Special Issue "Bioactive Phenolic Compounds"

A special issue of Antioxidants (ISSN 2076-3921). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonio Segura-Carretero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry of the Univeristy of Granada and Center of Research and Development of Functional Foods (CIDAF), Granada, Spain
Interests: functional food; bioactive compounds; analytical techniques; mass spectrometry; nutraceuticals; metabolomic studies; by-products revalorization
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Elena Alañon
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
Interests: beverages; wine; antioxidant activity; phenolic compounds; green extraction techniques; liquid chromatography; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; functional foods; human intervention studies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The purpose of this Special Issue of Antioxidants is to highlight recent developments in the elucidation of the role of phenolic compounds as antioxidants in health promotion or disease prevention, innovative techniques and protocols for the extraction, isolation, and structural characterization of phenolic compounds, their industrial uses in the food and cosmetic industries, and the revalorization and use of by-products as a natural source of valuable bioactive phenolic compounds.

Bioactive phenolic compounds present in fruits, vegetables, and other natural matrices have attracted increased interest over the last few years due to their antioxidant, antiseptic, and antibacterial functional properties. Their potential applications cover a wide spectrum in pharmaceutical, chemical, nutraceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. The consumption of such antioxidants plays a protective role against oxidative damage diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc. On the other hand, they are also used as food preservatives, preventing oxidative degradation and microbial proliferation. Furthermore, recently, consideration has been given to their use in industrial crop plants and by-products as natural sources of valuable bioactive phenolic compounds.

Therefore, you are invited to submit original research papers or review article, focused on issues related to bioactive phenolic compounds, approached from different fields of knowledge.

Prof. Dr. Antonio Segura-Carretero
Dr. Elena Alañon
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Antioxidants is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Bioactive phenolic compounds
  • Absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Antioxidant mechanisms
  • Health and disease
  • Dietary polyphenols
  • Industrial uses
  • Functional properties
  • Food preservatives
  • Extraction and chemical characterization
  • By-products as a natural source of bioactive compounds
  • Microencapsulation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Communication
Profiling of Polyphenol Composition and Antiradical Capacity of Erica cinerea
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030072 - 20 Sep 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2017
Abstract
The aim of the current study was to determine the profile and content of polyphenols present in Erica cinerea, an important plant species from Northern Portuguese flora and often reported as having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-radical activity. The analysis of polyphenols was [...] Read more.
The aim of the current study was to determine the profile and content of polyphenols present in Erica cinerea, an important plant species from Northern Portuguese flora and often reported as having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-radical activity. The analysis of polyphenols was performed by HPLC-DAD/UV-Vis, and the 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) method was used to evaluate its radical scavenging activity. HPLC analysis showed that both plants presented a great diversity of compounds, with 33% flavones, 28% flavanols, and 26% hydroxycinnamic acids. The antiradical activity was dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 0.251 mg mL−1. Based on our study, E. cinerea presented interesting bioactive compounds and it can be used to extract and purify bioactive polyphenols to be used in pharmaceutical or agro-food industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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Article
Fate and Prediction of Phenolic Secoiridoid Compounds throughout the Different Stages of the Virgin Olive Oil Making Process
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030061 - 03 Aug 2017
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2096
Abstract
The evolution of the main phenolic secoiridoid compounds throughout the different stages of the virgin olive oil making process—crushing, malaxation and liquid-solid separation—is studied here, with the goal of making possible the prediction of the partition and transformation that take place in the [...] Read more.
The evolution of the main phenolic secoiridoid compounds throughout the different stages of the virgin olive oil making process—crushing, malaxation and liquid-solid separation—is studied here, with the goal of making possible the prediction of the partition and transformation that take place in the different steps of the process. The concentration of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoids produced under the different crushing conditions studied are reasonably proportional to the intensity of the milling stage, and strongly depend on the olive variety processed. During malaxation, the content of the main phenolic secoiridoids is reduced, especially in the case of the hydroxytyrosol derivatives, in which a variety-dependent behaviour is observed. The prediction of the concentration of phenolic secoiridoids finally transferred from the kneaded paste to the virgin olive oil is also feasible, and depends on the phenolic content and amount of water in the olive paste. The determination of the phenolic compounds in the olive fruit, olive paste and olive oil has been carried out by LC-MS (Liquid-Chromatography Mass-Spectrometry). This improved knowledge could help in the use of more adequate processing conditions for the production of virgin olive oil with desired properties; for example, higher or lower phenolic content, as the amount of these minor components is directly related to its sensory, antioxidant and healthy properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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Article
Fractioning of Proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa. Composition and Structure-Bioactivity Relationship
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030060 - 28 Jul 2017
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3011
Abstract
In a previous study, the detailed low-molecular weight polyphenolic profile of the different plant parts (leaves, stem, bark and wood) of Uncaria tomentosa was reported, the leaves being the plant part with the highest phenolic content and presenting the most heterogenous proanthocyanidin composition. [...] Read more.
In a previous study, the detailed low-molecular weight polyphenolic profile of the different plant parts (leaves, stem, bark and wood) of Uncaria tomentosa was reported, the leaves being the plant part with the highest phenolic content and presenting the most heterogenous proanthocyanidin composition. Further, cytotoxicity of leaves extracts in two cancer cell lines was also found to be higher than in the remaining parts of the plant. In the present study, fractioning of U. tomentosa leaves polyphenolic extracts was performed using Diaion® HP-20 resin and a detailed characterization and quantification of fractions (n = 5) was achieved using advanced analytical techniques such as Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Electrospray Ionization and Triple Quadrupole (TQD) Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS) and 13C-NMR. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and cytotoxicity on gastric adenocarcinoma AGS and colon adenocarcinoma SW20 cell lines were also determined in the different fractions. Results showed selective distribution of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid phenolics among the different fractions. ORAC varied between 3.2 and 11.8 μmol TE/mg in the different fractions, whereas IC50 of cytotoxicity on gastric adenocarcinoma AGS and colon adenocarcinoma SW20 cell lines best values were between 71.4 and 75.6 µg/mL. Fractions rich in proanthocyanidins also showed the highest bioactivity. In fact, significant positive correlation was found between total proanthocyanidins (TP) quantified by UPLC-DAD and ORAC (R2 = 0.970), whereas significant negative correlation was found between TP and cytotoxicity towards AGS (R2 = 0.820) and SW620 (R2 = 0.843) adenocarcinoma cell lines. Among proanthocyanidins, propelargonidin dimers were of particular interest, showing significant correlation with cytotoxic selectivity on both gastric AGS (R2 = 0.848) and colon SW620 (R2 = 0.883) adenocarcinoma cell lines. These results show further evidence of the bioactivity of U. tomentosa proanthocyanidin extracts and their potential health effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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Article
Chemical Analysis of Astragali Complanati Semen and Its Hypocholesterolemic Effect Using Serum Metabolomics Based on Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030057 - 21 Jul 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3124
Abstract
The hypocholesterolemic protective effect of the dried seed of Astragalus complanatus (ACS) was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high cholesterol diet (HCD), and HCD plus 70% ethanol extract of ACS (600 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for four weeks. ACS extract was [...] Read more.
The hypocholesterolemic protective effect of the dried seed of Astragalus complanatus (ACS) was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high cholesterol diet (HCD), and HCD plus 70% ethanol extract of ACS (600 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for four weeks. ACS extract was tested to be rich in antioxidants, which may be contributed to its high content of phenolic compounds. Consumption of ACS remarkably suppressed the elevated total cholesterol (p < 0.01) and LDL-C (p < 0.001) induced by HCD. Chemical constituents of ACS extract were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry and the results showed that the ACS extract mainly consisted of phenolic compounds including flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. In addition, based on the serum fatty acid profiles, elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, free and esterified fatty acids including docosapentaenoic acid, adrenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid were regulated in ACS treatment group. Western blot results further indicated the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) (p < 0.05) in liver was upregulated in ACS treatment group. To conclude, our results clearly demonstrated that ACS provides beneficial effect on lowering HCD associated detrimental change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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Article
Antifungal and Antiochratoxigenic Activities of Essential Oils and Total Phenolic Extracts: A Comparative Study
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030044 - 09 Jul 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2987
Abstract
This study is intended to prevent ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Aspergillus carbonarius S402 using essential oils (EOs) and total phenolic compounds extracted from plants and herbs. The EOs used in this study are the following: bay leaves, cumin, fenugreek, melissa, mint, and [...] Read more.
This study is intended to prevent ochratoxin A (OTA) production by Aspergillus carbonarius S402 using essential oils (EOs) and total phenolic compounds extracted from plants and herbs. The EOs used in this study are the following: bay leaves, cumin, fenugreek, melissa, mint, and sage. As for the phenolic compounds, they were extracted from bay leaves, cumin, fenugreek, melissa, mint, sage, anise, chamomile, fennel, rosemary, and thyme. The experiments were conducted on Synthetic Grape Medium (SGM) medium at 28 °C for 4 days. OTA was extracted from the medium with methanol and quantified using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). Results showed that EOs had a greater impact than the total phenolic extracts on the OTA production. Reduction levels ranged between 25% (sage) and 80% (melissa) for the EOs at 5 µL mL−1, and 13% (thyme) and 69% (mint) for the phenolic extracts. Although they did not affect the growth of A. carbonarius, total phenolic extracts and EOs were capable of partially reducing OTA production. Reduction levels depended on the nature of the plants and the concentration of the EOs. Reducing OTA with natural extracts could be a solution to prevent OTA production without altering the fungal growth, thus preserving the natural microbial balance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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Article
A Study of the Protective Properties of Iraqi Olive Leaves against Oxidation and Pathogenic Bacteria in Food Applications
Antioxidants 2017, 6(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6020034 - 17 May 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3105
Abstract
There is an ancient and prodigious history of olive trees because of their nutritional, medicinal, and traditional uses. Intensive studies have been conducted on olive leaves because they have many positive and beneficial effects for human health. In this study, different solvents were [...] Read more.
There is an ancient and prodigious history of olive trees because of their nutritional, medicinal, and traditional uses. Intensive studies have been conducted on olive leaves because they have many positive and beneficial effects for human health. In this study, different solvents were used to examine the olive leaves for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their possible food applications. The obtained results showed that the amounts of phenolic compounds of the olive leaf were 190.44 ± 0.50, 173 ± 1.72, 147.78 ± 0.69, and 147.50 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid/g extracts using methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, and hexanol, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in the phenolic contents in terms of the used solvents. The stability of the olive leaves extraction was also studied and the results indicated that increasing the storage temperature could negatively affect and encourage the degradation of the phenolic compounds. Furthermore, the olive leaf extraction was applied to raw sheep meat slides at 0.5%, 1.5%, and 2.5% (w/v) in order to test its antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. The results obviously showed that the sample treated with 2.5% olive leaf extract had the significantly (p < 0.05) lowest Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) values of 1.92 ± 0.12 (mg Malonaldehyde MDA/kg) throughout 12 days of cold storage. Moreover, the results showed that the sample, which was treated with 2.5% olive leaf extract, had low total bacterial count and total coliform bacteria (6.23 ± 0.05, 5.2 ± 0.35 log colony forming unit (CFU)/g, respectively) among the control, 0.5%, and 1.5% olive leaf treated samples throughout 12 days of storage. The phenolic extracts from the olive leaf extract had significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which could be used as a source of potential antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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Article
Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Properties in Bark, Flower, Inner Skin, Kernel and Leaf Extracts of Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc
Antioxidants 2017, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6020031 - 05 May 2017
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3454
Abstract
In this study, different plant parts (barks, flowers, inner skins, kernels and leaves) of Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut) were analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), reducing power, [...] Read more.
In this study, different plant parts (barks, flowers, inner skins, kernels and leaves) of Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut) were analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching methods. The highest total phenolic and tannin contents were found in the inner skins (1034 ± 7.21 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 253.89 ± 5.59 mg catechin equivalent/g extract, respectively). The maximum total flavonoid content was observed in the flowers (147.41 ± 1.61 mg rutin equivalent/g extract). The inner skins showed the strongest antioxidant activities in all evaluated assays. Thirteen phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were detected and quantified for the first time. Major phenolic acids were gallic, ellagic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids, while the principal flavonoids were myricetin and isoquercitrin. The inner skin extract was further fractionated by column chromatography to yield four fractions, of which fraction F3 exhibited the most remarkable DPPH scavenging capacity. These results suggest that C. crenata provides promising antioxidant capacities, and is a potential natural preservative agent in food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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Review

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Review
Possible Reactions of Dietary Phenolic Compounds with Salivary Nitrite and Thiocyanate in the Stomach
Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6030053 - 05 Jul 2017
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
Foods are mixed with saliva in the oral cavity and swallowed. While staying in the stomach, saliva is contentiously provided to mix with the ingested foods. Because a salivary component of nitrite is protonated to produce active nitrous acid at acidic pH, the [...] Read more.
Foods are mixed with saliva in the oral cavity and swallowed. While staying in the stomach, saliva is contentiously provided to mix with the ingested foods. Because a salivary component of nitrite is protonated to produce active nitrous acid at acidic pH, the redox reactions of nitrous acid with phenolic compounds in foods become possible in the stomach. In the reactions, nitrous acid is reduced to nitric oxide (•NO), producing various products from phenolic compounds. In the products, stable hydroxybezoyl benzofuranone derivatives, which are produced from quercetin and its 7-O-glucoside, are included. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and rutin are oxidized to quinones and the quinones can react with thiocyanic acid derived from saliva, producing stable oxathiolone derivatives. 6,8-Dinitrosocatechis are produced from catechins by the redox reaction, and the dinitrocatechins are oxidized further by nitrous acid producing the quinones, which can make charge transfer complexes with the dinitrosocatechin and can react with thiocyanic acid producing the stable thiocyanate conjugates. In this way, various products can be produced by the reactions of salivary nitrite with dietary phenolic compounds, and reactive and toxic quinones formed by the reactions are postulated to be removed in the stomach by thiocyanic acid derived from saliva. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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