon of urban sprawl to suburbia, but the subject [...] Read more.
Nowadays, large cities are becoming troublesome to live in in many respects. Due to the high prices of real estate, they are not attractive to young people. The literature often presents analyses of the phenomenon of urban sprawl to suburbia, but the subject of the impact of a metropolitan city on the functioning and changes in spatial development of satellite towns is rarely discussed. This study attempts to describe and to determine factors conducive to this process by identifying, through participant observation, the potential phenomenon of the influence of Gdańsk as a city with metropolitan functions on Pruszcz Gdański, a town directly adjacent to it. The article uses two main groups of methods: (a) a comparative analysis of orthophotomaps from 2005–2020 which allowed for recreating the dynamics of housing development, supported by land mapping as part of field research; (b) a structured internet survey on a sample of 393 residents which allowed identifying the factors influencing the spatial development of Pruszcz Gdański and the perception of this phenomenon, as well as an in-depth interview with a group of 6 residents which allowed obtaining detailed information on the quality of life in Pruszcz Gdański and the factors that determine living in this town. The proximity of both cities and much lower real estate prices in Pruszcz Gdański, which still has most of the functions of an independent town, is beneficial to settling down of migrants from the core of the metropolis. This process particularly applies to young people of working age who cannot afford to buy a new flat in Gdańsk. Building new multi-family housing estates close to the border with Gdańsk has created a kind of new service band or, in a sense, a “town within a town”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Regional Planning in Post-socialist Countries)
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Article
The Spatial Pattern of the Absorption of Cohesion Policy Funds in Polish Rural Areas
Land 2021, 10(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10010026 - 30 Dec 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1717
Abstract
This paper determines the extent to which rural areas in Poland have been beneficiaries of the EU’s Cohesion Policy (CP). The amount of funds allocated to rural areas at the local (gmina/commune) level as part of the total CP obtained by Poland from [...] Read more.
This paper determines the extent to which rural areas in Poland have been beneficiaries of the EU’s Cohesion Policy (CP). The amount of funds allocated to rural areas at the local (gmina/commune) level as part of the total CP obtained by Poland from 2007 to 2018 was estimated. The spatial distribution of that allocation was then determined. Whether the level of absorption is linked to the separately computed rural development level in communes was examined. This then made it possible not just to determine the spatial pattern of the absorption of CP funds but also to identify the main social and economic correlates of their high levels of absorption. It was found that nearly 40% of CP funds for Poland were allocated to rural areas, inhabited by 40% of the country’s population. However, this seemingly balanced allocation was somewhat undermined by its spatial distribution: the highest absorption was reported in over a third of communes with a high level of development while it was also found in less than a fifth of communes with a low level of development. Communes with higher levels of absorption have a more favourable local budget situation and a high degree of deagrarianisation of their local economies. The absorption level is more highly correlated with the variables characterising the extent to which an agricultural area has turned into a multifunctional area than with a commune’s absorptive capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Regional Planning in Post-socialist Countries)
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Article
Deagrarianisation of the Economic Structure and the Evolution of Rural Settlement Patterns in Poland
Land 2020, 9(12), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9120523 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1923
Abstract
Since the Second World War, Poland has been undergoing an intensive process of transformation of the economic structure of rural areas, manifested, among other things, in the change in the occupational make-up of its inhabitants. The development of non-agricultural methods of management in [...] Read more.
Since the Second World War, Poland has been undergoing an intensive process of transformation of the economic structure of rural areas, manifested, among other things, in the change in the occupational make-up of its inhabitants. The development of non-agricultural methods of management in rural areas has led to the emergence of multifunctional rural areas, where the role of agriculture as a source of income for the inhabitants is decreasing. There is a process of deagrarianisation of the economic structure, which has been indicated by many researchers as an unavoidable process, connected with the changes taking place in rural areas. One of the effects of this process are changes in rural settlement patterns. The aim of this article is to present the spatial effects of the deagrarianisation process in the Polish countryside, expressed in the changes in the rural settlement network. The authors used the statistical database of the Central Statistical Office (over 41 thousand records) to draw up the classification of rural areas by the nature of changes in population numbers in the period 1950–2011, which was compared with the research carried out as part of the Monitoring of Rural Development in Poland. The study confirmed that the factor behind the evolution of the rural settlement network is the process of decreasing agricultural demand for labour. As a consequence, there is a polarisation of localities into multifunctional rural localities, mainly headquarter villages and local government offices, and those with a predominantly agricultural function. On a supra-local scale, a process of polarisation of rural areas between a growing suburban population and a reducing peripheral location around large and medium-sized towns has been observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban and Regional Planning in Post-socialist Countries)
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