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Special Issue "Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Geo-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 26 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Robert Król
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mining and Geodesy, Faculty of GeoEngineering Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland
Interests: examination of mining facilities and systems (energy consumption, durability, reliability); management of exploitation of mining and transportation machines and devices; modelling and numerical simulations
Dr. Witold Kawalec
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mining and Geodesy, Faculty of GeoEngineering Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: computational methods of spatial modelling of ore deposits and mine planning; modelling and calculation of mining transport systems
Prof. Dr. Izabela Sówka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Environment Protection Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, 27 Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego st., 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: air pollution chemistry and physics; air pollution monitoring methods; air pollution modeling; exposure assessment; risk analysis; deodorization methods; indoor air quality; particulate matter; greenhouse gases; odours, RES.
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Krzysztof M. Czajka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanics, Machines, Devices and Energy Processes, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: thermal analysis (TGA, DSC, FTIR); pyrolysis, gasification and combustion of solid fuels; gasifiers and gas turbines; steam turbines, compressors and fans

Special Issue Information

The raw material mining and processing industry belongs to the most energy exhausting, environmental aggressive yet socially controversial branches of the economy. Therefore its optimisation should be targeted on both the overall efficiency and mitigating the environmental impact otherwise mining and fossil fuels based power generation would leak outside the most developed countries. The development of modelling and calculation methods incorporating advanced clouds computing, artificial intelligence algorithms and sophisticated sensors technology allows building comprehensive digital twins of objects, systems and processes representing the whole chain of the raw material mining and processing processes.

One of the most challenging industry processes in the modern economy is the sustainable power generation in its transition course from fossil fuels base to the “green” solutions to match carbon and toxic emissions limits and the other environmental impact like dust, noise, vast areas of terrain degradation. Because this industry is particularly capital and operational costly, it needs complex investigations that could return substantial savings measured in money, energy consumed and social benefits.

The proposed topics of this Special Issue of Energies are: 1. Sustainable processing of raw materials for an optimization of mining, energy production and environmental engineering. 2. Improved efficiency of the raw material mining and processing processes with the use of its quality control track from the deposit modelling, through modelling of mining, transport and final processing operations with regard to environmental issues. 3. Raw material solutions for a sustainable energy conversion and storage with “green power” sources. 4. Resource recycling, efficiency and secondary raw materials management as a contribution to climate change mitigation. 5. Strategies, identification of sources, dispersion modelling and methods of reducing and limiting air pollutant emissions to the atmosphere in the heating, mining and energy industry.

Assoc. Prof. Robert Król
Dr. Witold Kawalec
Assoc. Prof. Izabela Sówka
Assoc. Prof. Krzysztof M. Czajka
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mining, heating and energy processes
  • process modelling
  • multi-purpose deposit modelling
  • digital twin
  • quality tracking
  • raw material sustainable use
  • fossil fuels
  • green power
  • air pollution, climate change mitigation
  • carbon emission costs
  • energy efficiency certificates
  • waste disposal charges
  • energy conversion and storage

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Discrete Simulations in Analyzing the Effectiveness of Raw Materials Transportation during Extraction of Low-Quality Deposits
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5884; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185884 - 17 Sep 2021
Viewed by 188
Abstract
The article presents an analysis of the influence of selected operating environment parameters on the operation of a technological system in a mine and examines the profitability of exploiting a deposit of low quality. A model based on a cyclical transportation system in [...] Read more.
The article presents an analysis of the influence of selected operating environment parameters on the operation of a technological system in a mine and examines the profitability of exploiting a deposit of low quality. A model based on a cyclical transportation system in a surface limestone mine, developed in the Haulsim software, served to evaluate—from an economic perspective—several material transportation scenarios depending on the quality of the deposit. A discrete simulation of machine operation allowed a detailed analysis of the technological, operating and economic parameters for selected solutions. The results may be the basis for a decision to begin or to resign from mineral extraction. The simulation results demonstrate that maintaining the operating environment in good technical condition positively influences machine operating cycle times, the required total time of the transportation task and the operating costs. The analysis was performed for the production period of one full year, allowing for the effective work and technological downtimes. This approach allowed the usefulness of the model to be demonstrated in evaluating not only the effectiveness of individual technological procedures but also its economic aspect, related to a decision on the exploitation of “difficult” deposits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
Dynamic Analysis for the Hydraulic Leg Power of a Powered Roof Support
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5715; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185715 - 10 Sep 2021
Viewed by 212
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study conducted to determine the dynamic power of a hydraulic leg. The hydraulic leg is the basic element that maintains the position of a powered roof support. It is located in the structure between the canopy [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a study conducted to determine the dynamic power of a hydraulic leg. The hydraulic leg is the basic element that maintains the position of a powered roof support. It is located in the structure between the canopy and the floor base. The analysis assumes that its power must be greater than the energy of the impact of the rock mass. The energy of the rock mass is generated by tremors caused mainly by mining exploitation. The mining and geological structure of the rocks surrounding the longwall complex also have an influence on this energy generation. For this purpose, stationary tests of the powered roof support were carried out. The analysis refers to the space under the piston of the leg, which is filled with fluid at a given pressure. The bench test involved spreading the leg in the test station under a specified pressure. It was assumed that the acquisition of dynamic power would be at the point of pressure and increase in the space under the piston of the leg under forced loading. Based on the experimental studies carried out, an assessment was made with the assumptions of the methodology adopted. The results of the theoretical analysis showed consistency with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
Gasification of Coal by CO2: The Impact of the Heat Transfer Limitation on the Progress, Reaction Rate and Kinetics of the Process
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5569; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175569 - 06 Sep 2021
Viewed by 259
Abstract
This paper presents the impact of thermal lag on the progress of different coal types’ gasification by CO2. The analysis was performed using thermogravimetry and numerical modeling. Experiments were carried out at a heating rate of 1–50 Kmin−1 and a [...] Read more.
This paper presents the impact of thermal lag on the progress of different coal types’ gasification by CO2. The analysis was performed using thermogravimetry and numerical modeling. Experiments were carried out at a heating rate of 1–50 Kmin−1 and a temperature ranging from 383 to 1173 K. The developed numerical model enabled the determination of a true sample temperature considering the gasification process to consist of two single-step consecutive reactions. Analysis revealed that the average thermal lag in CO2 is about 11% greater than that in N2, which is related to the properties of CO2 itself and the occurrence of the char–CO2 reaction. The onset temperature of the reverse Boudouard reaction depends on the type of fuel; however, no simple relationship with the coal rank was found. Thermal lag has an impact on the kinetic parameter Aα0.5 describing devolatilization, up to 19.8%, while in the case of the char–CO2 reaction, this influence is expected to be even greater. The performed analysis proved that disregarding thermal lag may significantly hinder the interpretation of the analyzed processes; thus, TG experiments should be carried out with a low heating rate, or at the post-processing stage, a thermal lag model needs to be employed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
Cascade Membrane System for Separation of Water and Organics from Liquid By-Products of HTC of the Agricultural Digestate—Evaluation of Performance
Energies 2021, 14(16), 4752; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14164752 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
New regulations aimed at curbing the problem of eutrophication introduce limitations for traditional ways to use the by-product of anaerobic digestion—the digestate. Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) can be a viable way to valorise the digestate in an energy-efficient manner and at the same time [...] Read more.
New regulations aimed at curbing the problem of eutrophication introduce limitations for traditional ways to use the by-product of anaerobic digestion—the digestate. Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) can be a viable way to valorise the digestate in an energy-efficient manner and at the same time maximise the synergy in terms of recovery of water, nutrients, followed by more efficient use of the remaining carbon. Additionally, hydrothermal treatment is a feasible way to recirculate recalcitrant process residues. Recirculation to anaerobic digestion enables recovery of a significant part of chemical energy lost in HTC by organics dissolved in the liquid effluent. Recirculating back to the HTC process can enhance nutrient recovery by making process water more acidic. However, such an effect of synergy can be exploited to its full extent only when viable separation techniques are applied to separate organic by-products of HTC and water. The results presented in this study show that using cascade membrane systems (microfiltration (MF) → ultrafiltration (UF) → nanofiltration (NF)), using polymeric membranes, can facilitate such separation. The best results were obtained by conducting sequential treatment of the liquid by-product of HTC in the following membrane sequence: MF 0.2 µm → UF PES 10 → NF NPO30P, which allowed reaching COD removal efficiency of almost 60%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
3D Spatial Analysis of Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0) and Gaseous Pollutants (H2S, SO2 and VOC) in Urban Areas Surrounding a Large Heat and Power Plant
Energies 2021, 14(14), 4070; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14144070 - 06 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 415
Abstract
In many regions of the world, the winter period is a time of poor air quality, due primarily to the increased use of individual and district heating systems. As a consequence, the atmospheric air contains increased concentrations of both particulate matter and gaseous [...] Read more.
In many regions of the world, the winter period is a time of poor air quality, due primarily to the increased use of individual and district heating systems. As a consequence, the atmospheric air contains increased concentrations of both particulate matter and gaseous pollutants (as a result of “low” emissions at altitudes of up to 40 m and “high” emissions more than 40 m above ground level). In winter, the increased pollution is very often exacerbated by meteorological conditions, including air temperature, pressure, air speed, wind direction, and thermal inversion. Here, we analyze the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0) and gaseous pollutants (H2S, SO2, and VOC) in the immediate vicinity of a large solid fuel-fired heat and power plant located in an urban agglomeration. Two locations were selected for analysis. The first was close to an air quality measurement station in the center of a multi-family housing estate. The second was the intersection of two main communication routes. To determine the impact of “low” and “high” emissions on air quality, the selected pollutants were measured at heights of between 2 and 50 m using an unmanned aerial vehicle. The results were compared with permissible standards for the concentration of pollutants. Temperature inversion was found to have a strong influence on the level of pollutants at various heights, with higher concentrations of particulate matter registered at altitudes above 40 m. The source of PM, H2S, and SO2 pollutants was confirmed to be “low emission” from local transport, industrial plant areas, and the housing estate comprising detached houses located in the vicinity of the measuring points. “High emission” was found to be responsible for the high concentrations of VOC at altitudes of more than 40 m above the intersection and in the area of the housing estate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
Generating of Electric Energy by a Declined Overburden Conveyor in a Continuous Surface Mine
Energies 2021, 14(13), 4030; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14134030 - 04 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 420
Abstract
Exploitation of lignite in continuous surface mines requires removing masses of overburden, which are hauled to a dumpsite. There are some technological arrangements where the overburden is transported several dozen meters down to a spreader operating on a lower located dumping level. Depending [...] Read more.
Exploitation of lignite in continuous surface mines requires removing masses of overburden, which are hauled to a dumpsite. There are some technological arrangements where the overburden is transported several dozen meters down to a spreader operating on a lower located dumping level. Depending on an angle of a declined transportation route, there is a possibility to convert the potential gravitational energy of conveyed down overburden masses into electric energy. To recover the maximum percentage of stored energy, an energy-effective and fully loaded belt conveyor should work in a generator mode. Due to the implementation of such a solution, a lignite continuous surface mine, which is a great electric energy consumer, can obtain the status of an electricity prosumer and reduce its environmental impact, in particular demonstrating significant savings in primary energy consumption. Though lignite surface mining is phasing out in Europe, the recuperative, overburden conveyors for downhill transport match up the targets of sustainable mining, understood as getting the maximum benefits from the exploited natural resources. According to the analyzed case study, an investment into the installation of regenerative inverters for the electric power supply of the declined overburden conveyor would pay off within 3–4 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
Removal of Zn(II) and Mn(II) by Ion Flotation from Aqueous Solutions Derived from Zn-C and Zn-Mn(II) Batteries Leaching
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1335; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051335 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
The Zn(II) and Mn(II) removal by an ion flotation process from model and real dilute aqueous solutions derived from waste batteries was studied in this work. The research aimed to determine optimal conditions for the removal of Zn(II) and Mn(II) from aqueous solutions [...] Read more.
The Zn(II) and Mn(II) removal by an ion flotation process from model and real dilute aqueous solutions derived from waste batteries was studied in this work. The research aimed to determine optimal conditions for the removal of Zn(II) and Mn(II) from aqueous solutions after acidic leaching of Zn-C and Zn-Mn waste batteries. The ion flotation process was carried out at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Two organic compounds used as collectors were applied, i.e., m-dodecylphosphoric acid 32 and m-tetradecylphosphoric 33 acid in the presence of a non-ionic foaming agent (Triton X-100, 29). It was found that both compounds can be used as collectors in the ion flotation for Zn(II) and Mn(II) removal process. Process parameters for Zn(II) and Mn(II) flotation have been established for collective or selective removal metals, e.g., good selectivity coefficients equal to 29.2 for Zn(II) over Mn(II) was achieved for a 10 min process using collector 32 in the presence of foaming agent 29 at pH = 9.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
Application of the Mechanical and Pressure Drop Tests to Determine the Sintering Temperature of Coal and Biomass Ash
Energies 2021, 14(4), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14041126 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 371
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties of coal and biomass ash during the sintering process. For this study, bituminous coal, lignite, wheat straw, barley straw, and rye straw were selected. The proximate, ultimate, and oxide analyses were performed. [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanical properties of coal and biomass ash during the sintering process. For this study, bituminous coal, lignite, wheat straw, barley straw, and rye straw were selected. The proximate, ultimate, and oxide analyses were performed. The ash from these fuels was prepared in a special way that ensured the physicochemical invariability of the initial state of the mineral matter of coal and biomass. The purpose of this selection was to obtain widely available and clearly diversified materials. Based on the results of ash composition and ultimate analysis the most common ash deposition, indices were determined. Certain conflict of index indications was observed. Then, the mechanical test and pressure drop test were performed. During the mechanical test, the fracture stress as a function of sintering temperature was measured. During the pressure drop test, the pressure before and behind the sample was measured as a function of sintering temperature. Both tests showed that the characteristic changes (the occurrence of a maximum on the pressure drop curve and the inflection point at the mechanical curve) dependencies were at nearly the same temperatures. These results were compared with the initial deformation temperature (IDT) from the standard Leitz method. A linear relationship between sintering temperatures determined by the mechanical test, pressure drop test, and IDT Leitz test was obtained. The obtained results are promising in terms of the application of the mechanical methods (fracture stress test and pressure drop test) as methods of the early stage prediction of slagging/fouling risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
Energy-Saving Inertial Drive for Dual-Frequency Excitation of Vibrating Machines
Energies 2021, 14(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010071 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 612
Abstract
The low energy efficiency and excessive power of electric motors of large-scale vibrating machines for processing bulk materials motivated a new design of the inertial drive. This drive consists of one motor and two coaxial unbalanced masses, whose rotational frequencies are related in [...] Read more.
The low energy efficiency and excessive power of electric motors of large-scale vibrating machines for processing bulk materials motivated a new design of the inertial drive. This drive consists of one motor and two coaxial unbalanced masses, whose rotational frequencies are related in the ratio 2:1. This approach allows for a generation of the excitation force with variable amplitude and frequency, which changes depending on the inertial characteristics and shaft rotation frequency and does not relate to the phase difference of the unbalanced masses. Because of this, the symmetry axis of the resulting vector hodograph can be changed. The spectral composition of the exciting force up to 200 Hz contains higher harmonics, the energy share of which is 25.4% from the 2nd harmonic and 14.1% from the 3rd and higher harmonics that correspondingly improves bulk material treatment in comparison to single-frequency vibrators. The finite element model is used for checking the strength capacity of the most loaded units of a dual-frequency drive. Its use allows the realization of complex trajectories of motion that are more technologically efficient for variable parameters of the treated media and energy saving in sieving screens and other vibrating machines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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Article
Investigation of the Physico-Chemical Properties of the Products Obtained after Mixed Organic-Inorganic Leaching of Spent Li-Ion Batteries
Energies 2020, 13(24), 6732; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13246732 - 20 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 767
Abstract
Lithium-ion batteries are currently one of the most important mobile energy storage units for portable electronics such as laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. Their widespread application leads to the generation of large amounts of waste, so their recycling plays an important role in environmental [...] Read more.
Lithium-ion batteries are currently one of the most important mobile energy storage units for portable electronics such as laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. Their widespread application leads to the generation of large amounts of waste, so their recycling plays an important role in environmental policy. In this work, the process of leaching with sulfuric acid for the recovery of metals from spent Li-ion batteries in the presence of glutaric acid and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agents is presented. Experimental results indicate that glutaric-acid application improves the leaching performance compared to the use of just hydrogen peroxide under the same conditions. Obtained samples of leaching residues after mixed inorganic-organic leaching were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling and Calculation of Raw Material Industry)
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