Special Issue "Analytical Determination of Polyphenols"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Antonio Segura-Carretero

Department of Analytical Chemistry of the Univeristy of Granada and Center of Research and Development of Functional Foods (CIDAF), Granada, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: functional food; bioactive compounds; analytical techniques; mass spectrometry; nutraceuticals; metabolomic studies; by-products revalorization
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David Arráez-Román

1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, Granada 18071, Spain
2. Research and Development of Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), Health Science Technological Park (PTS) Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n, EdificioBioregión, Granada 18007, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: +34-958242869
Fax: +34-958243328
Interests: bioactive phenolic compounds; metabolomics; analytical techniques; extraction processes; plant and food analysis; bioavailability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phenolic compounds constitute one of the most widely distributed groups of substances in the plant kingdom. Nowadays, more than 10,000 different phenolic structures are currently known. In recent years, the study of phytochemicals from plants, compounds which possess beneficial effects on health, has been one of the main activities for the development of functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. The most important effects of phenolic compounds include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiviral and antimicrobial activities.

Thus, in the present special issue, research articles related to the identification and/or characterization of phenolic compounds in food, food sub-product and plant matrices by using different extraction procedures and advanced analytical techniques are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Segura-Carretero
Dr. David Arráez-Román
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • phenolic compounds
  • extraction process
  • advances analytical techniques
  • food
  • plant
  • sub-products

Published Papers (21 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties
Antioxidants 2015, 4(4), 737-749; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4040737
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 3 November 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
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Abstract
Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain [...] Read more.
Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste
Antioxidants 2015, 4(4), 699-718; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4040699
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 24 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1785 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal [...] Read more.
The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent. The results showed that the RSM models were reliable for the prediction and evaluation of the tested variables. Within the tested ranges, temperature (°C), time (min), and sample-to-solvent ratio (g/100 mL), and their interactions, did not significantly affect phenolic compound (TPC), flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, CUPRAC, and FRAP contents. However, the time and the sample-to-solvent ratio significantly affected DPPH antioxidant activity and the ratio significantly affected ABTS antioxidant capacity. The optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were predicted and validated at a temperature of 90 °C, a time of 20 min, and a sample-to-solvent ratio of 5 g/100 mL. At these conditions, an extract with TPC of 86 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 30 mg RUE/g, and proanthocyanidins of 97 mg CAE/g could be prepared with potent antioxidant capacity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Identification and Antioxidant Activity of the Extracts of Eugenia uniflora Leaves. Characterization of the Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Aqueous Extract on Diabetes Expression in an Experimental Model of Spontaneous Type 1 Diabetes (NOD Mice)
Antioxidants 2015, 4(4), 662-680; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4040662
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 4 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 September 2015 / Published: 9 October 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (739 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting [...] Read more.
Medical and folklore reports suggest that Eugenia uniflora (E. uniflora) is a functional food that contains numerous compounds in its composition, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the best solvents (water, ethanol and methanol/acetone) for extracting bioactive compounds of E. uniflora leaves, assessing total phenols and the antioxidant activity of the extracts by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays, identifying hydrolysable tannins and three phenolic compounds (ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin) present in the leaves. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of diabetes, degree of insulitis, serum insulin, hepatic glutathione and tolerance test glucose in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Our results suggest that the aqueous extract presents antioxidant activity and high total phenols, which were used as a type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM-1) treatment in NOD mice. We verified that the chronic consumption of aqueous extract reduces the inflammatory infiltrate index in pancreatic islets, maintaining serum insulin levels and hepatic glutathione, and reducing serum lipid peroxidation as well as the risk for diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anti-Cancer Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts
Antioxidants 2015, 4(4), 647-661; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4040647
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 24 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 8 October 2015
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Abstract
Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have [...] Read more.
Euphorbia tirucalli is a succulent shrub or small tree that is native to the African continent, however, it is widely cultivated across the globe due to its use in traditional medicines to treat ailments, ranging from scorpion stings to HIV. Recent studies have identified compounds present in the latex of the plant, including a range of bi- and triterpenoids that exhibit bioactivity, including anticancer activity. This study aimed to optimize water extraction conditions for high-yield total phenolic content recovery, to prepare methanol and aqueous extracts from the aerial sections of the plant, and to test the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anti-cancer properties of these extracts. Water extraction of total phenolic compounds (TPC) was optimized across a range of parameters including temperature, extraction time, and plant mass-to-solvent ratio. The water extract of the E. tirucalli powder was found to contain TPC of 34.01 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/g, which was approximately half that of the methanol extract (77.33 mg GAE/g). The results of antioxidant assays showed a uniform trend, with the methanol extract’s antioxidant reducing activity exceeding that of water extracts, typically by a factor of 2:1. Regression analysis of the antioxidant assays showed the strongest correlation between extract TPC and antioxidant activity for the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods. The methanol extract also showed greater growth inhibition capacity towards the MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. These data suggest that further investigations are required to confirm the source of activity within the E. tirucalli leaf and stems for potential use in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Determination of Phenolic Content in Different Barley Varieties and Corresponding Malts by Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detection-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Antioxidants 2015, 4(3), 563-576; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4030563
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 31 July 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of nine phenolic compounds in barley and malted barley was established, using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS). The phenolic compounds can be easily detected with both systems, despite significant differences [...] Read more.
A simple and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of nine phenolic compounds in barley and malted barley was established, using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS). The phenolic compounds can be easily detected with both systems, despite significant differences in sensitivity. Concentrations approximately 180-fold lower could be achieved by mass spectrometry analysis compared to diode array detection, especially for the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin, which have poor absorptivity in the UV region. Malt samples were characterized by higher phenolic content comparing to corresponding barley varieties, revealing a significant increase of the levels of (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin during the malting process. Moreover, the industrial malting is responsible for modification on the phenolic profile from barley to malt, namely on the synthesis or release of sinapinic acid and epicatechin. Accordingly, the selection of the malting parameters, as well as the barley variety plays an important role when considering the quality and antioxidant stability of beer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction, Separation, and Identification of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS
Antioxidants 2015, 4(3), 548-562; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4030548
Received: 23 May 2015 / Revised: 4 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO), from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90%) of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery of individual phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil (VOO), from different Greek olive varieties. Sufficient recoveries (90%) of all individual phenolic compounds were obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent, acetonitrile for residue solubilization, and two washing steps with hexane. Moreover, in order to elucidate structural characteristics of phenolic compounds in VOO, high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) at 280 and 340 nm and HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) in the negative-ion mode were performed. The most abundant phenolic compounds were oleuropein derivatives with m/z 319 and 377 and ligstroside derivatives with m/z 303, 361. Lignans, such as 1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol were also present in substantial quantities in the phenolic fraction. However, pinoresinol was co-eluted with dialdehydic form of ligstroside aglycone (DAFLA) and it was not possible to be quantified separately. The phenolic extracts, obtained from different VOO samples, yielded similar HPLC profiles. Differences, however, were observed in the last part of the chromatogram, corresponding to isomers of the aldehydic form of ligstroside aglycone. Oxidized phenolic products, originating from secoiridoids, were also detected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose
Antioxidants 2015, 4(3), 533-547; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4030533
Received: 31 May 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 22 July 2015 / Published: 3 August 2015
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Abstract
Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol [...] Read more.
Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels
Antioxidants 2015, 4(3), 498-512; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4030498
Received: 5 April 2015 / Revised: 19 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 9 July 2015
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Abstract
Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae) Root Bark Extracts
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 410-426; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020410
Received: 21 April 2015 / Revised: 26 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (535 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and [...] Read more.
In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and hexane (Hex). The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g) and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g) were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG) assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6) was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62). Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Methanolic, Hexanic and Aqueous Extracts from Adiantum caudatum Leaves
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 394-409; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020394
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 4 June 2015
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the quest for new medicines, the methanolic, hexanic, and aqueous extracts of Adiantum caudatum leaves, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, were analyzed for phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. TPCs (total phenolic content) of the methanolic, aqueous and hexanic extracts [...] Read more.
In the quest for new medicines, the methanolic, hexanic, and aqueous extracts of Adiantum caudatum leaves, obtained by Soxhlet extraction, were analyzed for phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. TPCs (total phenolic content) of the methanolic, aqueous and hexanic extracts were 27.7, 21.1, and 16.7 μg of gallic acid equivalents per mL, respectively, while TFCs (total flavonoid content) were 13.2, 11.6, and 10.0 μg of rutin equivalents per mL, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts in reducing power, FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), phosphomolybdate and ABTS assays follow the same order of methanolic ˃ aqueous ˃ hexanic. In the DPPH assay, however, the aqueous extract exhibited a slightly higher antioxidant activity than the methanolic one. Methanol is therefore a better solvent to extract most of the antioxidant components from A. caudatum leaves. In lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the extracts showed almost similar behavior and their activity decreased gradually with time. The aqueous extract was the strongest inhibitor after two days, but the hexanic became the most potent after about three days. The antibacterial potential of the extracts was determined against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Towards all the microbes, the aqueous extract was the most potent and the hexanic the least. P. aeruginosa was the most susceptible strain, while the aqueous and methanolic extracts exhibited a slightly higher efficacy against this pathogen than the drug amoxicillin. In conclusion, A. caudatum can potentially provide a remedy against disorders caused by oxidative stress and infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Food Inhibits the Oral Bioavailability of the Major Green Tea Antioxidant Epigallocatechin Gallate in Humans
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 373-393; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020373
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The bioavailability of the most abundant and most active green tea antioxidant, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) remains uncertain. Therefore, the systemic absorption of EGCG was tested in healthy fasted humans. It was administered as capsules with water or with a light breakfast, or when [...] Read more.
The bioavailability of the most abundant and most active green tea antioxidant, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) remains uncertain. Therefore, the systemic absorption of EGCG was tested in healthy fasted humans. It was administered as capsules with water or with a light breakfast, or when incorporated within a strawberry sorbet. The results for plasma EGCG clearly revealed that taking EGCG capsules without food was better; the AUC was 2.7 and 3.9 times higher than when EGCG capsules were taken with a light breakfast (p = 0.044) or with EGCG imbedded in the strawberry sorbet (p = 0.019), respectively. This pattern was also observed for Cmax and Cav. Therefore, ingesting food at the same time as EGCG, whether it was imbedded or not in food, substantially inhibited the absorption of the catechin. As with some types of medications that are affected by food, it appears that EGCG should be taken without food in order to maximise its systemic absorption. Therefore, based on these findings, ingesting EGCG with water on an empty stomach is the most appropriate method for the oral delivery of EGCG in clinical trials where EGCG is to be investigated as a potential bioactive nutraceutical in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Discrimination between Leave of Apocynum venetum and Its Adulterant, A. pictum Based on Antioxidant Assay and Chemical Profiles Combined with Multivariate Statistical Analysis
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 359-372; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020359
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015
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Abstract
An integrated approach including chemical and biological assessments was developed to investigate the differences between Apocynum venetum L. (AV) and its adulterant, Apocynum pictum Schrenk (AP). Ten flavonoids were tentatively identified by ultra-visible and mass spectra data. The chemical component, hyperoside, was [...] Read more.
An integrated approach including chemical and biological assessments was developed to investigate the differences between Apocynum venetum L. (AV) and its adulterant, Apocynum pictum Schrenk (AP). Ten flavonoids were tentatively identified by ultra-visible and mass spectra data. The chemical component, hyperoside, was identified as a critical parameter for discrimination of two species from the results of principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitative analysis. The anti-oxidative power of the herbal extracts were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl (DPPH) assay and H2O2-induced cell damage on LO2 cells. The results of the biological assays suggested that the chemical differences between AV and AP do lead to difference in activity and AV is demonstrated to have higher anti-oxidant activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Systematic Study of the Content of Phytochemicals in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Vegetables
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 345-358; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020345
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2015 / Accepted: 30 April 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
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Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut) has been performed [...] Read more.
Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut) has been performed at different seasons, using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. It was observed that phenolic acids (the predominant group in carrot, eggplant and tomato) were found at higher concentrations in fresh carrot than in fresh-cut carrot. However, in the case of eggplant, they were detected at a higher content in fresh-cut than in fresh samples. Regarding tomato, the differences in the content of phenolic acids between fresh and fresh-cut were lower than in other matrices, except in winter sampling, where this family was detected at the highest concentration in fresh tomato. In grape, the flavonols content (predominant group) was higher in fresh grape than in fresh-cut during all samplings. The content of glucosinolates was lower in fresh-cut broccoli than in fresh samples in winter and spring sampling, although this trend changes in summer and autumn. In summary, phytochemical concentration did show significant differences during one-year monitoring, and the families of phytochemicals presented different behaviors depending on the matrix studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Cultivars of Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae) are a Source of Antioxidant Phenolics
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 281-292; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020281
Received: 15 November 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract
The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) [...] Read more.
The antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of six in vitro cultured blueberry seedlings were determined. Extracts were prepared in 85% ethanol from 30 days old in vitro cultured plants and used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazin (DPPH•) scavenging ability, total polyphenols (TP) and the partial phenolic composition performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (ESI-QqQ)). All ethanolic extracts from in vitro blueberry cultivars displayed antioxidant activity, with Legacy, Elliott and Bluegold cultivars being the most active. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity of the extracts is related to the content of chlorogenic acid myricetin, syringic acid and rutin, and tissue culture of blueberry seedlings is a good tool to obtain antioxidant extracts with reproducible profile of compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes
Antioxidants 2015, 4(2), 269-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4020269
Received: 26 December 2014 / Revised: 18 March 2015 / Accepted: 19 March 2015 / Published: 1 April 2015
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with [...] Read more.
Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant, Biomolecule Oxidation Protective Activities of Nardostachys jatamansi DC and Its Phytochemical Analysis by RP-HPLC and GC-MS
Antioxidants 2015, 4(1), 185-203; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4010185
Received: 11 November 2014 / Revised: 4 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 12 March 2015
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Abstract
The study aimed at analyzing the metabolite profile of Nardostachys jatamansi using RP-HPLC, GC-MS and also its antioxidant, biomolecule protective and cytoprotective properties. The 70% ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJE) showed the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids (gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, [...] Read more.
The study aimed at analyzing the metabolite profile of Nardostachys jatamansi using RP-HPLC, GC-MS and also its antioxidant, biomolecule protective and cytoprotective properties. The 70% ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJE) showed the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids (gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, homovanillin, epicatechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin-3-rhamnoside) analyzed by RP-HPLC, whereas hexane extract revealed an array of metabolites (fatty acids, sesquiterpenes, alkane hydrocarbons and esters) by GC-MS analysis. The antioxidant assays showed the enhanced potency of NJE with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 222.22 ± 7.4 μg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 13.90 ± 0.5 μg/mL for 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 113.81 ± 4.2 μg/mL for superoxide, 948 ± 21.1 μg/mL for metal chelating and 12.3 ± 0.43 mg FeSO4 equivalent/g of extract for ferric reducing antioxidant power assays and was more potent than hexane extract. NJE effectively inhibited 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidation of biomolecules analyzed by pBR322 plasmid DNA damage, protein oxidation of bovine serum albumin and lipid peroxidation assays. The observed effects might be due to the high content of polyphenols, 53.06 ± 2.2 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, and flavonoids, 25.303 ± 0.9 mg catechin equivalents/g, of NJE compared to the hexane fraction. Additionally, the extract abrogated the protein, carbonyl, and ROS formation, and NJE showed cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells above 75 μg/mL. Thus, the study suggests that the herb unequivocally is a potential source of antioxidants and could aid in alleviating oxidative stress-mediated disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Phenolic Content of Hypodaphnis Zenkeri and Its Antioxidant Effects against Fenton Reactions’ Mediated Oxidative Injuries on Liver Homogenate
Antioxidants 2014, 3(4), 866-889; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox3040866
Received: 30 September 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 3 December 2014 / Published: 16 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Under oxidative stress conditions, endogenous antioxidant defenses are unable to completely inactivate the free radicals generated by an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This state causes serious cell damage leading to a variety of human diseases. Natural antioxidants can protect cells [...] Read more.
Under oxidative stress conditions, endogenous antioxidant defenses are unable to completely inactivate the free radicals generated by an excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This state causes serious cell damage leading to a variety of human diseases. Natural antioxidants can protect cells against oxidative stress. Hypaodaphnis zenkeri (H. zenkiri) is a plant consumed as a spice in the Cameroonian diet, and its bark has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aims at investigating the antioxidant activity, which includes free radical scavenging and protective properties of an extract from H. Zenkiri against oxidative damage on a liver homogenate. The free radical assays determined the scavenging activities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH), nitrite oxide (NO) and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radicals and the enzymes, whose protection was to be considered in the liver homogenate, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase. The antioxidative activities were studied using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), reductive activity, and phosphomolybdenum antioxidant power (PAP) methods. In addition, the phenolic contents of the extracts were examined. The results showed that these extracts demonstrated significant scavenging properties and antioxidant activities, with the hydro-ethanolic extract of the bark of H. zenkeri (EEH) being the most potent. This extract had the highest total polyphenol (21.77 ± 0.05 mg caffeic acid (CAE)/g dried extract (DE)) and flavonoids (3.34 ± 0.13 mg quercetin (QE)/g dried extract) content. The same extract had significantly greater protective effects on enzyme activities compared to other extracts. The high performance liquied chromatography (HPLC) profile showed higher levels of caffeic acid, OH-tyrosol acid, and rutin in the leaves compared to the bark of H. zenkeri. In conclusion, the ethanolic and hydro-ethanolic extracts of the bark and leaves from H. zenkeri showed an antioxidant and protective potential against oxidative damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle Rosmarinic Acid, a New Polyphenol from Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Leaf: A Probable Compound for Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity
Antioxidants 2014, 3(4), 830-842; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox3040830
Received: 11 August 2014 / Revised: 20 November 2014 / Accepted: 20 November 2014 / Published: 3 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite several pharmacological applications of Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., studies on the influence of its polyphenol content on pharmacological activity such as anti-inflammatory properties have been scarce. Here we evaluated in vitro antioxidant activity, poyphenolics by HPLC and the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanolic [...] Read more.
Despite several pharmacological applications of Baccaurea ramiflora Lour., studies on the influence of its polyphenol content on pharmacological activity such as anti-inflammatory properties have been scarce. Here we evaluated in vitro antioxidant activity, poyphenolics by HPLC and the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanolic leaf extract of Baccaurea ramiflora (BME) and its protective effects in carrageenan-induced paw edema model of inflammation in rats. The BME extract contained 79.06 ± 0.03 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g total polyphenols, 28.80 ± 0.01 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g flavonoid and 29.42 ± 0.01 μg cathechin equivalent/g proanthocyanidin respectively and rosmarinic acid (8 mg/kg) as a main component was identified by HPLC. Results demonstrate that administration of BME at the dose of 200 mg/kg can reduce paw edema by over 63%, and it exhibits a dose-response effect. Depending on concentration, the extract exerted scavenging activity on DPPH radical (IC50 36.4 μg/mL), significantly inhibited IL-1β (4.4 pg/mg protein) and TNF-α (0.21 ng/μg protein). Therefore, we conclude BME causes a substantial reduction of inflammation in in vivo models. We propose that rosmarinic acid and similar phenolic compounds may be useful in the therapy of inflammation-related injuries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessArticle An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity
Antioxidants 2014, 3(4), 814-829; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox3040814
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 2 December 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (612 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for [...] Read more.
Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds
Antioxidants 2015, 4(4), 682-698; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4040682
Received: 23 September 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 October 2015 / Published: 3 November 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in [...] Read more.
Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Open AccessReview Infrared Spectroscopy as a Versatile Analytical Tool for the Quantitative Determination of Antioxidants in Agricultural Products, Foods and Plants
Antioxidants 2015, 4(3), 482-497; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox4030482
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 15 June 2015 / Accepted: 15 June 2015 / Published: 2 July 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spectroscopic methods provide with very useful qualitative and quantitative information about the biochemistry and chemistry of antioxidants. Near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy are considered as powerful, fast, accurate and non-destructive analytical tools that can be considered as a replacement of [...] Read more.
Spectroscopic methods provide with very useful qualitative and quantitative information about the biochemistry and chemistry of antioxidants. Near infrared (NIR) and mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy are considered as powerful, fast, accurate and non-destructive analytical tools that can be considered as a replacement of traditional chemical analysis. In recent years, several reports can be found in the literature demonstrating the usefulness of these methods in the analysis of antioxidants in different organic matrices. This article reviews recent applications of infrared (NIR and MIR) spectroscopy in the analysis of antioxidant compounds in a wide range of samples such as agricultural products, foods and plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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