Special Issue "Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical and Autonomous Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jose Santa
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain
Interests: intelligent transportation systems; mobile and wireless networks; intelligent infrastructures and telematics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Ramon Sanchez-Iborra
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Computer Science, University of Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain
Interests: evaluation of QoE in multimedia services; management of wireless mobile networks; green networking techniques and IoT/M2M architectures
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The area of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has now become a mature research field, with great advances in the last 15 years in sensor integration, vehicular networks, vision or autonomous and cooperative services. More recently, Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are being applied, and the new area of Internet of Vehicles (IoV) has appeared to better interconnect vehicles in smart scenarios. The integration of ITS in Smart Cities is, for sure, a hot topic, and several technologies embraced by the 5G concept will be essential enablers to reach efficient and secure mobility goals in the coming years.

Communication and network technologies allow the development of cooperative services, but they should be complemented by proper on-board sensors. This synergy is evident in recent cooperative positioning advances, and the open access to in-vehicle sensors through interfaces, such as OBD-II. In a later stage, data collected from vehicles should be processed using a computing paradigm and taking advantage of Big Data algorithms. This with the aim of providing the user with new services in the areas of safety, efficiency and entertainment, or directly supporting the proper autonomous navigation of the vehicle.

This Special Issue wants to exploit this momentum of ITS in the cited domains, by inviting researches to contribute with original works as well as review articles in topics covering vehicular communications, cooperative services, sensor integration, onboard smart devices and autonomous vehicles, through analysis, simulation and field trials.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Cooperative ITS using V2V and V2I communications.
  • 5G integration in vehicles: new radio proposals, V2X, network slicing.
  • IoT and IoV.
  • Vehicular to human (V2H) communications
  • Vehicular Software Defined Networks (SDN).
  • Cooperative positioning.
  • Autonomous vehicles and cooperative driving.
  • On-board interfaces.
  • Vehicle sensors and data access.
  • Low-Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN) in ITS.
  • Network mobility.
  • Big Data for connected ITS.
  • Network Function Virtualization (NFV) in vehicular domains.
  • Vehicular 802.11 communication technologies.
  • Vulnerable road users.
  • ITS for two-wheel and light vehicles.
  • Fog, Edge and Cloud in vehicular services.
  • Infotainment services.

Dr. Jose Santa
Dr. Ramon Sanchez-Iborra
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Vehicular Systems Technologies: Challenges and Trends Across Transportation Means
Electronics 2019, 8(11), 1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8111214 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) paradigm embraces a plethora of innovations for different transportation means; hence, several multidisciplinary fields are involved in the extensive research related to this topic [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Security Analysis for CBTC Systems under Attack–Defense Confrontation
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 991; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090991 - 05 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Communication-based train controls (CBTC) systems play a major role in urban rail transportation. As CBTC systems are no longer isolated from the outside world but use other networks to increase efficiency and improve productivity, they are exposed to huge cyber threats. This paper [...] Read more.
Communication-based train controls (CBTC) systems play a major role in urban rail transportation. As CBTC systems are no longer isolated from the outside world but use other networks to increase efficiency and improve productivity, they are exposed to huge cyber threats. This paper proposes a generalized stochastic Petri net (GSPN) model to capture dynamic interaction between the attacker and the defender to evaluate the security of CBTC systems. Depending on the characteristics of the system and attack–defense methods, we divided our model into two phases: penetration and disruption. In each phase, we provided effective means of attack and corresponding defensive measures, and the system state was determined correspondingly. Additionally, a semiphysical simulation platform and game model were proposed to assist the GSPN model parameterization. With the steady-state probability of the system output from the model, we propose several indicators for assessing system security. Finally, we compared the security of the system with single defensive measures and multiple defensive measures. Our evaluations indicated the significance of the defensive measures and the seriousness of the system security situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
M3C: Multimodel-and-Multicue-Based Tracking by Detection of Surrounding Vessels in Maritime Environment for USV
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070723 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 5Correction
Abstract
It is crucial for unmanned surface vessels (USVs) to detect and track surrounding vessels in real time to avoid collisions at sea. However, the harsh maritime environment poses great challenges to multitarget tracking (MTT). In this paper, a novel tracking by detection framework [...] Read more.
It is crucial for unmanned surface vessels (USVs) to detect and track surrounding vessels in real time to avoid collisions at sea. However, the harsh maritime environment poses great challenges to multitarget tracking (MTT). In this paper, a novel tracking by detection framework that integrates the multimodel and multicue (M3C) pipeline is proposed, which aims at improving the detection and tracking performance. Regarding the multimodel, we predicted the maneuver probability of a target vessel via the gated recurrent unit (GRU) model with an attention mechanism, and fused their respective outputs as the output of a kinematic filter. We developed a hybrid affinity model based on multi cues, such as the motion, appearance, and attitude of the ego vessel in the data association stage. By using the proposed ship re-identification approach, the tracker had the capability of appearance matching via metric learning. Experimental evaluation of two public maritime datasets showed that our method achieved state-of-the-art performance, not only in identity switches (IDS) but also in frame rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
A Centralized Route-Management Solution for Autonomous Vehicles in Urban Areas
Electronics 2019, 8(7), 722; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8070722 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 12
Abstract
Currently, one of the main challenges that large metropolitan areas must face is traffic congestion. To address this problem, it becomes necessary to implement an efficient solution to control traffic that generates benefits for citizens, such as reducing vehicle journey times and, consequently, [...] Read more.
Currently, one of the main challenges that large metropolitan areas must face is traffic congestion. To address this problem, it becomes necessary to implement an efficient solution to control traffic that generates benefits for citizens, such as reducing vehicle journey times and, consequently, environmental pollution. By properly analyzing traffic demand, it is possible to predict future traffic conditions, using this information for the optimization of the routes taken by vehicles. Such an approach becomes especially effective if applied in the context of autonomous vehicles, which have a more predictable behavior, thus enabling city management entities to mitigate the effects of traffic congestion and pollution, thereby improving the traffic flow in a city in a fully centralized manner. This paper represents a step forward towards this novel traffic management paradigm by proposing a route server capable of handling all the traffic in a city, and balancing traffic flows by accounting for present and future traffic congestion conditions. We perform a simulation study using real data of traffic congestion in the city of Valencia, Spain, to demonstrate how the traffic flow in a typical day can be improved using our proposed solution. Experimental results show that our proposed traffic prediction equation, combined with frequent updating of traffic conditions on the route server, can achieve substantial improvements in terms of average travel speeds and travel times, both indicators of lower degrees of congestion and improved traffic fluidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Scenario-Based Emergency Material Scheduling Using V2X Communications
Electronics 2019, 8(6), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060707 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications can be applied in emergency material scheduling due to their performance in collecting and transmitting disaster-related data in real time. The urgency of disaster depots can be judged based on the disaster area video, and the scenario coefficient can be [...] Read more.
Vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications can be applied in emergency material scheduling due to their performance in collecting and transmitting disaster-related data in real time. The urgency of disaster depots can be judged based on the disaster area video, and the scenario coefficient can be evaluated for building a fairness model. This paper presents a scenario-based approach for emergency material scheduling (SEMS) using V2X communications. We propose a SEMS model, with the objectives of minimum time and maximum fairness in the cases of multiple supply depots, disaster depots, commodities and transport modes for logistics management of relief commodities. We design the SEMS algorithm based on the artificial fish-swarm algorithm to obtain an optimized solution. The results demonstrate that the SEMS model can enhance the fairness of relief scheduling, especially for disaster depots with small demands compared to the Gini and enhanced Theil fairness models. Moreover, the acquired vehicle speed via V2X communications updates the SEMS model in real time, which approaches a solution closer to reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Reducing Unnecessary Alerts in Pedestrian Protection Systems Based on P2V Communications
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030360 - 25 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
There are different proposals in the literature on how to protect pedestrians using warning systems to alert drivers of their presence. They can be based on onboard perception systems or wireless communications. The evaluation of these systems has been focused on testing their [...] Read more.
There are different proposals in the literature on how to protect pedestrians using warning systems to alert drivers of their presence. They can be based on onboard perception systems or wireless communications. The evaluation of these systems has been focused on testing their ability to detect pedestrians. A problem that has received much less attention is the possibility of generating too many alerts in the warning systems. In this paper, we propose and analyze four different algorithms to take the decision on generating alerts in a warning system that is based on direct wireless communications between vehicles and pedestrians. With the algorithms, we explore different strategies to reduce unnecessary alerts. The feasibility of the implementation of the algorithms was evaluated with a deployment using real equipment, and tests were carried out to verify their behavior in real scenarios. The ability of each algorithm to reduce unnecessary alerts was evaluated with realistic simulations in an urban scenario, using a traffic simulator with vehicular and pedestrian flows. The results show the importance of tackling the problem of driver overload in warning systems, and that it is not straightforward to predict the load of alerts generated by an algorithm in a large-scale deployment, in which there are multiple interactions between vehicles and pedestrians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Raspberry Pi-Based Low-Cost Connected Device for Assessing Road Surface Friction
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030341 - 20 Mar 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
Measuring friction between the tyres of a vehicle and the road, often and on as many locations on the road network as possible, can be a valuable tool for ensuring traffic safety. Rather than by using specialised equipment for sequential measurements, this can [...] Read more.
Measuring friction between the tyres of a vehicle and the road, often and on as many locations on the road network as possible, can be a valuable tool for ensuring traffic safety. Rather than by using specialised equipment for sequential measurements, this can be achieved by using several low-cost measuring devices on vehicles that travel on the road network as part of their daily assignments. The presented work proves the hypothesis that a low cost measuring device can be built and can provide measurement results comparable to those obtained from expensive specialised measuring devices. As a proof of concept, two copies of a prototype device, based on the Raspberry Pi single-board computer, have been developed, built and tested. They use accelerometers to measure vehicle braking deceleration and include a global positioning receiver for obtaining the geolocation of each test. They run custom-developed data acquisition software on the Linux operating system and provide automatic measurement data transfer to a server. The operation is controlled by an intuitive user interface consisting of two illuminated physical pushbuttons. The results show that for braking tests and friction coefficient measurements the developed prototypes compare favourably to a widely used professional vehicle performance computer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Application of Lagrange Relaxation to Decentralized Optimization of Dispatching a Charging Station for Electric Vehicles
Electronics 2019, 8(3), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8030288 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 7
Abstract
To improve the computation efficiency of optimally dispatching large-scale cluster electric vehicles (EVs) and to enhance the profit of a charging station (CS) for EVs, this study investigates the optimal dispatch of the CS based on a decentralized optimization method and a time-of-use [...] Read more.
To improve the computation efficiency of optimally dispatching large-scale cluster electric vehicles (EVs) and to enhance the profit of a charging station (CS) for EVs, this study investigates the optimal dispatch of the CS based on a decentralized optimization method and a time-of-use (TOU) price strategy. With the application of the Lagrange relaxation method (LRM), a decentralized optimization model with its solution is proposed that converts the traditional centralized optimization model into certain sub-problems. The optimization model aims to maximize the profit of CS, but it comprehensively considers the charging preference of EV users, the operation constraints of the distribution network, and the TOU strategy adopted by the CS. To validate the proposed decentralized optimal dispatching method, a series of numerical simulations were conducted to demonstrate its effect on the computation efficiency and stability, the profit of the CS, and the peak-load shifting. The result indicates that the TOU strategy markedly increases the profit of the CS in comparison with the fixed electricity price mechanism, and the computation efficiency and stability are much better than those of the centralized optimization method. Although it does not compensate the load fluctuation completely, the proposed method with the TOU strategy is helpful for filling the valley of power use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Based on Tire Model Adaptation
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020199 - 09 Feb 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Information about the vehicle sideslip angle is crucial for the successful implementation of advanced stability control systems. In production vehicles, sideslip angle is difficult to measure within the desired accuracy level because of high costs and other associated impracticalities. This paper presents a [...] Read more.
Information about the vehicle sideslip angle is crucial for the successful implementation of advanced stability control systems. In production vehicles, sideslip angle is difficult to measure within the desired accuracy level because of high costs and other associated impracticalities. This paper presents a novel framework for estimation of the vehicle sideslip angle. The proposed algorithm utilizes an adaptive tire model in conjunction with a model-based observer. The proposed adaptive tire model is capable of coping with changes to the tire operating conditions. More specifically, extensions have been made to Pacejka’s Magic Formula expressions for the tire cornering stiffness and peak grip level. These model extensions account for variations in the tire inflation pressure, load, tread depth and temperature. The vehicle sideslip estimation algorithm is evaluated through experimental tests done on a rear wheel drive (RWD) vehicle. Detailed experimental results show that the developed system can reliably estimate the vehicle sideslip angle during both steady state and transient maneuvers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
SURROGATES: Virtual OBUs to Foster 5G Vehicular Services
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020117 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 9
Abstract
Virtualization technologies are key enablers of softwarized 5G networks, and their usage in the vehicular domain can provide flexibility and reliability in real deployments, where mobility and processing needs may be an issue. Next-generation vehicular services, such as the ones in the area [...] Read more.
Virtualization technologies are key enablers of softwarized 5G networks, and their usage in the vehicular domain can provide flexibility and reliability in real deployments, where mobility and processing needs may be an issue. Next-generation vehicular services, such as the ones in the area of urban mobility and, in general, those interconnecting on-board sensors, require continuous data gathering and processing, but current architectures are stratified in two-tier solutions in which data is collected by on-board units (OBU) and sent to cloud servers. In this line, intermediate cache and processing layers are needed in order to cover quasi-ubiquitous data-gathering needs of vehicles in scenarios of smart cities/roads considering vehicles as moving sensors. The SURROGATES solution presented in this paper proposes to virtualize vehicle OBUs and create a novel Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) layer with the aim of offloading processing from the vehicle and serving data-access requests. This deals with potential disconnection periods of vehicles, saves radio resources when accessing the physical OBU and improves data processing performance. A proof of concept has been implemented using OpenStack and Open Source MANO to virtualize resources and gather data from in-vehicle sensors, and a final traffic monitoring service has been implemented to validate the proposal. Performance results reveal a speedup of more than 50% in the data request resolution, with consequently great savings of network resources in the wireless segment. Thus, this work opens a novel path regarding the virtualization of end-devices in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Certificate Based Security Mechanisms in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks based on IEC 61850 and IEEE WAVE Standards
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010096 - 15 Jan 2019
Cited by 16
Abstract
When equipped with an on-board wireless kit, electric vehicles (EVs) can communicate with nearby entities, e.g., road side units (RSUs), via a vehicle ad-hoc network (VANET). More observability enables smart charging algorithms where charging stations (CSs) are allocated to EVs based on their [...] Read more.
When equipped with an on-board wireless kit, electric vehicles (EVs) can communicate with nearby entities, e.g., road side units (RSUs), via a vehicle ad-hoc network (VANET). More observability enables smart charging algorithms where charging stations (CSs) are allocated to EVs based on their current state of charge, destination, and urgency to charge. IEEE 1609 WAVE standard regulates VANETs, while IEC 61850 is emerging as the smart grid communication standard. In order to integrate these two domains of energy management, past research has focused on harmonizing these two standards for a full smart city solution. However, this solution requires very sensitive data to be transmitted, such as ownership of EV, owners’ personal details, and driving history. Therefore, data security in these networks is of prime concern and needs to be addressed. In this paper, different security mechanisms defined by the IEEE 1609 WAVE standard are applied for both vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communication. The former relates to EV–RSU, while the latter covers EV–CS communication. The implicit and explicit certificate mechanism processes proposed in IEEE 1609 WAVE for authentication are studied in great detail. Furthermore, a performance evaluation for these mechanisms is presented in terms of total time lapse for authentication, considering both the computational time and communication time delays. These results are very important in understanding the extra latency introduced by security mechanisms. Considering that VANETs may be volatile and may disappear as EVs drive away, overall timing performance becomes vital for operation. Reported results show the magnitude of this impact and compare different security mechanisms. These can be utilized to further develop VANET security approaches based on available time and the required security level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Tracking and Monitoring System Based on LoRa Technology for Lightweight Boats
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010015 - 22 Dec 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
Maritime communications are really challenging due to the adverse transmission conditions and the lack of a pre-provided infrastructure for supporting long range connectivity with land. Communications in high seas are usually covered by satellite links that are expensive and lead to high power [...] Read more.
Maritime communications are really challenging due to the adverse transmission conditions and the lack of a pre-provided infrastructure for supporting long range connectivity with land. Communications in high seas are usually covered by satellite links that are expensive and lead to high power consumption by the terminals. However, in areas closer to the shore, other communication options have been adopted for different kinds of services such as boat tracking and telemetry, data collection from moored monitoring systems, etc. In these scenarios, technologies such as cellular communications or wireless sensor networks have been employed so far; nevertheless, all of them present different drawbacks mostly related with the coverage and energy-efficiency of the system. Recently, a novel communication paradigm, so-called Low Power-Wide Area Network (LP-WAN) has gained momentum due to its interesting characteristics regarding transmission distances and end-node’s power consumption. The latter may be of great interest for ships with energetic restrictions such as small sailboats, recreational boats, or radio control ships. For that reason, in this work, we present a boat tracking and monitoring system based on LoRa (Long Range), one of the most prominent LP-WAN technologies. We provide a comprehensive overview of this communication solution as well as a discussion addressing its benefits when applied to maritime scenarios. We present the results extracted from a case of study, where real-training sessions of Optimist Class sailboats have been monitored by means of the presented architecture, obtaining good levels of coverage and link-reliability with limited power consumption. A transmission range study is also presented, demonstrating the validity of this proposal for monitoring activities inside the port or maneuvers close to the shore. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Coordination of Congestion and Awareness Control in Vehicular Networks
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110335 - 20 Nov 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Vehicular networks need to guarantee the communication reliability levels necessary to satisfy the application requirements, while ensuring a stable network operation even under dense deployments. To this aim, congestion and awareness control protocols dynamically adapt the same communication parameters based on context conditions. [...] Read more.
Vehicular networks need to guarantee the communication reliability levels necessary to satisfy the application requirements, while ensuring a stable network operation even under dense deployments. To this aim, congestion and awareness control protocols dynamically adapt the same communication parameters based on context conditions. If the two protocols operate independently, negative interactions or conflicts can arise. This situation can occur if for example congestion control requires decreasing the transmission power to reduce the channel load, but this reduction negatively influences the vehicles’ awareness range. To address these interactions or conflicts, this paper proposes and evaluates a methodology to coordinate congestion and awareness control protocols. A key advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require the integration of the interacting protocols, nor does it require changing their original design. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed coordination methodology. In addition, the proposed methodology can be extended to the coordination of multiple protocols operating over the same communication parameters. This is here demonstrated considering the coordination of congestion, awareness and topology control protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Qiao, D. et al. M3C: Multimodel-and-Multicue-Based Tracking by Detection of Surrounding Vessels in Maritime Environment for USV. Electronics 2019, 8, 723
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 984; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090984 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to our published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart, Connected and Efficient Transportation Systems)
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