Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Quality and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2022) | Viewed by 40126

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
Departament of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, Istitute of Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Wrocław, u. Kosiby 8, 51-621 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: air pollution measurements, health impact assessment, indoor and ambient air quality, atmospheric boundary layer, urban heat island, urban climate, air quality management.

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departament of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, Istitute of Geography and Regional Development, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Wrocław, u. Kosiby 8, 51-621 Wrocław, Poland
Interests: methods of measurements in microclimatological and air quality studies, bioclimatology, microclimatology, atmosphere protection

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The long-term exposure of populations to the inhalation of polluted air is associated with an increase in morbidity. The negative impact of pollutants on the respiratory system has contributed to an increase in the incidence of lung diseases, including cancer. Poland is one of the European countries that is most characterized by poor air quality, especially in winter, as a result of intensified combustion processes in home boilers. Therefore, activities related to the improvement of air quality are a priority and require the exchange of knowledge, solutions and good practices between scientific communities, local governments, social organizations and educators dealing with the issue of improving air quality.

This Special Issue aims to publish selected papers from the third conference "Air quality and health" (May 29–May 1, 2021, Wroclaw), implemented under the LIFE-MAPPINGAIR/PL Project.

Conference page: https://mappingair.meteo.uni.wroc.pl/2020/12/iii-konferencja-naukowa-jakosc-powietrza-a-zdrowie-ruszyly-zapisy/

Topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Air pollutants and their sources;
  • Dispersion of air pollutants and air quality modeling;
  • Influence of air quality and biometeorological conditions on human health;
  • Air quality assessment for epidemiological studies;
  • Indoor air quality;
  • Environmental risk assessment;
  • Influence of meteorological conditions on air quality;
  • Socioeconomic problems related to air quality;
  • Ecological education;
  • Legal aspects of activities related to the improvement of air quality;
  • Air quality monitoring.

These topics are only examples. Other emerging topics in this field of science are also welcome.

In accordance with the above context, we invite you to submit original research or review papers.

Prof. Dr. Izabela Sówka
Dr. Anetta Drzeniecka-Osiadacz
Dr. Tymoteusz Sawiński
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Prof. Dr. Izabela Sówka
Dr. Anetta Drzeniecka-Osiadacz
Dr. Tymoteusz Sawiński
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • air quality
  • particulate matter
  • air pollution monitoring
  • indoor air quality
  • health
  • meteorological processes
  • emission inventory and monitoring
  • air quality modeling
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 2571 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Oxidative Potential of Ambient PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta Region: Pollution Level and Source Apportionment
by Yaojia Cui, Longwei Zhu, Hui Wang, Zhuzi Zhao, Shuaishuai Ma and Zhaolian Ye
Atmosphere 2023, 14(3), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14030425 - 21 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1498
Abstract
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the degree of air pollution, and it is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Moreover, the oxidative potential (OP, as a tracer of oxidative stress) of PM2.5 has been [...] Read more.
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the degree of air pollution, and it is associated with a range of adverse health impacts. Moreover, the oxidative potential (OP, as a tracer of oxidative stress) of PM2.5 has been thought to be a possible determinant of its health impact. In this study, the OP of 136 fine aerosol filter samples collected in Changzhou in two seasons (spring and summer) were determined using a dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Source apportionments of the PM2.5 and DTT activity were further performed. Our results showed that the daily average ± standard deviation of the DTTv (volume-normalized DTT activity) in the PM2.5 was 1.16 ± 0.58 nmol/min/m3 and 0.85 ± 0.16 nmol/min/m3 in the spring and summer, respectively, and the DTTm (mass-normalized DTT activity) was 13.56 ± 5.45 pmol/min/μg and 19.97 ± 6.54 pmol/min/μg in the spring and summer, respectively. The DTTv was higher in the spring compared to the summer while the opposite was true for the DTTm. Most of the detected components (including the organic component, element component, NH4+, Mn, Cu, Zn, etc.) exhibited a moderately positive correlation with the DTTv, but the opposite was found with the DTTm. An aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HP-AMS) was deployed to probe the chemical properties of the water-soluble organic matter (WSOA). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) coupled with multiple linear regression was used to obtain the relative source contributions to the DTT activity for the WSOA in the PM2.5. The results showed that the sensitivity sequences of the DTTv to the WSOA sources were oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) > biomass burning OA (BBOA) > hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) in the spring and HOA > nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA) > OOA in the summer. The PMF suggested the highest contribution from traffic emissions to the DTTv of the PM2.5 in both seasons. Our findings point to the importance of both organic components from secondary formation and transition metals to adverse health effects in this region. This study can provide an important reference for adopting appropriate public health policies regarding the detrimental outcomes of exposure to PM2.5. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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19 pages, 1597 KiB  
Article
Emulation of a Chemical Transport Model to Assess Air Quality under Future Emission Scenarios for the Southwest of Western Australia
by Stephen Vander Hoorn, Jill S. Johnson, Kevin Murray, Robin Smit, Jane Heyworth, Sean Lam and Martin Cope
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13122009 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2937
Abstract
Simulation outputs from chemical transport models (CTMs) are essential to plan effective air quality policies. A key strength of these models is their ability to separate out source-specific components which facilitate the simulation of the potential impact of policy on future air quality. [...] Read more.
Simulation outputs from chemical transport models (CTMs) are essential to plan effective air quality policies. A key strength of these models is their ability to separate out source-specific components which facilitate the simulation of the potential impact of policy on future air quality. However, configuring and running these models is complex and computationally intensive, making the evaluation of multiple scenarios less accessible to many researchers and policy experts. The aim of this work is to present how Gaussian process emulation can provide a top-down approach to interrogating and interpreting the outputs from CTMs at minimal computational cost. A case study is presented (based on fine particle sources in the southwest of Western Australia) to illustrate how an emulator can be constructed to simultaneously evaluate changes in emissions from on-road transport and electricity sectors. This study demonstrates how emulation provides a flexible way of exploring local impacts of electric vehicles and wider regional effects of emissions from electricity generation. The potential for emulators to be applied to other settings involving air quality research is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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19 pages, 3719 KiB  
Article
Multitemporal Analysis of the Influence of PM10 on Human Mortality According to Urban Land Cover
by Laura Marcela Ochoa-Alvarado, Carlos Alfonso Zafra-Mejía and Hugo Alexander Rondón-Quintana
Atmosphere 2022, 13(12), 1949; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13121949 - 23 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
High urbanization and a consequent change in land cover can lead to a deterioration in air quality and generate impacts on public health. The objective of this paper is to provide a multitemporal analysis of the influence of particulate matter ≤ 10 μm [...] Read more.
High urbanization and a consequent change in land cover can lead to a deterioration in air quality and generate impacts on public health. The objective of this paper is to provide a multitemporal analysis of the influence of particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10) on human mortality from the land cover variation in a Latin American megacity. Six monitoring stations (monitoring daily PM10 concentration, increases in daily mortality (IDM), and land cover) were established throughout the megacity. The results suggest that for every 10% increase in vegetation cover, the daily PM10 concentration and IDM decreases by 7.5 μg/m3 and 0.34%, respectively. Moreover, it is evident that the monitoring station with the lowest vegetation cover (8.96 times) shows an increase of 1.56 times and 4.8 times in the daily PM10 concentration and IDM, respectively, compared with the monitoring station with the highest vegetation cover (46.7%). It is also suggested that for each increase of 100 inhabitants/hectare in population density, the daily PM10 concentration and IDM increases by 9.99 µg/m3 and 0.45%, respectively. Finally, the population densification of the megacity possibly implies a loss of vegetation cover and contributes to the increase in PM10 and IDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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14 pages, 5069 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Unorganized Hydrogen Sulfide Dispersion for Industrial Building Layout Optimization
by Weiwu Ma, Jiaxin Guo, Weiqiang Du, Zheng Zeng and Liqing Li
Atmosphere 2022, 13(11), 1822; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13111822 - 2 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1667
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the main toxic pollutant emitted to the atmosphere from auto-coating wastewater. Its unorganized dispersion poses a health challenge for workers. Defining safe working distance, which transfers the H2S occupational exposure limit into industrial construction design [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the main toxic pollutant emitted to the atmosphere from auto-coating wastewater. Its unorganized dispersion poses a health challenge for workers. Defining safe working distance, which transfers the H2S occupational exposure limit into industrial construction design regulation, would be a useful approach for reducing H2S exposure risk. Therefore, in this study, an H2S dispersion prediction, within 25 m, was performed by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to explore the influence of temperature and wind speed on H2S dispersion. With the temperature changes from 288 K to 303 K, the H2S concentration at different observing points decreased. With wind speed changes from 2 m/s to 20 m/s, the plume layer structure was studied in the whole process. According to the H2S distribution characteristics, when the sedimentation tank treatment capacity is less than or equal to 10 m3/h, the safe working distance of H2S unorganized dispersion is 10 m. Hence, when there are workplaces within 10 m of the tank, closed measures should be taken for the sedimentation tank, or the manufacturer layout should be optimized to protect the environment and human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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13 pages, 2095 KiB  
Article
Inequalities in PM2.5 and SO2 Exposure Health Risks in Terms of Emissions in China, 2013–2017
by Tingting Cui, Zhixiang Ye, Zongyu Wang, Jingcheng Zhou, Chao He, Song Hong, Lu Yang, Xiaoxiao Niu and Qian Wu
Atmosphere 2022, 13(9), 1422; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13091422 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1588
Abstract
Exploring the health risks of diseases attributed to PM2.5 and SO2 exposure and analyzing the differences in their distribution over emissions can provide useful insights for decision-makers to reduce premature mortality due to PM2.5 and SO2 exposure. This study [...] Read more.
Exploring the health risks of diseases attributed to PM2.5 and SO2 exposure and analyzing the differences in their distribution over emissions can provide useful insights for decision-makers to reduce premature mortality due to PM2.5 and SO2 exposure. This study used exposure-response functions, health risk inequality curve (HRICU, based on Lorenz curve), and the health risk inequality coefficient (HRICO, based on Gini coefficient) to estimate population health risks of PM2.5 and SO2 exposure in China from 2013 to 2017 based on a full-coverage, high-precision PM2.5 and SO2 concentration and emission dataset. The inequality in the distribution of premature mortality was explored in terms of pollutant emissions. The results showed that (1) premature mortalities from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) due to PM2.5 and SO2 exposure decreased by 21% and 54%, respectively, from 2013 to 2017. (2) At a national scale, the HRICO value for the distribution of PM2.5 and SO2 health risks on emissions were lower than 0.10 and 0.20, respectively. (3) More than 20% of provinces had HRICO values above 0.1 for PM2.5 or SO2. The provinces near the national borders generally had higher HRICO for PM2.5, while the province with the most severe inequity in the distribution of SO2 health risks on emissions appeared in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Hainan Province. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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20 pages, 3528 KiB  
Article
Low- and Medium-Cost Sensors for Tropospheric Ozone Monitoring—Results of an Evaluation Study in Wrocław, Poland
by Marek Badura, Piotr Batog, Anetta Drzeniecka-Osiadacz and Piotr Modzel
Atmosphere 2022, 13(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13040542 - 29 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2340
Abstract
The paper presents the results of a 1.5-year evaluation study of low- and medium-cost ozone sensors. The tests covered electrochemical sensors: SensoriC O3 3E 1 (City Technology) and semiconductor gas sensors: SM50 OZU (Aeroqual), SP3-61-00 (FIS) and MQ131 (Winsen). Three copies of each [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of a 1.5-year evaluation study of low- and medium-cost ozone sensors. The tests covered electrochemical sensors: SensoriC O3 3E 1 (City Technology) and semiconductor gas sensors: SM50 OZU (Aeroqual), SP3-61-00 (FIS) and MQ131 (Winsen). Three copies of each sensor were enclosed in a measurement box and placed near the reference analyser (MLU 400). In the case of SensoriC O3 3E 1 sensors, the R2 values for the 1-h data were above 0.90 for the first 9 months of deployment, but a performance deterioration was observed in the subsequent months (R2 ≈ 0.6), due to sensor ageing processes. High linear relationships were observed for the SM50 devices (R2 > 0.94), but some periodic data offsets were reported, making regular checking and recalibration necessary. Power-law functions were used in the case of SP3-61-00 (R2 = 0.6–0.7) and MQ131 (R2 = 0.4–0.7). Improvements in the fittings were observed for models that included temperature and relative humidity data. In the case of SP3-61-00, the R2 values increased to above 0.82, while for MQ131 they increased to above 0.86. The study also showed that the measurement uncertainty of tested sensors meets the EU Directive 2008/50/EC requirements for indicative measurements and, in some cases, even for fixed measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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11 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
The Association of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) and Air Pollutants—A Population-Based Study
by Yi-Jen Fang, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn Lee, Kuei-Hau Luo, Po-Sheng Fang, Chen-Cheng Yang and Hung-Yi Chuang
Atmosphere 2022, 13(3), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13030466 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2653
Abstract
Air pollutants are substances in the air that have harmful effects on humans and the ecological environment. Although slight elevations in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are commonly observed in apparently healthy persons, potential associations between CEA levels and chronic low-grade inflammation induced by air [...] Read more.
Air pollutants are substances in the air that have harmful effects on humans and the ecological environment. Although slight elevations in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) are commonly observed in apparently healthy persons, potential associations between CEA levels and chronic low-grade inflammation induced by air pollution have yet to be documented. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study to estimate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and the CEA. A total of 9728 participants from health examinations were enrolled for the analysis and linked with their residential air pollutant data including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10). The results showed that every increase of 1 ppm O3 significantly increased the mean differences of the CEA blood concentration by 0.005 ng/mL. Each increase of 1 ppm CO significantly reduced the mean differences of the CEA blood concentration by 0.455 ng/mL. Although smoking and alcohol drinking also increased the CEA levels, with adjustment of these confounders we identified a significant association between serum CEA in the general population and levels of the air pollutants O3 and CO. In conclusion, the serum CEA concentrations and short-term air pollutants O3 and CO exposure were found to have a significant relationship; however, its mechanism is still unclear. Moreover, long-term air pollution exposure and changes in CEA concentration still need to be further evaluated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
12 pages, 478 KiB  
Article
Low-Dose Benzene Exposure Monitoring of Oil Refinery Workers: Inhalation and Biomarkers
by Stefano Dugheri, Giulia Pizzella, Nicola Mucci, Alessandro Bonari, Giovanni Cappelli, Mario Santillo, Iacopo Rainaldi, Ilenia Pompilio, Maria Carrara, Venerando Rapisarda, Simone De Sio and Giulio Arcangeli
Atmosphere 2022, 13(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13030450 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3204
Abstract
Airborne benzene in workplaces has progressively decreased due to preventive actions and the redesigning of facility processes. Professionals who assess occupational exposure should select techniques to detect benzene levels comparable to ambient air exposure. Thus, sensitive biomarkers are needed to discriminate the effects [...] Read more.
Airborne benzene in workplaces has progressively decreased due to preventive actions and the redesigning of facility processes. Professionals who assess occupational exposure should select techniques to detect benzene levels comparable to ambient air exposure. Thus, sensitive biomarkers are needed to discriminate the effects of confounding factors, such as smoking or sorbic acid (SA). In order to identify sensitive biomarkers and to study their correlation with confounding factors, 23 oil refinery workers were enrolled in the study; their airborne benzene exposures and biomarkers were monitored. Urinary benzene (U-B), t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA), and S-phenylmercapturic acid (SPMA) were quantified. Urinary cotinine (U-C) and t,t-sorbic acid (t,t-SA) were evaluated to flag smoking and SA intake, respectively. The benzene measured in personal inhalation sampling ranged from 0.6 to 83.5 (median 1.7) µg/m3. The concentration range of the biomarkers, U-B, t,t-MA, and SPMA, were 18–4893 ng/m3, <10–79.4 µg/g creatinine, and <0.5–3.96 µg/g creatinine, respectively. Pearson tests were carried out; the best correlations were between airborne benzene and U-B (µg/L r = 0.820, p < 0.001) and between benzene and SPMA (g/L r = 0.812, p < 0.001), followed by benzene and t,t-MA (mg/L r = 0.465, p = 0.039). From our study, U-B and SPMA result to be the most reliable biomarkers to assess the internal number of low doses of benzene exposure, thanks to their specificity and sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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14 pages, 1478 KiB  
Article
Ambient Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Hospital Admissions in 31 Cities in Poland
by Łukasz Adamkiewicz, Katarzyna Maciejewska, Daniel Rabczenko and Anetta Drzeniecka-Osiadacz
Atmosphere 2022, 13(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020345 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
A strong and consistent association has been observed between morbidity or mortality rates and PM concentration, and is well documented in many countries. In Poland, despite poor air quality, studies concerning the evaluation of acute health effects of ambient air pollution on morbidity [...] Read more.
A strong and consistent association has been observed between morbidity or mortality rates and PM concentration, and is well documented in many countries. In Poland, despite poor air quality, studies concerning the evaluation of acute health effects of ambient air pollution on morbidity from respiratory or cardiovascular diseases are rare. We examined the short-term impact of PMx concentration on hospital admission in 31 Polish cities based on the daily PM10, PM2.5 concentration, meteorological variables, and hospital data. The generalized additive model (GAM) and a random-effects meta-analysis were used to assess the impact of air pollution on morbidity within the exposed population. Almost 1.6 million cardiovascular admissions and 600 thousand respiratory disorders were analyzed. The RR values for PM10-related cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admissions in Poland are equal to 1.0077 (95% confidence interval, 1.0062 to 1.0092) and 1.0218 (95% confidence interval, 1.0182 to 1.0253), respectively, while for PM2.5 1.0088 (95% confidence interval, 1.0072 to 1.0103) and 1.0289 (95% confidence interval, 1.0244 to 1.0335), respectively. Moreover, a moderate heterogeneity of RR estimates was observed between the analyzed cities (I2 values from 27% to 45%). The presented analysis confirms the significant association between hospital admission and PMx concentration, especially during heating seasons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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18 pages, 30809 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of PM2.5 Pollution in Osorno, Chile: Ion Chromatography and Meteorological Data Analyses
by Ayane Nakamura, Nobutake Nakatani, Fumito Maruyama, So Fujiyoshi, Rodrigo Márquez-Reyes, Ricardo Fernández and Jun Noda
Atmosphere 2022, 13(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020168 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4009
Abstract
Over the decades, air pollution has become a serious problem in Osorno, Chile. This study aims to clarify the source of PM2.5 by comprehensively analyzing its chemical composition and comparing it with meteorological conditions. The PM2.5 and filter samples were collected [...] Read more.
Over the decades, air pollution has become a serious problem in Osorno, Chile. This study aims to clarify the source of PM2.5 by comprehensively analyzing its chemical composition and comparing it with meteorological conditions. The PM2.5 and filter samples were collected during April 2019–August 2019 using a continuous particulate monitor. The analyses were conducted using Image J software, ion chromatography, and backward trajectory. The ion composition and the PM2.5 were compared. The results on the PM2.5 and potassium (K+) concentrations indicated a correlation factor of 0.93, indicating that biomass combustion, such as wood burning, is the dominant source of PM2.5 in Osorno. High PM2.5 concentrations of over 170 to 1124 µg/m3 were observed in low temperature, low precipitation, and low wind speed periods—meteorological conditions contributed to the development of a thermal inversion layer. In addition, correlations of 0.61 to 0.67 were found among the detected ions that are often found in seawater. The backward trajectory analyses showed dominant air mass transport from the South Pacific Ocean, suggesting that part of the detected PM2.5 was derived from the marine environment. Continuous monitoring and mitigation strategies focusing on wood combustion activities are necessary to alleviate the current air pollution problem in Osorno city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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13 pages, 3422 KiB  
Article
Air Pollution Associated with Total Suspended Particulate and Particulate Matter in Cement Grinding Plant in Vietnam
by Tinh Thai, Ales Bernatik and Petr Kučera
Atmosphere 2021, 12(12), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12121707 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3245
Abstract
Air pollution associated with suspended particles has become a significant concern in Vietnam recently. The study aimed to (1) investigate dust sources; (2) measure concentration levels of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), Particulate Matter (PM) fractions; (3) identify silica levels and the correlation with [...] Read more.
Air pollution associated with suspended particles has become a significant concern in Vietnam recently. The study aimed to (1) investigate dust sources; (2) measure concentration levels of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), Particulate Matter (PM) fractions; (3) identify silica levels and the correlation with respirable particles at a cement grinding plant in Vietnam. A total of 312 samples (52 TSP, 160 PMs) at 13 processes were measured using the direct-reading dust meter. The silica composition was analyzed in a certified laboratory using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. SPSS version 26 for Window was used to analyze the data. The operations of the cement grinding plant created multiple dust sources from the jetty to the cement dispatch process. The TSP levels ranged 0.06–38.24 mg m−3, and 40.38% (n = 21) TSP samples exceeded the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for an 8-h working shift. Besides that, there was a wide range and significant concentration levels of PMs in the cement processes. The levels of PMs were PM1 (0.00–0.06 mg m−3), PM2.5 (0.01–0.83 mg m−3), PM4 (0.02–4.59 mg m−3), PM7 (0.03–16.94 mg m−3), and PM10 (0.04–26.85 mg m−3). The highest mean levels of PMs factions were measured at the pre-grinding process. The inefficient operation of the dust collector contributed a significant factor to the dust dispersion in this process. The silica’s mean (SD) composition in respirable dust was 20.4% (0.86) and was not significantly different amongst the processes. There was a significant correlation between the levels of respirable dust and silica exposure in the cement grinding plant (r = 0.99). The improvement of indoor air quality is needed to prevent health effects on cement workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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16 pages, 2156 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Emission Factors for Hazardous Air Pollutants from Petroleum Refineries
by Elisa Polvara, Luca Roveda, Marzio Invernizzi, Laura Capelli and Selena Sironi
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1531; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111531 - 20 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2710
Abstract
The hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) group is composed of 187 chemicals that are known to be potentially carcinogenic and dangerous for human health. Due to their toxicological impact, HAPs are an increasingly studied class of compounds. Of the different HAPs sources, refineries are [...] Read more.
The hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) group is composed of 187 chemicals that are known to be potentially carcinogenic and dangerous for human health. Due to their toxicological impact, HAPs are an increasingly studied class of compounds. Of the different HAPs sources, refineries are one of the major sources. In order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the impact of a refinery in terms of emissions, a useful instrument is the determination of the emission factor (EF). For this reason, this work, focusing on the USA refining scenario, aims to provide evidence for a generic trend in refinery emissions to evaluate a correlation between the plant size and the amount of its emissions, in particular the HAPs emissions. Based on the analysis of the data collected from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), a general trend in the emissions from refinery plants was established, showing a positive correlation between the HAPs emissions and the refinery size, represented by a value of the Pearson correlation coefficient r close to 1. Once this correlation was highlighted, a purpose of this work became the estimation of an organic HAPs emission factor (EF): from a whole refining plant, the EF of the total organic HAPs is equal to 10 g emitted for each ton of crude oil processed. Moreover, it was also possible to undertake the same evaluation for two specific HAP molecules: benzene and formaldehyde. The benzene and formaldehyde EFs are equal to, respectively, 0.8 g and 0.2 g for each ton of processed crude oil. This work provides a simple rule of thumb for the estimation of hazardous substances emitted from petroleum refineries in their mean operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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26 pages, 79875 KiB  
Article
Spatial Pattern of Air Pollutant Concentrations and Their Relationship with Meteorological Parameters in Coastal Slum Settlements of Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria
by Oluwaseun Princess Okimiji, Kuaanan Techato, John Nyandansobi Simon, Opeyemi Oluwaseun Tope-Ajayi, Angela Tochukwu Okafor, Moses Akintayo Aborisade and Khamphe Phoungthong
Atmosphere 2021, 12(11), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12111426 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3307
Abstract
This study assessed the spatial disposition of air pollutants and their relationship with meteorological parameters in urban slum settlements of Lagos city. The gaseous pollutants were quantified using a gas analyzer, and the PM2.5 concentration and meteorological parameters were determined using an [...] Read more.
This study assessed the spatial disposition of air pollutants and their relationship with meteorological parameters in urban slum settlements of Lagos city. The gaseous pollutants were quantified using a gas analyzer, and the PM2.5 concentration and meteorological parameters were determined using an Air Metric Sampler and Wind Mate, respectively. SPSS for Windows and ArcGIS were used for data analysis. The results revealed that the seasonal variations in SO2, NO2, CO2, and PM2.5 showed a higher level of air pollutant concentration during the dry season than during the wet season. During the wet season, a significant correlation was observed between PM2.5 and temperature at the 1% level (0.957 **), and VOC and SO2 (0.907 *) at the 5% level; during the dry season, significant correlations were observed between NO2 and SO2 at the 1% level (0.9477 **), and PM2.5 and relative humidity (0.832 *) at the 5% level. Atmospheric pressure (72%), temperature (60%), and relative humidity (98.4) were the primary meteorological factors affecting air pollutants such as VOC, CO2, and SO2. The spatial dispersal of air pollutants revealed a high Z score and a moderate p-value, indicating hot spot locations throughout the five selected slum settlements. It is recommended that regular monitoring based on quantifiable economic costs that are beneficial to the well-being of the populace be investigated, and policy-based initiatives for air pollution control based on scientific evidence be advocated for. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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16 pages, 1027 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Occupational Exposure Risk for Employees Working in Dynamic Olfactometry: Focus On Non-Carcinogenic Effects Correlated with Exposure to Landfill Emissions
by Elisa Polvara, Baharak Essna ashari, Laura Capelli and Selena Sironi
Atmosphere 2021, 12(10), 1325; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12101325 - 11 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2131
Abstract
This work aims to evaluate the non-carcinogenic health effects related to landfill odor emissions, therefore focusing on workers involved in dynamic olfactometry. Currently, the most common technique to quantify odor emissions is dynamic olfactometry, a sensorial analysis involving human assessors. During the analysis, [...] Read more.
This work aims to evaluate the non-carcinogenic health effects related to landfill odor emissions, therefore focusing on workers involved in dynamic olfactometry. Currently, the most common technique to quantify odor emissions is dynamic olfactometry, a sensorial analysis involving human assessors. During the analysis, assessors are directly exposed, at increasing concentrations, to odor samples, and thus to the hazardous pollutants contained therein. This entails the need to estimate the associated exposure risk to guarantee examiners’ safety. Therefore, this paper evaluates the exposure risk for olfactometric examiners to establish the minimum dilution level to be adopted during the analysis of landfills’ odorous samples to guarantee panelists’ safety. For this purpose, an extensive literature review regarding the pollutants emitted by landfill odor sources was conducted, comparing compounds’ chemical concentrations and threshold limit values (TLVs) to calculate the Hazard Index (HI) and thus establish a minimum dilution value. The data collected indicate that a non-negligible non-carcinogenic risk exists for all landfill emissions considered. However, from the data considered, the minimum dilution factor to be adopted is lower than the typical odor concentration observed for these sources. Therefore, the olfactometric analysis of landfill samples can be generally conducted in safe conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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13 pages, 19913 KiB  
Article
Human Health Risk Assessment of Air Pollution in the Regions of Unsustainable Heating Sources. Case Study—The Tourist Areas of Southern Poland
by Agnieszka Gruszecka-Kosowska, Jacek Dajda, Ewa Adamiec, Edeltrauda Helios-Rybicka, Marek Kisiel-Dorohinicki, Radosław Klimek, Dariusz Pałka and Jarosław Wąs
Atmosphere 2021, 12(5), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos12050615 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2762
Abstract
Air pollution is one of the main factors affecting human health. Air quality is especially important in the tourist areas developed with facilities for outdoor activities. During the winter season of 2017/2018, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, [...] Read more.
Air pollution is one of the main factors affecting human health. Air quality is especially important in the tourist areas developed with facilities for outdoor activities. During the winter season of 2017/2018, the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1), CO, O3, and NO2 were studied in 12 attractive tourist villages in the surroundings of the Czorsztyn Reservoir in southern Poland. Air pollutant measurements were performed continuously, using a single ground-based Alphasense air sensor. Our assessment of human health risk (HHRA), arising from inhalation exposure to air contaminants, was calculated for both local inhabitants and tourists, based on actual measured values. It was found that pollutant concentrations exceeded both permissible and recommended levels of PM10 and PM2.5. The mean total noncarcinogenic risk values were equal to 9.58 (unitless) for adults and 9.68 (unitless) for children and infants, under the resident exposure scenario. However, under the tourist exposure scenario, the mean total risk was equal to 1.63 (unitless) for adults and 1.64 (unitless) for children and infants. The risk to tourists was lower than that to inhabitants due to shorter exposure times. The target non-carcinogenic value of 1, calculated for PM10, PM2.5, and NO2, was significantly exceeded in total risk, under the residential exposure scenario, in reference to all the local subpopulations. In the majority of the investigated locations, the total risk exceeded the value of 1, under the tourist scenario, for all the subpopulations analysed. PM2.5 was recognised to be the most important contaminant in our risk analysis, in view of its share in the total risk value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
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