Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics

A special issue of Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020) | Viewed by 186929

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Distinguished Professor, Sensory Analysis and Consumer Behavior, Ice Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Interests: sensory quality; consumer acceptance; health aspects; product development; shelf-life; quality control
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Guest Editor
Department of Biological Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Minho, 4704-553 Braga, Portugal
Interests: industrial and food biotechnology; fermentation processes; food processing; agro-industry by-products valorization; prebiotics production
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy
Interests: sensory analysis; novel foods; rheology; texture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 2015, we launched the journal Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710), an international, open access journal on scholarly publishing, to provide insight into the beverage industry.
We would like to thank the efforts of our Editorial Board members over the past five years, who have handled the peer review procedure for our journal and the many expert reviewers who have, so generously, given their valuable time to ensure the quality of our journal. We also acknowledge our authors and readers for their interest and contributions, which enabled Beverages to continue growing and expanding.
To celebrate this special anniversary of Beverages, we are launching a Special Issue on the topic of “Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics”. As ever, we welcome your ideas and look forward to your contributions to our journal, which we believe will make this Special Issue a success.

Prof. Dr. Edgar Chambers IV
Prof. Dr. José António Couto Teixeira
Prof. Alessandra Del Caro
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Beverages is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (18 papers)

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3 pages, 177 KiB  
Editorial
Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics
by Alessandra Del Caro
Beverages 2021, 7(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages7020017 - 1 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2532
Abstract
In 2015, the journal Beverages (ISSN 2306-5710) was launched to provide insight into the beverage industry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)

Review

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18 pages, 295 KiB  
Review
Current Research Related to Wine Sensory Perception Since 2010
by Jiyun Yang and Jeehyun Lee
Beverages 2020, 6(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6030047 - 27 Jul 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6786
Abstract
Due to socioeconomic changes, the demand for and interest in alcoholic beverages have recently been increasing. Among various alcoholic drinks, consumer preference for wine could be varied. It might be related with its complexity, as wine is known to have characteristics that are [...] Read more.
Due to socioeconomic changes, the demand for and interest in alcoholic beverages have recently been increasing. Among various alcoholic drinks, consumer preference for wine could be varied. It might be related with its complexity, as wine is known to have characteristics that are difficult to understand. Several factors, such as intrinsic or extrinsic factors interact to influence wine complexity and consumer perception. Many studies have been conducted to understand the complexity of wine, allowing deeper insight into its perception by consumers. Studies over the last decade on wine sensory perception using descriptive analysis and consumer tests were reviewed. Additionally, chemical analysis studies were included because flavor constituents information would contribute to a better understanding of sensory perception. Descriptive sensory analysis of wine was reviewed considering panels and flavor characterization for better understanding wine-related research. Several consumer studies regarding liking/preference, emotion, context, and extrinsic factors to understand consumer preference or perception were reviewed. Research on chemical constituents may affect consumer perception and is thus presented in this review. However, most of the research was focused on a narrow range of wine, thus is missing overall wine category evaluations. Furthermore, evaluations were mainly in wine-producing countries, resulting in limited understanding of an emergent market. This review will help guide wine researchers and industry by providing information on factors influencing consumer wine perception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
13 pages, 280 KiB  
Review
Musty and Moldy Taint in Wines: A Review
by Maria Carla Cravero
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020041 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 7178
Abstract
The literature about musty and moldy taint—the so-called cork taint—in wines is varied because there are many different molecules involved in this wine defect. Chloroanisoles are the most relevant compound responsible for cork taint and of these, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) is the most common, [...] Read more.
The literature about musty and moldy taint—the so-called cork taint—in wines is varied because there are many different molecules involved in this wine defect. Chloroanisoles are the most relevant compound responsible for cork taint and of these, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) is the most common, but 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole (TeCA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TBA) can also be responsible of this defect. For other compounds involved in cork taint, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB) are responsible for earthy off-flavor; pyrazines cause vegetable odors, and guaiacol results in smoked, phenolic and medicinal defects. Off-odors of mushroom in wines are caused by 1-octen-3-ol and 1-octen-3-one coming from grapes contaminated by bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). The sensory aspects of these molecules are illustrated in this review. Generally, the most important cause of this wine contamination is the natural cork of bottle stoppers, but this is not always true. Different origins of contamination include air pollution of the cellars, wood materials, barrels and chips. A review of the possible prevention or remedial treatments to cork taint is also presented. The best solution for this off-flavor is to prevent the wine contaminations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
19 pages, 274 KiB  
Review
Chemical Migration from Beverage Packaging Materials—A Review
by Petra Schmid and Frank Welle
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020037 - 2 Jun 2020
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 12301
Abstract
The packaging of a beverage is an essential element for customer convenience and the preservation of beverage quality. On the other hand, chemical compounds present in the packaging materials, either intentionally added or non-intentionally, may be transferred to the food. With a huge [...] Read more.
The packaging of a beverage is an essential element for customer convenience and the preservation of beverage quality. On the other hand, chemical compounds present in the packaging materials, either intentionally added or non-intentionally, may be transferred to the food. With a huge variety of materials used in the production, beverage packaging requires safety assessments with respect to the migration of packaging compounds into the filled beverages. The present article deals with potential migrants from different materials for beverage packaging, including PET bottles, glass bottles, metal cans and cardboard multilayers. The list of migrants comprises monomers and additives, oligomers or degradation products. The article presents a review on scientific literature and summarizes European food regulatory requirements. The review shows no evidence of critical substances migrating from packaging into beverages. Testing the migration in real beverages during and at the end of the shelf life shows compliance with the specific migration limits. Accelerated testing using food simulants, however, shows higher migration in some cases, especially at high temperatures in ethanolic simulants. For some migrants, more realistic testing conditions should be applied in order to show compliance with their specific migration limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
13 pages, 661 KiB  
Review
Wine Authenticity and Traceability with the Use of FT-IR
by Marianthi Basalekou, Christos Pappas, Petros A. Tarantilis and Stamatina Kallithraka
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020030 - 8 May 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 6149
Abstract
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has gained popularity in the wine sector due to its simplicity and ability to provide a wine’s fingerprint. For this reason, it is often used for authentication and traceability purposes with more than satisfactory results. In this review, [...] Read more.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has gained popularity in the wine sector due to its simplicity and ability to provide a wine’s fingerprint. For this reason, it is often used for authentication and traceability purposes with more than satisfactory results. In this review, an outline of the reasons why authenticity and traceability are important to the wine sector is given, along with a brief overview of the analytical methods used for their attainment; statistical issues and compounds, on which authentication usually is based, are discussed. Moreover, insight on the mode of action of FT-IR is given, along with successful examples from its use in different areas of interest for classification. Finally, prospects and challenges for suggested future research are given. For more accurate and effective analyses, the construction of a large database consisting of wines from different regions, varieties and winemaking protocols is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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24 pages, 1512 KiB  
Review
The State of Automated Facial Expression Analysis (AFEA) in Evaluating Consumer Packaged Beverages
by Samuel J. Kessler, Funan Jiang and R. Andrew Hurley
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020027 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4952
Abstract
In the late 1970s, analysis of facial expressions to unveil emotional states began to grow and flourish along with new technologies and software advances. Researchers have always been able to document what consumers do, but understanding how consumers feel at a specific moment [...] Read more.
In the late 1970s, analysis of facial expressions to unveil emotional states began to grow and flourish along with new technologies and software advances. Researchers have always been able to document what consumers do, but understanding how consumers feel at a specific moment in time is an important part of the product development puzzle. Because of this, biometric testing methods have been used in numerous studies, as researchers have worked to develop a more comprehensive understanding of consumers. Despite the many articles on automated facial expression analysis (AFEA), literature is limited in regard to food and beverage studies. There are no standards to guide researchers in setting up materials, processing data, or conducting a study, and there are few, if any, compilations of the studies that have been performed to determine whether any methodologies work better than others or what trends have been found. Through a systematic Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) review, 38 articles were found that were relevant to the research goals. The authors identified AFEA study methods that have worked and those that have not been as successful and noted any trends of particular importance. Key takeaways include a listing of commercial AFEA software, experimental methods used within the PRISMA analysis, and a comprehensive explanation of the critical methods and practices of the studies analyzed. Key information was analyzed and compared to determine effects on the study outcomes. Through analyzing the various studies, suggestions and guidance for conducting and analyzing data from AFEA experiments are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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16 pages, 298 KiB  
Review
A Review of the Potential Health Benefits of Low Alcohol and Alcohol-Free Beer: Effects of Ingredients and Craft Brewing Processes on Potentially Bioactive Metabolites
by Duane D. Mellor, Bishoy Hanna-Khalil and Raymond Carson
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020025 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 13435
Abstract
Beer is a beverage of significant historical and cultural importance. Interest in the potential health effects of alcoholic beverages has largely focused on wine; however, there are a number of potentially beneficial bioactives that beer may contain that warrant further investigation. The challenge [...] Read more.
Beer is a beverage of significant historical and cultural importance. Interest in the potential health effects of alcoholic beverages has largely focused on wine; however, there are a number of potentially beneficial bioactives that beer may contain that warrant further investigation. The challenge of considering any potential health benefits of beer are restricted by the negative consequences of its alcohol and energy content. There is potential to enhance the bioactive qualities of beer whilst reducing the alcohol and energy content through novel brewing approaches often used in craft brewing, in terms of ingredients, brewing methods and type of fermentation. Consumer demand to produce a greater variety of beer types, including alcohol-free beers, may also help to increase the number of beers which may have greater potential to improve health, with lower levels of alcohol, while still being tasty products. As low alcohol, prebiotic and bioactive containing beers are developed, it is important that their potential health benefits and risks are fully assessed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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17 pages, 2410 KiB  
Review
Functional Beverages in Selected Countries of Asia Pacific Region: A Review
by Lei Cong, Phil Bremer and Miranda Mirosa
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020021 - 1 Apr 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 9076
Abstract
Functional beverages have gained increasing market share over the last decade. As the Asia Pacific region is one of the largest and most important markets for functional foods, it is critical when developing and promoting new products that food manufacturers/marketers have a good [...] Read more.
Functional beverages have gained increasing market share over the last decade. As the Asia Pacific region is one of the largest and most important markets for functional foods, it is critical when developing and promoting new products that food manufacturers/marketers have a good understanding of the Asia Pacific market, including the legislative requirements and consumers’ perceptions of functional beverages. A literature review was undertaken to elucidate legislation criteria and consumers’ perceptions of functional beverages in Asia Pacific countries. Topics reviewed included the origin and definitions of functional foods and beverages; the legislative criteria for functional foods and beverages in four representative countries—Australia, New Zealand, China, and Japan; and consumers’ perceptions of functional beverages. There was no concrete definition of “functional food” or “functional beverage” region-wide and correspondingly, the legislative terms and regulatory frameworks for functional foods and beverages varied from country to country and showed divergence due to cultural differences. The systematic review of consumer perceptions of functional beverages showed that product acceptance and purchase intention for different functional beverages was heterogeneous among consumers in the Asian Pacific Region, with many factors playing a role including product attributes (e.g., functional attributes, sensory attributes, and product form) and consumer perceptions (e.g., health motivation, trust in food industry, and food neophobia). The findings from this review will help guide product development and inform marketing strategies for functional beverages targeting the Asia Pacific region by providing information on legislation and consumers’ perceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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18 pages, 477 KiB  
Review
The Inoculation of Probiotics In Vivo Is a Challenge: Strategies to Improve Their Survival, to Avoid Unpleasant Changes, or to Enhance Their Performances in Beverages
by Barbara Speranza, Daniela Campaniello, Leonardo Petruzzi, Clelia Altieri, Milena Sinigaglia, Antonio Bevilacqua and Maria Rosaria Corbo
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020020 - 27 Mar 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4931
Abstract
The inoculation of probiotics in beverages (probiotication) requires special technologies, as probiotic microorganisms can experience stress during food processing (acid, cold, drying, starvation, oxidative, and osmotic stresses) and gastrointestinal transit. Survival to harsh conditions is an essential prerequisite for probiotic bacteria before reaching [...] Read more.
The inoculation of probiotics in beverages (probiotication) requires special technologies, as probiotic microorganisms can experience stress during food processing (acid, cold, drying, starvation, oxidative, and osmotic stresses) and gastrointestinal transit. Survival to harsh conditions is an essential prerequisite for probiotic bacteria before reaching the target site where they can exert their health promoting effects, but several probiotics show a poor resistance to technological processes, limiting their use to a restricted number of food products. Therefore, this paper offers a short overview of the ways to improve bacterial resistance: by inducing a phenotypic modification (adaptation) or by surrounding bacteria through a physical protection (microencapsulation). A second topic briefly addressed is genetic manipulation, while the last section addresses the control of metabolism by attenuation through physical treatments to design new kinds of food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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28 pages, 2093 KiB  
Review
White Wine Protein Instability: Mechanism, Quality Control and Technological Alternatives for Wine Stabilisation—An Overview
by Fernanda Cosme, Conceição Fernandes, Tânia Ribeiro, Luís Filipe-Ribeiro and Fernando M. Nunes
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010019 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 11790
Abstract
Wine protein instability depends on several factors, but wine grape proteins are the main haze factors, being mainly caused by pathogenesis-related proteins (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases) with a molecular weight between 10~40 kDa and an isoelectric point below six. Wine protein stability tests [...] Read more.
Wine protein instability depends on several factors, but wine grape proteins are the main haze factors, being mainly caused by pathogenesis-related proteins (thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases) with a molecular weight between 10~40 kDa and an isoelectric point below six. Wine protein stability tests are needed for the routine control of this wine instability, and to select the best technological approach to remove the unstable proteins. The heat test is the most used, with good correlation with the natural proteins’ precipitations and because high temperatures are the main protein instability factor after wine bottling. Many products and technological solutions have been studied in recent years; however, sodium bentonite is still the most efficient and used treatment to remove unstable proteins from white wines. This overview resumes and discusses the different aspects involved in wine protein instability, from the wine protein instability mechanisms, the protein stability tests used, and technological alternatives available to stabilise wines with protein instability problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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39 pages, 1831 KiB  
Review
Membrane-Based Operations in the Fruit Juice Processing Industry: A Review
by Carmela Conidi, Roberto Castro-Muñoz and Alfredo Cassano
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010018 - 16 Mar 2020
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 15182
Abstract
The fruit juice industry is one of the food sectors that has invested the most in the implementation of new technologies, such as non-thermal technologies. Among them, membrane processes are considered today well-established separation techniques to support the production and marketing of innovative [...] Read more.
The fruit juice industry is one of the food sectors that has invested the most in the implementation of new technologies, such as non-thermal technologies. Among them, membrane processes are considered today well-established separation techniques to support the production and marketing of innovative fruit juices designed to exploit the sensory characteristics and nutritional peculiarities of fresh fruits. Pressure-driven membrane operations, membrane distillation, osmotic distillation and pervaporation have been widely investigated in the last few decades to replace conventional technologies used in fruit juice processing industry (i.e., clarification, stabilization, concentration and recovery of aroma compounds). This paper will review the significant progresses on the use of membrane-based operations in fruit juice processing industry in the light of the growing interest towards products with improved safety, quality and nutritional value and sustainable processes characterized by low energy consumption and low environmental impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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19 pages, 1026 KiB  
Review
Biogenic Amines in Alcohol-Free Beverages
by Giuliana Vinci and Lucia Maddaloni
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010017 - 9 Mar 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 9339
Abstract
Biogenic amines are ubiquitous bioactive compounds that are synthesized by living organisms and perform essential functions for their metabolism. In the human diet, their excessive intake can cause food poisoning. In food, especially in alcohol-free beverages, biogenic amines can be synthesized by enzymes, [...] Read more.
Biogenic amines are ubiquitous bioactive compounds that are synthesized by living organisms and perform essential functions for their metabolism. In the human diet, their excessive intake can cause food poisoning. In food, especially in alcohol-free beverages, biogenic amines can be synthesized by enzymes, naturally present in raw materials, or by microorganisms, which may be naturally present in the matrix or be added during beverage transformation processes. For this reason, in alcohol-free beverages, biogenic amine amount can be considered, above a certain level, as undesired microorganism activity. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the biogenic amine profile of non-alcoholic beverages in order to monitor food quality and safety. Moreover, biogenic amines can be taken into account by industries in order to monitor production processes and products. This review article provides an overview on the biogenic amine profile of alcohol-free beverages (plant milk, nervine drinks, soft drinks, and fruit juices). Furthermore, the clinical and toxicological effects, the biogenic amines legislation, and biogenic amine synthesis have been evaluated in non-alcoholic beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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19 pages, 536 KiB  
Review
Current Trends in Kombucha: Marketing Perspectives and the Need for Improved Sensory Research
by Juyoung Kim and Koushik Adhikari
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010015 - 2 Mar 2020
Cited by 112 | Viewed by 31552
Abstract
Kombucha is a fermented functional beverage that started as a homemade beverage and grew into a commercial product in the U.S. by the turn of this century. The number of companies producing kombucha, as well as the variety of kombucha products, is increasing [...] Read more.
Kombucha is a fermented functional beverage that started as a homemade beverage and grew into a commercial product in the U.S. by the turn of this century. The number of companies producing kombucha, as well as the variety of kombucha products, is increasing rapidly. The scientific research on kombucha also got active along with the growth in the market. The topics of kombucha research can be grouped into the substrate used in fermentation, the microbial composition of the cultures, processing methods, chemical composition, the health benefits and health risks associated with consumption, the utilization of symbiotic cultures of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBYs), etc. There are several already published in-depth scientific reviews covering these topics. Even with the sensory characteristics of kombucha being a critical aspect of the beverage, there are not many publications covering the sensory and consumer research on this beverage. This review paper aims to provide the current market status of kombucha and to show a need for scientific sensory and consumer research studies to help the kombucha researchers and industry working on this fast-growing beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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25 pages, 2657 KiB  
Review
An Approach of the Madeira Wine Chemistry
by Rosa Perestrelo, Catarina Silva, Carolina Gonçalves, Mariangie Castillo and José S. Câmara
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010012 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 6228
Abstract
Madeira wine is a fortified Portuguese wine, which has a crucial impact on the Madeira Island economy. The particular properties of Madeira wine result from the unique and specific winemaking and ageing processes that promote the occurrence of chemical reactions among acids, sugars, [...] Read more.
Madeira wine is a fortified Portuguese wine, which has a crucial impact on the Madeira Island economy. The particular properties of Madeira wine result from the unique and specific winemaking and ageing processes that promote the occurrence of chemical reactions among acids, sugars, alcohols, and polyphenols, which are important to the extraordinary quality of the wine. These chemical reactions contribute to the appearance of novel compounds and/or the transformation of others, consequently promoting changes in qualitative and quantitative volatile and non-volatile composition. The current review comprises an overview of Madeira wines related to volatile (e.g., terpenes, norisoprenoids, alcohols, esters, fatty acids) and non-volatile composition (e.g., polyphenols, organic acids, amino acids, biogenic amines, and metals). Moreover, types of aroma compounds, the contribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the overall Madeira wine aroma, the change of their content during the ageing process, as well as the establishment of the potential ageing markers will also be reviewed. The viability of several analytical methods (e.g., gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS)) combined with chemometrics tools (e.g., partial least squares regression (PLS-R), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was investigated to establish potential ageing markers to guarantee the Madeira wine authenticity. Acetals, furanic compounds, and lactones are the chemical families most commonly related with the ageing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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11 pages, 653 KiB  
Review
The Physiological Effects of Amino Acids Arginine and Citrulline: Is There a Basis for Development of a Beverage to Promote Endurance Performance? A Narrative Review of Orally Administered Supplements
by Hollie Speer, Nathan M. D’Cunha, Michael J. Davies, Andrew J. McKune and Nenad Naumovski
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010011 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 7629
Abstract
Nutritional and ergogenic aid supplementation is prevalent within athletic or general fitness populations, and is only continuing to gain momentum. Taken in isolation or as a combination, amino acid (AA) supplementation has the potential to increase endurance performance among other benefits. L-Arginine (L-Arg) [...] Read more.
Nutritional and ergogenic aid supplementation is prevalent within athletic or general fitness populations, and is only continuing to gain momentum. Taken in isolation or as a combination, amino acid (AA) supplementation has the potential to increase endurance performance among other benefits. L-Arginine (L-Arg) and L-Citrulline (L-Cit) are two AAs proposed to increase endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, with potential additional physiological benefits, and therefore may contribute to enhanced performance outcomes such as increased power output, or time to exhaustion. However, the appropriate dose for promoting physiological and performance benefits of these AAs, and their potential synergistic effects remains to be determined. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate the varied concentrations used in the current literature, assess the effects of L-Arg and L-Cit in combination on physiological responses and endurance performance, and consider if there is a fundamental basis for providing these supplements in the form of a beverage. A total of six studies were considered eligible for the review which utilized a range of 3–8 g of the AA constituents. The findings support the notion that supplementing with a combination of L-Arg and L-Cit may increase NO production, enhance vasodilation, and therefore increase performance capacity in athletes. A beverage as a carrier for the two AAs is worth considering; however, there remains limited research assessing these outcomes across a consistent range of concentrations in order to see their full potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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31 pages, 1173 KiB  
Review
Lactic Fermented Fruit or Vegetable Juices: Past, Present and Future
by Cyrielle Garcia, Marie Guerin, Kaies Souidi and Fabienne Remize
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010008 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 16059
Abstract
Numerous traditional low-alcohol fermented beverages produced from fruit or vegetables are described around the world. Fruit and vegetables and lactic fermented products both present nutritional benefits, which give reasons for the recent expansion of non-dairy lactic fermented juices on the market. In addition, [...] Read more.
Numerous traditional low-alcohol fermented beverages produced from fruit or vegetables are described around the world. Fruit and vegetables and lactic fermented products both present nutritional benefits, which give reasons for the recent expansion of non-dairy lactic fermented juices on the market. In addition, fruit and vegetable juices are new carriers for probiotic bacteria. Specific phenotypic traits of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are required so that LAB can effectively grow in fruit or vegetable juices, increase their safety and improve their sensory and nutritional quality. From the diversity of microbiota of spontaneous fermentations, autochthonous starters can be selected, and their higher performance than allochthonous LAB was demonstrated. Achieving long-term storage and constant high quality of these beverages requires additional processing steps, such as heat treatment. Alternatives to conventional treatments are investigated as they can better preserve nutritional properties, extract bioactive compounds and promote the growth and metabolism of LAB. Specific processing approaches were shown to increase probiotic viability of fruit and vegetable juices. More knowledge on the metabolic activity of lactic acid bacterium consortium in fruit or vegetable juices has become a bottleneck for the understanding and the prediction of changes in bioactive compounds for functional beverages development. Hopefully, the recent developments of metabolomics and methods to describe enzymatic machinery can result in the reconstruction of fermentative pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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20 pages, 3450 KiB  
Review
Designing New Yeasts for Craft Brewing: When Natural Biodiversity Meets Biotechnology
by Fabrizio Iattici, Martina Catallo and Lisa Solieri
Beverages 2020, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6010003 - 9 Jan 2020
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 9890
Abstract
Beer is a fermented beverage with a history as old as human civilization. Ales and lagers are by far the most common beers; however, diversification is becoming increasingly important in the brewing market and the brewers are continuously interested in improving and extending [...] Read more.
Beer is a fermented beverage with a history as old as human civilization. Ales and lagers are by far the most common beers; however, diversification is becoming increasingly important in the brewing market and the brewers are continuously interested in improving and extending the range of products, especially in the craft brewery sector. Fermentation is one of the widest spaces for innovation in the brewing process. Besides Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale and Saccharomyces pastorianus lager strains conventionally used in macro-breweries, there is an increasing demand for novel yeast starter cultures tailored for producing beer styles with diversified aroma profiles. Recently, four genetic engineering-free approaches expanded the genetic background and the phenotypic biodiversity of brewing yeasts and allowed novel costumed-designed starter cultures to be developed: (1) the research for new performant S. cerevisiae yeasts from fermented foods alternative to beer; (2) the creation of synthetic hybrids between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae in order to mimic lager yeasts; (3) the exploitation of evolutionary engineering approaches; (4) the usage of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Here, we summarized the pro and contra of these approaches and provided an overview on the most recent advances on how brewing yeast genome evolved and domestication took place. The resulting correlation maps between genotypes and relevant brewing phenotypes can assist and further improve the search for novel craft beer starter yeasts, enhancing the portfolio of diversified products offered to the final customer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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18 pages, 605 KiB  
Perspective
Ready to Use Therapeutical Beverages: Focus on Functional Beverages Containing Probiotics, Prebiotics and Synbiotics
by Amirhossein Nazhand, Eliana B. Souto, Massimo Lucarini, Selma B. Souto, Alessandra Durazzo and Antonello Santini
Beverages 2020, 6(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages6020026 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 52 | Viewed by 8986
Abstract
The growing global interest in functional foods containing nutrients capable of adding possible beneficial health effects is rapidly increasing both interest and consumer demand. In particular, functionalized beverages for their potential positive effect on health e.g., decreasing cholesterol level, lowering sugar, high fiber [...] Read more.
The growing global interest in functional foods containing nutrients capable of adding possible beneficial health effects is rapidly increasing both interest and consumer demand. In particular, functionalized beverages for their potential positive effect on health e.g., decreasing cholesterol level, lowering sugar, high fiber content, ability to enhance the immune system, and help digestion, have recently received special attention. Among the different beverages available on the market, probiotic dairy and non-dairy products have attracted much attention because of their affordable cost and their numerous therapeutic activities. Fermented milk and yogurt are currently worth €46 billion, with 77% of the market reported in Europe, North America, and Asia. Consumption of dairy beverages has some limitations due for example to lactose intolerance and allergy to milk proteins, thereby leading consumers to use non-dairy beverages such as fruit, grains, and vegetable juices to add probiotics to diet as well as driving the manufacturers to food matrices-based beverages containing probiotic cultures. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate the therapeutic performance and properties of dairy and non-dairy beverages in terms of probiotic, prebiotic, and synbiotic activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
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