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Special Issue "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Enrique Barrajon

Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnología Sanitaria de Elche (IDiBE), Universitas Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: natural compounds; polyphenols; marine compounds; cancer; antimicrobial; skin; cosmetics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David Arráez-Román

1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, Granada 18071, Spain
2. Research and Development of Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), Health Science Technological Park (PTS) Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n, EdificioBioregión, Granada 18007, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: +34-958242869
Fax: +34-958243328
Interests: bioactive phenolic compounds; metabolomics; analytical techniques; extraction processes; plant and food analysis; bioavailability
Guest Editor
Dr. María Herranz-López

Instituto de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Biotecnología Sanitaria de Elche (IDiBE), Universitas Miguel Hernández, Elche, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: metabolic disorders; inflammation; bioactive compounds; polyphenols; skin; cosmetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 Metabolic syndrome is a group of metabolic abnormalities, such as insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and excess body fat around the waist that may occur in the same individual. This condition has a remarkable impact on health, leading to shortened life expectancy, and also an increase in the risk of heart diseases. Adults with metabolic syndrome present obesity-associated metabolic, oxidative and inflammatory disturbances. A better understanding of disease-associated metabolic pathway alterations may lead to the identification of new drugs and to the development of new therapies against metabolic abnormalities.

Natural products are a source of anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antithrombotic and antihyperglycaemic molecules, possibly useful in the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders. These compounds could interact in humans with pleiotropic effects in a variety of tissues involved in stress response pathways, thus increasing the ingestion of dietary natural products could be helpful in the management of obesity-related deseases.

This Special Issue is a collection of research and review articles on the benefits of bioactives and nutraceuticals with a special interest in the “New Insights in Natural Compounds in the Management of the Metabolic Syndrome”.

As Guest Editors of this Special Issue, We cordially invite researchers from all around the world to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting original research articles, long and mini review papers, short notes, and opinions according to their expertise.

Prof. Dr. Enrique Barrajon
Prof. Dr. David Arráez-Román
Prof. Dr. Maria Herranz-Lopez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • metabolic disorders
  • metabolic pathways
  • bioactives and nutraceuticals
  • obesity
  • AMPK
  • anti-inflammatory
  • antihypertensive
  • antioxidant
  • metabolomics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle The Antagonist Effect of Arachidonic Acid on GLUT4 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptor Type II Regulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040963
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 15 February 2019 / Accepted: 20 February 2019 / Published: 22 February 2019
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Abstract
Objectives: Obesity is a complex disease that has a strong association with diet and lifestyle. Dietary factors can influence the expression of key genes connected to insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue composition. In this study, our objective was to determine gene [...] Read more.
Objectives: Obesity is a complex disease that has a strong association with diet and lifestyle. Dietary factors can influence the expression of key genes connected to insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and adipose tissue composition. In this study, our objective was to determine gene expression and fatty acid (FA) profiles in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from lean and morbidly obese individuals. We also aimed to study the agonist effect of dietary factors on glucose metabolism. Design and methods: Lean and low and high insulin resistance morbidly obese subjects (LIR-MO and HIR-MO) were included in this study. The gene expression of liver X receptor type alpha (LXR-α) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and the FA profiles in VAT were determined. Additionally, the in vivo and in vitro agonist effects of oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and arachidonic acid (AA) by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type gamma 2 (PPAR-γ2) on the activity of GLUT4 were studied. Results: Our results showed a dysregulation of GLUT4 and LXR-α in VAT of morbidly obese subjects. In addition, a specific FA profile for morbidly obese individuals was found. Finally, AA was an PPAR-γ2 agonist that activates the expression of GLUT4. Conclusions: Our study suggests a dysregulation of LXR-α and GLUT4 expression in VAT of morbidly obese individuals. FA profiles in VAT could elucidate their possible role in lipolysis and adipogenesis. Finally, AA binds to PPAR-γ2 to activate the expression of GLUT4 in the HepG2 cell line, showing an alternative insulin-independent activation of GLUT4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome)
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Open AccessArticle Scutellaria baicalensis Alleviates Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obese Mice by Modulating Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030727
Received: 16 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
Insulin resistance is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, and chronic inflammation is known to be a major mechanism of insulin resistance and is a therapeutic target. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced [...] Read more.
Insulin resistance is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome, and chronic inflammation is known to be a major mechanism of insulin resistance and is a therapeutic target. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin-resistant mice and to investigate its mechanism based on inflammatory responses. Mice were fed a HFD to induce insulin resistance and then administered SB for nine weeks. Body weight, glucose, lipid, insulin, epididymal fat pad and liver weights, and histologic characteristics were evaluated to determine the effect on insulin resistance. In order to evaluate the effects on the inflammatory process, we analyzed the proportions of macrophages in liver and epididymal fat and measured inflammatory gene expression. Fasting and postprandial glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by SB administration. The epididymal fat and liver showed significant weight decreases and histological improvements. Total adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) decreased (27.71 ± 3.47% vs. 45.26 ± 7.26%, p < 0.05), M2 ATMs increased (47.02 ± 6.63% vs. 24.28 ± 8.00%, p < 0.05), and CD11b+ Kupffer cells decreased. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and F4/80 in the liver were significantly decreased (12.03 ± 1.47% vs. 25.88 ± 4.57%, p < 0.05) compared to HFD group. These results suggest that SB improved insulin resistance through inhibition of macrophage-mediated inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome)
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Open AccessArticle Gut Microbiota and Predicted Metabolic Pathways in a Sample of Mexican Women Affected by Obesity and Obesity Plus Metabolic Syndrome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020438
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
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Abstract
Obesity is an excessive fat accumulation that could lead to complications like metabolic syndrome. There are reports on gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome in relation to dietary, host genetics, and other environmental factors; however, it is necessary to explore the role of the [...] Read more.
Obesity is an excessive fat accumulation that could lead to complications like metabolic syndrome. There are reports on gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome in relation to dietary, host genetics, and other environmental factors; however, it is necessary to explore the role of the gut microbiota metabolic pathways in populations like Mexicans, where the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome is high. This study identify alterations of the gut microbiota in a sample of healthy Mexican women (CO), women with obesity (OB), and women with obesity plus metabolic syndrome (OMS). We studied 67 women, characterizing their anthropometric and biochemical parameters along with their gut bacterial diversity by high-throughput DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that in OB or OMS women, Firmicutes was the most abundant bacterial phylum. We observed significant changes in abundances of bacteria belonging to the Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae families and significant enrichment of gut bacteria from 16 different taxa that might explain the observed metabolic alterations between the groups. Finally, the predicted functional metagenome of the gut microbiota found in each category shows differences in metabolic pathways related to lipid metabolism. We demonstrate that Mexican women have a particular bacterial gut microbiota characteristic of each phenotype. There are bacteria that potentially explain the observed metabolic differences between the groups, and gut bacteria in OMS and OB conditions carry more genes of metabolic pathways implicated in lipid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Mechanisms Underlying Metabolic Syndrome-Related Sarcopenia and Possible Therapeutic Measures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030647
Received: 13 January 2019 / Revised: 30 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
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Abstract
Although there are several reviews that report the interrelationship between sarcopenia and obesity and insulin resistance, the relation between sarcopenia and the other signs that compose the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been extensively revised. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying MetS-related sarcopenia [...] Read more.
Although there are several reviews that report the interrelationship between sarcopenia and obesity and insulin resistance, the relation between sarcopenia and the other signs that compose the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been extensively revised. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying MetS-related sarcopenia and discuss the possible therapeutic measures proposed. A vicious cycle between the loss of muscle and the accumulation of intramuscular fat might be associated with MetS via a complex interplay of factors including nutritional intake, physical activity, body fat, oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, hormonal changes, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The enormous differences in lipid storage capacities between the two genders and elevated amounts of endogenous fat having lipotoxic effects that lead to the loss of muscle mass are discussed. The important repercussions of MetS-related sarcopenia on other illnesses that lead to increased disability, morbidity, and mortality are also addressed. Additional research is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of MetS-related sarcopenia and its consequences. Although there is currently no consensus on the treatment, lifestyle changes including diet and power exercise seem to be the best options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome)
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Open AccessReview Muscle Insulin Resistance and the Inflamed Microvasculature: Fire from Within
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030562
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 21 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Insulin is a vascular hormone and regulates vascular tone and reactivity. Muscle is a major insulin target that is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated glucose use. Evidence confirms that muscle microvasculature is an important insulin action site and critically regulates insulin delivery [...] Read more.
Insulin is a vascular hormone and regulates vascular tone and reactivity. Muscle is a major insulin target that is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated glucose use. Evidence confirms that muscle microvasculature is an important insulin action site and critically regulates insulin delivery to muscle and action on myocytes, thereby affecting insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Insulin via activation of its signaling cascade in the endothelial cells increases muscle microvascular perfusion, which leads to an expansion of the endothelial exchange surface area. Insulin’s microvascular actions closely couple with its metabolic actions in muscle and blockade of insulin-mediated microvascular perfusion reduces insulin-stimulated muscle glucose disposal. Type 2 diabetes is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which engenders both metabolic and microvascular insulin resistance through endocrine, autocrine and paracrine actions of multiple pro-inflammatory factors. Here, we review the crucial role of muscle microvasculature in the regulation of insulin action in muscle and how inflammation in the muscle microvasculature affects insulin’s microvascular actions as well as metabolic actions. We propose that microvascular insulin resistance induced by inflammation is an early event in the development of metabolic insulin resistance and eventually type 2 diabetes and its related cardiovascular complications, and thus is a potential therapeutic target for the prevention or treatment of obesity and diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome)
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Open AccessReview Nutraceutical and Medicinal Potential of the Morus Species in Metabolic Dysfunctions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020301
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 10 January 2019 / Published: 14 January 2019
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Abstract
Many populations use medicinal plants as a therapeutic treatment, due to their lower cost and greater access. Among the plant species used for medicinal purposes are those of the genus Morus. The most known species are Morus alba, rubra, and [...] Read more.
Many populations use medicinal plants as a therapeutic treatment, due to their lower cost and greater access. Among the plant species used for medicinal purposes are those of the genus Morus. The most known species are Morus alba, rubra, and nigra. This review aims to collect data from the literature, predominantly from cell and animal studies, which presents a possible nutraceutical and medicinal potential of the species Morus for use in metabolic dysfunctions. The fruits and leaves of mulberry are used for therapeutic purposes. For scientific confirmation of these effects, they were studied for laxative properties, antibacterial activity, anti-atherogenic activity, and hepatoprotective function. Furthermore, the genus Morus is recognized for the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus, through its hypoglycemic action. It may also provide health benefits through immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-nociceptive effects. It has been found that the Morus species have phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins that act as important antioxidants and promote beneficial effects on human health. These phytochemical compounds differ among species. Blackberry (Morus nigra) are rich in flavonoids, while the white mulberry (Morus alba) has low concentrations of flavonoids and anthocyanins. In addition, another important factor is to ensure a complete exemption of toxic risks in the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of diseases. Studies have shown no toxic effects by the administration of extracts of Morus species. Thus, the mulberry tree presents nutraceutical potential. It is therefore a promising alternative for medicinal products based on medicinal plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome)
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Open AccessReview The Human Microbiota and Obesity: A Literature Systematic Review of In Vivo Models and Technical Approaches
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123827
Received: 27 October 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 24 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
PDF Full-text (13899 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Obesity is a noncommunicable disease that affects a considerable part of humanity. Recently, it has been recognized that gut microbiota constitutes a fundamental factor in the triggering and development of a large number of pathologies, among which obesity is one of the most [...] Read more.
Obesity is a noncommunicable disease that affects a considerable part of humanity. Recently, it has been recognized that gut microbiota constitutes a fundamental factor in the triggering and development of a large number of pathologies, among which obesity is one of the most related to the processes of dysbiosis. In this review, different animal model approaches, methodologies, and genome scale metabolic databases were revisited to study the gut microbiota and its relationship with metabolic disease. As a data source, PubMed for English-language published material from 1 January 2013, to 22 August 2018, were screened. Some previous studies were included if they were considered classics or highly relevant. Studies that included innovative technical approaches or different in vivo or in vitro models for the study of the relationship between gut microbiota and obesity were selected after a 16-different-keyword exhaustive search. A clear panorama of the current available options for the study of microbiota’s influence on obesity, both for animal model election and technical approaches, is presented to the researcher. All the knowledge generated from the study of the microbiota opens the possibility of considering fecal transplantation as a relevant therapeutic alternative for obesity and other metabolic disease treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic Syndrome)
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