Special Issue "Current Trends in Emission Control and Forecasting of Air Quality and Climate Changes"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 21 October 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Izabela Sowka
Website
Guest Editor
Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wrocław, Poland
Interests: air pollution chemistry and physics; air pollution monitoring methods; air pollution modeling; exposure assessment; risk analysis; deodorization methods; indoor air quality; particulate matter; odors; greenhouse gases; RES
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Kazimierz Gaj
Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Engineering and Protection of Atmosphere, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Pl. Grunwaldzki 9 50-377 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: air protection; purifying of waste gases; modeling of air quality; renewable energy; greenhouse gases; biogas; siloxanes
Dr. Urszula Miller
Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Engineering and Protection of Atmosphere, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Pl. Grunwaldzki 9 50-377 Wroclaw, Poland
Interests: air pollution chemistry and physics; odors; deodorization methods; biofiltration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Air and climate protection have become one of the biggest civilization challenges in recent years. In many highly industrialized and economically emerging countries in the world, there is a problem of air pollution (mainly associated with the use of fossil fuels in energetics, industry, heating of residential houses, and transport) and progressive climate change (related to increasing greenhouse gas emissions). Therefore, there is an urgent need for new, low-emission technologies, effective and low-cost methods for reducing emissions, more reliable emission monitoring methods, and new tools for forecasting and monitoring air quality and climate change. These are the purposes of the present Special Issue, which should, in particular, include the following topics:

  • current research on low-emission: fuels, industrial technologies, and energy generation, including RES;
  • promising ways to reduce/eliminate emissions from low municipal sources and from transport;
  • innovative methods of waste gas purification;
  • development of emission and immission control methods;
  • prospective ways of counteracting climate changes;
  • problems of indoor air protecting;
  • development of air quality mathematical modeling methods;
  • new directions in forecasting the effects of air pollution and climate change;
  • new trends in odor control and air quality management.

These topics are only examples. Other emerging topics in this field of science are also welcome.

In accordance with the above context, we invite you to submit original research or review papers.

Prof. Izabela Sówka
Prof. Kazimierz Gaj
Dr. Urszula Miller
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • low-emission and sustainable economy
  • renewable energy
  • greenhouse gases
  • odors
  • air and emission monitoring
  • mathematical modeling of air quality
  • management of atmosphere protection

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Technological Processes on Odorant Emissions at Municipal Waste Biogas Plants
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5457; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135457 - 07 Jul 2020
Abstract
Municipal waste treatment is inherently associated with odour emissions. The compounds characteristic of the processes used for this purpose, and at the same time causing a negative olfactory sensation, are organic and inorganic sulphur and nitrogen compounds. The tests were carried out at [...] Read more.
Municipal waste treatment is inherently associated with odour emissions. The compounds characteristic of the processes used for this purpose, and at the same time causing a negative olfactory sensation, are organic and inorganic sulphur and nitrogen compounds. The tests were carried out at the waste management plant, which in the biological part, uses the methane fermentation process and is also equipped with an installation for the collection, treatment, and energetic use of biogas. The tests include measurements of the four odorant concentrations and emissions, i.e., volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and methanethiol (CH3SH). Measurements were made using a MultiRae Pro portable gas detector sensor. The tests were carried out in ten series for twenty measurement points in each series. The results show a significant impact of technological processes on odorant emissions. The types of waste going to the plant are also important in shaping this emission. On the one hand, it relates to the waste collection system and, on the other hand, the season of year. In addition, it has been proved that the detector used during the research is a valuable tool enabling the control of technological processes in municipal waste processing plants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Emission Inventory on Modelling of Seasonal Exposure Metrics of Particulate Matter and Ozone with the WRF-Chem Model for Poland
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5414; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135414 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
In Poland, high concentrations of particulate matter (with a diameter smaller than 2.5 or 10 μm) exceeding the WHO threshold values are often measured in winter, while ozone (O3) concentrations are high in spring. In winter high PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations [...] Read more.
In Poland, high concentrations of particulate matter (with a diameter smaller than 2.5 or 10 μm) exceeding the WHO threshold values are often measured in winter, while ozone (O3) concentrations are high in spring. In winter high PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are linked to high residential combustion and road transport. The main objective of this study was to assess performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model in reproducing observations for a period of 2017-2018 covering various meteorological conditions. We compare modelled and observed exposure metrics for PM2.5, PM10 and O3 for two sets of the WRF-Chem model runs: with coarse and fine resolution emission inventory (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection (CIEP), respectively). CIEP run reduces the negative bias of PM2.5 and PM10 and improves the model performance for number of days with exceedance of WHO (World Health Organization) threshold for PM2.5 and PM10 24-h mean concentration. High resolution emission inventory for primary aerosols helps to better distinguish polluted urban areas from non-urban ones. There are no large differences for the model performance for O3 and secondary inorganic aerosols, and high-resolution emission inventory does not improve the results in terms of 8-h rolling mean concentrations of ozone. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Biomass Growth and Its Control in the Process of Biofiltration of Air Contaminated with Xylene on a Biotrickling Column Filled with Expanded Clay
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5412; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135412 - 04 Jul 2020
Abstract
Biofiltration of air polluted with xylene vapors was carried out for nearly two years in a large laboratory-scale installation with a volume of the bed of expanded clay equal to 32 dm3. During the experiment, different xylene inlet concentrations were applied, [...] Read more.
Biofiltration of air polluted with xylene vapors was carried out for nearly two years in a large laboratory-scale installation with a volume of the bed of expanded clay equal to 32 dm3. During the experiment, different xylene inlet concentrations were applied, within the range from 300 to over 1500 mg/m3 at a linear gas flow rate of 0.008, 0.016, and 0.033 m/s, as well as 0.12 and 0.24 dm3 of medium dispensed every 3 h on top of the bed. The progress of the process was followed by measuring the xylene concentration at the inlet and outlet of the column, column mass, and gas flow resistance. The capability to purify air polluted with xylene with an average efficiency of approx. 90% was demonstrated. The process was interrupted by a significant increase in gas flow resistance, caused by a large growth of biomass, resulting in an increase in the mass of the bed by more than 45%. Both intensive rinsing of the bed with a stream of water, causing its fluidization, and rinsing and mixing after removing the bed from the column allowed to reduce flow resistance to a value close to the initial one. To ensure the supply of biogenic elements, it was necessary to periodically spray the bed with a solution of the medium in an amount of up to about 0.1 dm3/h/m3 of purified air. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of the Equivalence of Low-Cost Sensors with the Reference Method in Measuring PM10 Concentration Using Selected Correction Functions
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5368; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135368 - 02 Jul 2020
Abstract
The aim of the work is to demonstrate the possibility of building models to correct the results of measurements of particulate matter PM10 concentrations obtained using low-cost devices. Such devices apply the optical method to values comparable with those obtained using the [...] Read more.
The aim of the work is to demonstrate the possibility of building models to correct the results of measurements of particulate matter PM10 concentrations obtained using low-cost devices. Such devices apply the optical method to values comparable with those obtained using the reference gravimetric method. An additional goal is to show that the results corrected in this way can be used to carry out the procedure for testing equivalence of these methods. The study used generalized regression models (GRMs) to construct corrective functions. The constructed models were assessed using the coefficients of determination and the methodology of calculating the measurement uncertainty of the device. Measurement data from the two tested devices and the reference method were used to estimate model parameters. The measurement data were collected on a daily basis from 1 February to 30 June 2018 in Nowy Sącz. Regression allowed building multiple models with various functional forms and very promising statistical properties as well as good ability to describe the variability of reference measurements. These models also had very low values of measurement uncertainty. Of all the models constructed, a linear model using the original PM10 concentrations from the tested devices, air humidity, and wind speed was chosen as the most accurate and simplest model. Apart from the coefficient of determination, expanded relative uncertainty served as the measure of quality of the obtained model. Its small value, much lower than 25%, indicates that after correcting the results it is possible to carry out the equivalence testing procedure for the low-cost devices and confirm the equivalence of the tested method with the reference method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Content of Selected Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 in Urban-Industrial Area
Sustainability 2020, 12(13), 5284; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12135284 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
This research concerns the measurement of daily PM10 concentrations and the assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The measurements were carried out in the urban-industrial area in southern Poland in the period from February to December 2019 (covering heating [...] Read more.
This research concerns the measurement of daily PM10 concentrations and the assessment of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The measurements were carried out in the urban-industrial area in southern Poland in the period from February to December 2019 (covering heating and non-heating seasons). The metal content of As, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, V, was estimated using mass spectrometry with inductively excited plasma (ICP-MS), and that of Au and Mg using atomic emission spectrometry with induced plasma (ICP-OES). Analysis of selected PAHs (Naph, Acy, Ace, Fl, Phen, An, Fluo, Pyr, BaA, Chry, BbF, BkF, BaP, IcdP, DahA, BghiP) was performed using a gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The share of the analyzed metals in PM10 concentrations was ~1.37% in the entire measurement period, ~1.09% in the heating season and ~1.55% in the non-heating one. High concentrations of aluminum and chromium, observed over the measurement period, indicate the presence of strong anthropogenic sources of both metals. In the case of PAHs in PM10, the average total share of the analyzed was ~1.25%, while this share slightly increased in the heating season (average: ~2.19%) compared to non-heating (average: ~0.63%). Full article
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