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Article

Characteristics of PM2.5 Pollution in Osorno, Chile: Ion Chromatography and Meteorological Data Analyses

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Laboratory of Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501, Hokkaido, Japan
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Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501, Hokkaido, Japan
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Office of Research and Academia-Government-Community Collaboration, Hiroshima University, 1-3-2 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima City 739-8511, Hiroshima, Japan
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Departamento de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Los Lagos, Avenue Fuchslocher 1305, Osorno 5290000, Los Lagos, Chile
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Departamento de Salud, Universidad de Los Lagos, Avenue Fuchslocher 1305, Osorno 5290000, Los Lagos, Chile
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Izabela Sówka, Anetta Drzeniecka-Osiadacz and Tymoteusz Sawiński
Atmosphere 2022, 13(2), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020168
Received: 30 December 2021 / Revised: 16 January 2022 / Accepted: 17 January 2022 / Published: 20 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution, Air Quality and Human Health)
Over the decades, air pollution has become a serious problem in Osorno, Chile. This study aims to clarify the source of PM2.5 by comprehensively analyzing its chemical composition and comparing it with meteorological conditions. The PM2.5 and filter samples were collected during April 2019–August 2019 using a continuous particulate monitor. The analyses were conducted using Image J software, ion chromatography, and backward trajectory. The ion composition and the PM2.5 were compared. The results on the PM2.5 and potassium (K+) concentrations indicated a correlation factor of 0.93, indicating that biomass combustion, such as wood burning, is the dominant source of PM2.5 in Osorno. High PM2.5 concentrations of over 170 to 1124 µg/m3 were observed in low temperature, low precipitation, and low wind speed periods—meteorological conditions contributed to the development of a thermal inversion layer. In addition, correlations of 0.61 to 0.67 were found among the detected ions that are often found in seawater. The backward trajectory analyses showed dominant air mass transport from the South Pacific Ocean, suggesting that part of the detected PM2.5 was derived from the marine environment. Continuous monitoring and mitigation strategies focusing on wood combustion activities are necessary to alleviate the current air pollution problem in Osorno city. View Full-Text
Keywords: particulate matter; biomass burning; potassium ion; meteorological impact; thermal inversion layer particulate matter; biomass burning; potassium ion; meteorological impact; thermal inversion layer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakamura, A.; Nakatani, N.; Maruyama, F.; Fujiyoshi, S.; Márquez-Reyes, R.; Fernández, R.; Noda, J. Characteristics of PM2.5 Pollution in Osorno, Chile: Ion Chromatography and Meteorological Data Analyses. Atmosphere 2022, 13, 168. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020168

AMA Style

Nakamura A, Nakatani N, Maruyama F, Fujiyoshi S, Márquez-Reyes R, Fernández R, Noda J. Characteristics of PM2.5 Pollution in Osorno, Chile: Ion Chromatography and Meteorological Data Analyses. Atmosphere. 2022; 13(2):168. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020168

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakamura, Ayane, Nobutake Nakatani, Fumito Maruyama, So Fujiyoshi, Rodrigo Márquez-Reyes, Ricardo Fernández, and Jun Noda. 2022. "Characteristics of PM2.5 Pollution in Osorno, Chile: Ion Chromatography and Meteorological Data Analyses" Atmosphere 13, no. 2: 168. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos13020168

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