Special Issue "Fermented Beverages"

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Shao Quan Liu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Science and Technology Programme, Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore
Tel. +65-6516 2687; Fax: +65-6775 7895
Interests: flavor science; food and beverage fermentation; biotransformation; food waste utilization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fermentation is an ancient yet still widely practised bioprocess in food manufacturing and supply. Fermented foods and beverages play a vital part in human nutrition, health, social activities, lifestyle, and modern economy. This Special Issue is to gather the latest information on fermented beverages so as to stimulate and facilitate further research, development, and commercialisation of fermented beverages. Therefore, I invite submissions related to all types of fermented beverages, from alcoholic to non-alcoholic products, from plant-based to animal-derived raw materials, including, but not restricted to, fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, honey, milk, and whey. Submissions in relation to substrate biotransformation and metabolite generation, flavour (taste and aroma) and organoleptic attributes, novel fermentation processes/products, indigenous products/processes, microbial impact, health, and functional probiotic beverages are particularly welcome. However, some topics, which may be directly applicable to fermented beverage manufacture, are beyond the scope of this Special Issue, for example, engineering and processing technologies, distillation process and packaging technologies.

Dr. Shao Quan LIU
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • alcoholic beverages
  • non-alcoholic beverages
  • flavour
  • fermentation
  • yeast
  • lactic acid bacteria
  • probiotics

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage
Beverages 2017, 3(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages3020020 - 27 Apr 2017
Abstract
A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the [...] Read more.
A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the fruity esters methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol from amino acids and an organic acid present in the wort. We investigated the impact of two critical process parameters (volumetric power input and inoculum concentration) on the morphology of, and flavor production by, the shiitake pellets in a 1 L stirred bioreactor. Increasing the volumetric power input and biomass concentration influenced the morphology of the pellets and promoted the production of the most important flavor compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate in the beverage. Furthermore the worty off-flavor methional was degraded during the cultivation in stirred bioreactor by shiitake pellets. These findings provide useful information to facilitate the scale-up of the biotransformation and fermentation process in bioreactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Wine Style and Sugar Addition in liqueur d’expedition (dosage) Solutions on Traditional Method Sparkling Wine Composition
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages3010007 - 18 Jan 2017
Cited by 5
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wine style and cane sugar addition in the liqueur d’expedition (dosage) solution on volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) in traditional method sparkling wine. There were 24 bottles of each treatment produced. [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of wine style and cane sugar addition in the liqueur d’expedition (dosage) solution on volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) in traditional method sparkling wine. There were 24 bottles of each treatment produced. Treatments were sparkling wine zero dosage (ZD); NV sparkling wine + sugar (BS); unoaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (UC); Pinot noir 2009 sparkling wine + sugar (PN); Niagara produced Brandy + sugar (B) and Icewine (IW). The control treatment in the sensory analysis was an oaked still Chardonnay wine + sugar (OC) because the zero-dosage wine was not suitable for a difference test that compared wines with sugar to one without. Standard wine chemical parameters were analysed before disgorging and after liqueur d’expedition was added and included; pH, titratable acidity (TA g/L), alcohol (v/v %), residual sugar (RS g/L), free and total SO2 and total phenolics (A.U.). Volatile aroma compounds (VOCs) analysed by Headspace Solid- Phase Micro-Extraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) included two alcohols, and six ethyl esters. ZD wines had the highest foam height and highest dissolved oxygen level. Sugar affected VOC concentrations in all treatments at five weeks post-disgorging, but by 15 weeks after liqueur d’expedition addition, the wine with added sugar had similar VOC concentrations to the ZD wines. The type of wines used in the dosage solutions had more influence on VOC concentrations than sugar addition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Blueberry and Carrot Juice Blend Fermented by Lactobacillus reuteri LR92
Beverages 2016, 2(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2040037 - 20 Dec 2016
Cited by 4
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the blueberry and carrot juice blend as a fermentable substrate for Lactobacillus reuteri LR92, in order to develop a fermented non-dairy functional beverage. Analysis of cell viability, pH, and acidity were performed during the fermentation process. The resistance of the microorganism in the blend, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in storage at 4 °C for 28 days, was evaluated at the same time as the antioxidant potential of the fermented juice. After 40 h of fermentation, the L. reuteri population presented a logarithmic growth of three cycles, reaching count records of 10.26 ± 0.23 log CFU/mL and after 28 days of storage at 4 °C, the bacterial population maintained elevated numbers of viable cell (8.96 ± 0.08 log CFU/mL), with increase in the antioxidant capacity of the fermented blend. However, in the test of gastric simulation, the L. reuteri population had a logarithmic reduction of five cycles. In the presence of bile salts, the viability was maintained even after 150 min of incubation. This way, the results suggested that the blueberry and carrot blend juice can be considered as a good medium for the growth of L. reuteri, providing microbiological stability during refrigerated storage with elevated antioxidant capacity, which allows for the development of a non-dairy probiotic beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Brewing Technique of Mbege, a Banana Beer Produced in Northeastern Tanzania
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030021 - 03 Aug 2016
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mbege is a beer made of banana (Musa spp.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana). It is the most popular indigenous alcoholic beverage in northeastern Tanzania, and plays an important role in the economy of the region. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Mbege is a beer made of banana (Musa spp.) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana). It is the most popular indigenous alcoholic beverage in northeastern Tanzania, and plays an important role in the economy of the region. In this study, we observed and recorded a detailed traditional technique for brewing mbege. We observed that mbege production was divided into three major steps: nyalu preparation, mso preparation, and mixing. Fermented porridge made of ripened banana, called nyalu, was used as a source of yeasts. As a source of fermentable sugars, a sweet porridge made of germinated finger millet called mso was used. In mso preparation, a brewing technique to enhance the effectiveness of saccharification was used. After the preparation, these two types of porridge were mixed. The ethanol concentration of the mixture increased when it was fermented for 6 h, and it then became mbege. It was supposed that yeasts in the nyalu converted fermentable sugars in the mso into ethanol. We found that the brewing technique used in the production of mbege in northeast Tanzania was similar to that used in southern Tanzania. We also demonstrated that the stem bark of Rauvolfia caffra, which was called msesewe and used as an additive in mbege production, accelerated the fermentation of nyalu and therefore increased the rate of ethanol production in the brewing of mbege. This result was consistent with the traditional knowledge in the field about the effect of msesewe on mbege production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Phenolic Composition and Color of Single Cultivar Young Red Wines Made with Mencia and Alicante-Bouschet Grapes in AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain)
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030018 - 25 Jul 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain), Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of [...] Read more.
Single cultivar wines made with two different red grape cultivars from AOC Valdeorras (Galicia, NW Spain), Mencia and Alicante Bouschet, were studied with the aim of determining their color and phenolic composition. Two sets of analyses were made on 30 wine samples of 2014 vintage, after malolactic fermentation took place, to evaluate several physicochemical characteristics from these wines related to color and polyphenols. Several parameters related with color and the general phenolic composition of wines (total phenols index, color intensity, hue, total anthocyans, total anthocyanins, colored anthocyanins, chemical age index, and total tannins) were determined by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. Those analyses revealed that Alicante Bouschet wines presented, in general, a higher content of polyphenols and a more intense color than Mencia wines. Using HPLC-DAD, five anthocyanin monoglucosides and nine acylated anthocyanins were identified in both types of wine; each type of wine showed a distinctive anthocyanin fingerprint, as Alicante Bouschet wines contained a higher proportion of cyanidin-derived anthocyanins. Multivariate statistic studies were performed to both datasets to explore relationships among variables and among samples. These studies revealed relationships among several variables considered, and were capable to group the samples in two different classes using principal component analysis (PCA). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Fermentation Products of Palm Wine Yeasts and Role of Sacoglottis gabonensis Supplement on Products Abundance
Beverages 2016, 2(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2020009 - 12 Apr 2016
Cited by 7
Abstract
A preliminary evaluation of yeast fermented palm wine sourced from Imo State in Nigeria was carried out to establish compounds that contribute to the distinct flavor of the beverage and to determine if the product abundance is affected when the drink is supplemented [...] Read more.
A preliminary evaluation of yeast fermented palm wine sourced from Imo State in Nigeria was carried out to establish compounds that contribute to the distinct flavor of the beverage and to determine if the product abundance is affected when the drink is supplemented with Sacoglottis gabonensis. Palm wine samples from two different trees Elaeis sp. and Raphia sp. (pH less than 5) that contain Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeast species identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA genes were used. Evaluation was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples contained 5.9–11.6, 2.2–7.1, 4.2–43.0, and 4.4–43.7 g/L of acetic acid, lactic acid, ethanol and glucose, respectively. Ethyl acetate, acetic acid and ethanol had the most aroma intensity and an assessment on the yeast metabolome database showed that 23 out of the 31 products detected were present in the database. Addition of Sacoglottis gabonensis supplement to a Raphia sp. palm wine sample showed lower abundance of acetoin, acetic acid, methylpropyl lactate, ethyl octanoate and propyl acetate. We conclude that Sacoglottis gabonensis supplementation could suppress specific compounds during palm wine fermentation. This knowledge could be applied in new product development for the beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Grape-Based Beverage, “Hardaliye”
Beverages 2017, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages3010002 - 01 Jan 2017
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present [...] Read more.
Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present in mustard seeds. Hardaliye is a lactic acid fermented traditional beverage produced from grape juice and crushed grapes with the addition of different concentrations of whole/ground or heat-treated mustard seeds and sour cherry leaves. The color of hardaliye reflects the original color of the grapes and has a characteristic aroma. Dark red grape is preferred. Benzoic acid is used as preservative during production. Benzoic acid inhibits or decreases alcohol production by affecting the yeast. Fermentation occurs at room temperature for 7–10 days. If the ambient temperature is low, fermentation process can be extended until 20 days. Once fermented, the hardaliye is stored at 4 °C for three to four months. The hardaliye is consumed either fresh or aged. If it is aged, hardaliye may contain alcohol. The industrial production is just in small-scale and it must be developed. More studies are required to determine characteristic properties of hardaliye. Identification of the product properties will supply improvement for industrial production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
Open AccessReview
Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production
Beverages 2016, 2(3), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages2030020 - 02 Aug 2016
Cited by 3
Abstract
Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the [...] Read more.
Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine) also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
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