Special Issue "The Development of Face Processing: Insights from Typical and Atypical Functioning"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Developmental Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 May 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Kirsten Dalrymple

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 51 East River Parkway, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: development; eye tracking; face processing; neuropsychology; prosopagnosia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Face processing is an important part of our everyday lives that provides our primary means to identify other individuals so we can form and maintain social relationships. Because of the daily necessity of processing facial information, understanding the development of face processing—whether typical or atypical—is an essential area of study. This area is especially relevant given the prevalence of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and prosopagnosia, which are associated with, or defined by, impaired face processing.

This Special Issue will feature a selection of research articles on the development of face processing, including studies of typical or atypical functioning. The term “face processing” refers to face recognition, face memory, face perception, and other types of face-related processes such as face detection, processing of emotional expression, and the perception of race, gender, etc. Contributions that discuss impaired face processing and/or treatments for impaired face processing are especially encouraged.

I look forward to your submission to this exciting Special Issue.

Sincerely,

Dr. Kirsten Dalrymple
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • face processing
  • development
  • psychology
  • neuropsychology

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
The Scanpaths of Subjects with Developmental Prosopagnosia during a Face Memory Task
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(8), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9080188
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 31 July 2019 / Published: 2 August 2019
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Abstract
The scanpaths of healthy subjects show biases towards the upper face, the eyes and the center of the face, which suggests that their fixations are guided by a feature hierarchy towards the regions most informative for face identification. However, subjects with developmental prosopagnosia [...] Read more.
The scanpaths of healthy subjects show biases towards the upper face, the eyes and the center of the face, which suggests that their fixations are guided by a feature hierarchy towards the regions most informative for face identification. However, subjects with developmental prosopagnosia have a lifelong impairment in face processing. Whether this is reflected in the loss of normal face-scanning strategies is not known. The goal of this study was to determine if subjects with developmental prosopagnosia showed anomalous scanning biases as they processed the identity of faces. We recorded the fixations of 10 subjects with developmental prosopagnosia as they performed a face memorization and recognition task, for comparison with 8 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia (four with anterior temporal lesions and four with occipitotemporal lesions) and 20 control subjects. The scanning of healthy subjects confirmed a bias to fixate the upper over the lower face, the eyes over the mouth, and the central over the peripheral face. Subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from occipitotemporal lesions had more dispersed fixations and a trend to fixate less informative facial regions. Subjects with developmental prosopagnosia did not differ from the controls. At a single-subject level, some developmental subjects performed abnormally, but none consistently across all metrics. Scanning distributions were not related to scores on perceptual or memory tests for faces. We conclude that despite lifelong difficulty with faces, subjects with developmental prosopagnosia still have an internal facial schema that guides their scanning behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Infants’ Individuation of Faces by Gender
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(7), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9070163
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 6 July 2019 / Accepted: 7 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
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Abstract
By 3 months of age, infants can perceptually distinguish faces based upon differences in gender. However, it is still unknown when infants begin using these perceptual differences to represent faces in a conceptual, kind-based manner. The current study examined this issue by using [...] Read more.
By 3 months of age, infants can perceptually distinguish faces based upon differences in gender. However, it is still unknown when infants begin using these perceptual differences to represent faces in a conceptual, kind-based manner. The current study examined this issue by using a violation-of-expectation manual search individuation paradigm to assess 12- and 24-month-old infants’ kind-based representations of faces varying by gender. While infants of both ages successfully individuated human faces from non-face shapes in a control condition, only the 24-month-old infants’ reaching behaviors provided evidence of their individuating male from female faces. The current findings help specify when infants begin to represent male and female faces as being conceptually distinct and may serve as a starting point for socio-cognitive biases observed later in development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Neural Sensitivity to Mutual Information in Intermediate-Complexity Face Features Changes during Childhood
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(7), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9070154
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 25 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
One way in which face recognition develops during infancy and childhood is with regard to the visual information that contributes most to recognition judgments. Adult face recognition depends on critical features spanning a hierarchy of complexity, including low-level, intermediate, and high-level visual information. [...] Read more.
One way in which face recognition develops during infancy and childhood is with regard to the visual information that contributes most to recognition judgments. Adult face recognition depends on critical features spanning a hierarchy of complexity, including low-level, intermediate, and high-level visual information. To date, the development of adult-like information biases for face recognition has focused on low-level features, which are computationally well-defined but low in complexity, and high-level features, which are high in complexity, but not defined precisely. To complement this existing literature, we examined the development of children’s neural responses to intermediate-level face features characterized using mutual information. Specifically, we examined children’s and adults’ sensitivity to varying levels of category diagnosticity at the P100 and N170 components. We found that during middle childhood, sensitivity to mutual information shifts from early components to later ones, which may indicate a critical restructuring of face recognition mechanisms that takes place over several years. This approach provides a useful bridge between the study of low- and high-level visual features for face recognition and suggests many intriguing questions for further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Objective Patterns of Face Recognition Deficits in 165 Adults with Self-Reported Developmental Prosopagnosia
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(6), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9060133
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 6 June 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the last 15 years, increasing numbers of individuals have self-referred to research laboratories in the belief that they experience severe everyday difficulties with face recognition. The condition “developmental prosopagnosia” (DP) is typically diagnosed when impairment is identified on at least two objective [...] Read more.
In the last 15 years, increasing numbers of individuals have self-referred to research laboratories in the belief that they experience severe everyday difficulties with face recognition. The condition “developmental prosopagnosia” (DP) is typically diagnosed when impairment is identified on at least two objective face-processing tests, usually involving assessments of face perception, unfamiliar face memory, and famous face recognition. While existing evidence suggests that some individuals may have a mnemonic form of prosopagnosia, it is also possible that other subtypes exist. The current study assessed 165 adults who believe they experience DP, and 38% of the sample were impaired on at least two of the tests outlined above. While statistical dissociations between face perception and face memory were only observed in four cases, a further 25% of the sample displayed dissociations between impaired famous face recognition and intact short-term unfamiliar face memory and face perception. We discuss whether this pattern of findings reflects (a) limitations within dominant diagnostic tests and protocols, (b) a less severe form of DP, or (c) a currently unrecognized but prevalent form of the condition that affects long-term face memory, familiar face recognition or semantic processing. Full article
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