Special Issue "Advances in Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation and Neurovascular Dysfunction"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Systems Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Junie P Warrington
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Neurology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, United States
Interests: neurovascular coupling, cerebrovasculature, pericytes, astrocytes, blood-brain barrier, neurovascular unit, perivascular macrophages

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The brain is a very needy organ, requiring about 20% of cardiac output to meet the metabolic demands of neurons. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) must therefore be tightly regulated spatially and temporally. The neurovascular unit, comprised of neurons, endothelial cells, pericytes or smooth muscle cells, and astrocytes, plays an important role in normal CBF regulation. Several disease states such as hypertension, stroke, and traumatic brain injury are associated with impairments in cerebral blood flow autoregulation or an uncoupling of metabolic activity and local blood flow. This Special Issue welcomes manuscripts addressing (1) mechanisms of normal and abnormal cerebral blood flow, (2) changes in components of the neurovascular unit in various disease states, and (3) consequences of abnormal CBF regulation or neurovascular dysfunction. Original manuscripts, as well as review papers, are welcome for submission.

Dr. Junie P Warrington
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Brain Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cerebrovasculature
  • neurovascular unit
  • cerebral perfusion pressure
  • neurovascular uncoupling
  • blood-brain barrier disruption
  • cognitive impairment
  • vascular dementia
  • cerebral edema

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Differential Expression of CD31 and Von Willebrand Factor on Endothelial Cells in Different Regions of the Human Brain: Potential Implications for Cerebral Malaria Pathogenesis
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010031 - 06 Jan 2020
Abstract
Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) line the vascular system of the brain and are the chief cells in the formation and function of the blood brain barrier (BBB). These cells are heterogeneous along the cerebral vasculature and any dysfunctional state in these cells [...] Read more.
Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) line the vascular system of the brain and are the chief cells in the formation and function of the blood brain barrier (BBB). These cells are heterogeneous along the cerebral vasculature and any dysfunctional state in these cells can result in a local loss of function of the BBB in any region of the brain. There is currently no report on the distribution and variation of the CMVECs in different brain regions in humans. This study investigated microcirculation in the adult human brain by the characterization of the expression pattern of brain endothelial cell markers in different brain regions. Five different brain regions consisting of the visual cortex, the hippocampus, the precentral gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the rhinal cortex obtained from three normal adult human brain specimens were studied and analyzed for the expression of the endothelial cell markers: cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) and von-Willebrand-Factor (vWF) through immunohistochemistry. We observed differences in the expression pattern of CD31 and vWF between the gray matter and the white matter in the brain regions. Furthermore, there were also regional variations in the pattern of expression of the endothelial cell biomarkers. Thus, this suggests differences in the nature of vascularization in various regions of the human brain. These observations also suggest the existence of variation in structure and function of different brain regions, which could reflect in the pathophysiological outcomes in a diseased state. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preserved Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Astrocytic Dysfunction: A Combination Study of 15O-Gas PET with 14C-Acetate Autoradiography
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(5), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9050101 - 03 May 2019
Abstract
Fluorocitrate (FC) is a specific metabolic inhibitor of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether inhibition of the astrocyte TCA cycle by FC would affect the oxygen metabolism in the rat brain. At 4 [...] Read more.
Fluorocitrate (FC) is a specific metabolic inhibitor of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether inhibition of the astrocyte TCA cycle by FC would affect the oxygen metabolism in the rat brain. At 4 h after the intracranial FC injection, the rats (n = 9) were investigated by 15O-labeled gas PET to measure the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV). After the 15O-gas PET, the rats were given an intravenous injection of 14C-acetate for autoradiography. 15O-gas PET showed no significant differences in any of the measured parameters between the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum (high dose group: CBF (54.4 ± 8.8 and 55.3 ± 11.6 mL/100 mL/min), CMRO2 (7.0 ± 0.9 and 7.1 ± 1.2 mL/100 mL/min), OEF (72.0 ± 8.9 and 70.8 ± 8.2%), and CBV (4.1 ± 0.8 and 4.2 ± 0.9 mL/100 mL), respectively). In contrast, the 14C-acetate autoradiography revealed a significant inhibition of the astrocyte metabolism in the ipsilateral striatum. The regional cerebral oxygen consumption as well as the hemodynamic parameters were maintained even in the face of inhibition of the astrocyte TCA cycle metabolism in the rat brain. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation in Pregnancy, Hypertension, and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
Brain Sci. 2019, 9(9), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci9090224 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) allows for the metabolic demands of the brain to be met and for normal brain function including cognition (learning and memory). Regulation of CBF ensures relatively constant blood flow to the brain despite changes in systemic [...] Read more.
The regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) allows for the metabolic demands of the brain to be met and for normal brain function including cognition (learning and memory). Regulation of CBF ensures relatively constant blood flow to the brain despite changes in systemic blood pressure, protecting the fragile micro-vessels from damage. CBF regulation is altered in pregnancy and is further altered by hypertension and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy including preeclampsia. The mechanisms contributing to changes in CBF in normal pregnancy, hypertension, and preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated. This review summarizes what is known about changes in CBF regulation during pregnancy, hypertension, and preeclampsia. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessPerspective
Cerebral Blood Flow in Low Intracranial Pressure Headaches—What Is Known?
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010002 - 19 Dec 2019
Abstract
Headaches attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure are described as orthostatic headaches caused by spontaneous or secondary low CSF pressure or CSF leakages. Regardless of the cause, CFS leaks may lead to intracranial hypotension (IH) and influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). When [...] Read more.
Headaches attributed to low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure are described as orthostatic headaches caused by spontaneous or secondary low CSF pressure or CSF leakages. Regardless of the cause, CFS leaks may lead to intracranial hypotension (IH) and influence cerebral blood flow (CBF). When CSF volume decreases, a compensative increase in intracranial blood volume and cerebral vasodilatation occurs. Sinking of the brain and traction on pain-sensitive structures are thought to be the causes of orthostatic headaches. Although there are many studies concerning CBF during intracranial hypertension, little is known about CBF characteristics during low intracranial pressure. The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between CBF, CSF, and intracranial pressure in headaches assigned to low CSF pressure. Full article
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