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Special Issue "Nutraceuticals in Cancer and Disease Prevention"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David Arráez-Román

1. Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, Granada 18071, Spain
2. Research and Development of Functional Food Centre (CIDAF), Health Science Technological Park (PTS) Granada, Avda. del Conocimiento s/n, EdificioBioregión, Granada 18007, Spain
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: +34-958242869
Fax: +34-958243328
Interests: bioactive phenolic compounds; metabolomics; analytical techniques; extraction processes; plant and food analysis; bioavailability
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ana Mª Gomez-Caravaca

Department of Analytical Chemistry - University of Granada. Campus of Fuentenueva, Avda Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34 958 637206
Fax: +34 958 637083
Interests: Antioxidant compounds; mass spectrometry; food by-products; functional foods; nutraceuticals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Phenolic compounds constitute one of the most widely-distributed groups of substances in the plant kingdom. Nowadays, more than 10,000 different phenolic structures are currently known. In recent years, the study of phytochemicals from plants, compounds which possess beneficial effects on health, has been one of the main activities for the development of functional foods, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this sense, the study of phenolic compounds has attracted attention due to the scientific evidence derived from a large number of epidemiological studies, which point to different biological activities attributed to these compounds. The most important effects of phenolic compounds include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antiviral and antimicrobial activities amongst others. It should be highlighted that a high intake of fruits and vegetables, rich in phenolic compounds, has been related to a lower incidence of various illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative pathologies, cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity or diabetes. 

This Special Issue aims to present current knowledge and research trends concerning the use of "green" extraction processes, advanced analytical techniques and bioactivity evaluation of phenolic compounds from plants, food and food by-products versus cancer and disease prevention. We invite researchers to contribute with original research articles, as well as review articles that will stimulate the continuing efforts to understand the role of the bioactive compounds in the treatment and prevention of cancer disease.

Prof. Dr. David Arráez-Román
Prof. Dr. Ana Maria Gómez Caravaca
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Plants, food and food by-products
  • Cancer
  • Phenolic compounds
  • Analytical techniques
  • Extraction process
  • Bioavailability
  • Functional food
  • Nutraceuticals

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Flexicaulin A, An ent-Kaurane Diterpenoid, Activates p21 and Inhibits the Proliferation of Colorectal Carcinoma Cells through a Non-Apoptotic Mechanism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1917; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081917
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 15 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
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Abstract
Natural products, explicitly medicinal plants, are an important source of inspiration of antitumor drugs, because they contain astounding amounts of small molecules that possess diversifying chemical entities. For instance, Isodon (formerly Rabdosia), a genus of the Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae) family, has been [...] Read more.
Natural products, explicitly medicinal plants, are an important source of inspiration of antitumor drugs, because they contain astounding amounts of small molecules that possess diversifying chemical entities. For instance, Isodon (formerly Rabdosia), a genus of the Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae) family, has been reported as a rich source of natural diterpenes. In the current study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-proliferative property of flexicaulin A (FA), an Isodon diterpenoid with an ent-kaurane structure, in human carcinoma cells, by means of cell viability assay, flow cytometric assessment, quantitative polymerase chain reaction array, Western blotting analysis, and staining experiments. Subsequently, we validated the in vivo antitumor efficacy of FA in a xenograft mouse model of colorectal carcinoma. From our experimental results, FA appears to be a potent antitumor molecule, since it significantly attenuated the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro and restricted the growth of corresponsive xenograft tumors in vivo without causing any adverse effects. Regarding its molecular mechanism, FA considerably elevated the expression level of p21 and induced cell cycle arrest in the human colorectal carcinoma cells. While executing a non-apoptotic mechanism, we believe the antitumor potential of FA opens up new horizons for the therapy of colorectal malignancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Cancer and Disease Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle Dehydroabietic Acid Suppresses Inflammatory Response Via Suppression of Src-, Syk-, and TAK1-Mediated Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071593
Received: 14 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 29 March 2019
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Abstract
Dehydroabietic acid (DAA) is a naturally occurring diterpene resin acid derived from coniferous plants such as Pinus and Picea. Various bioactive effects of DAA have been studied including antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of DAA remains unclear. We [...] Read more.
Dehydroabietic acid (DAA) is a naturally occurring diterpene resin acid derived from coniferous plants such as Pinus and Picea. Various bioactive effects of DAA have been studied including antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer activities. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of DAA remains unclear. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of DAA in macrophage cell lines. Dehydroabietic acid clearly reduced nitric oxide (NO) production and inflammatory gene expression decreased according to RT-PCR results. Dehydroabietic acid displayed anti-inflammatory activity at the transcriptional level in results from NF-κB- or AP-1-mediated luciferase assays. To identify the DAA target protein, we investigated NF-κB and AP-1 pathways by Western blotting analysis. Dehydroabietic acid suppressed the activity of proto-oncogene tyrosine protein kinase (Src) and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in the NF-κB cascade and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in the AP-1 cascade. Using overexpression strategies, we confirmed that DAA targeted these kinases. Our findings demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effects and molecular mechanism of DAA. This suggests that DAA has potential as a drug or supplement to ameliorate inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Cancer and Disease Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Effects of (24R)-Pseudo-Ginsenoside HQ and (24S)-Pseudo-Ginsenoside HQ on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression and Their Anti-Tumor Effects Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040836
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
(24R)-pseudo-ginsenoside HQ (R-PHQ) and (24S)-pseudo-ginsenoside HQ (S-PHQ) are the main metabolites of (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) in vivo. In this study, we found that Rh2, R-PHQ, and S-PHQ upregulated the innate and adaptive immune response in cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced-immunocompromised [...] Read more.
(24R)-pseudo-ginsenoside HQ (R-PHQ) and (24S)-pseudo-ginsenoside HQ (S-PHQ) are the main metabolites of (20S)-ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) in vivo. In this study, we found that Rh2, R-PHQ, and S-PHQ upregulated the innate and adaptive immune response in cyclophosphamide (CTX) induced-immunocompromised mice as evidenced by the number of leukocytes, cellular immunity, and phagocytosis of macrophages. Spleen T-lymphocyte subpopulations and the serum cytokines level were also balanced in these immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, co-administration with R-PHQ or S-PHQ did not compromise the antitumor activity of CTX in the hepatoma H22-bearing mice. Treatment with R-PHQ and S-PHQ clearly induced the apoptosis of tumor cells, significantly increased the expression of Bax, and remarkably inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in H22 tumor tissues. The anti-tumor activity of R-PHQ and S-PHQ could be related to the promotion of tumor apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis and may involve the caspase and VEGF signaling pathways. This study provides a theoretical basis for further study on R-PHQ and S-PHQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Cancer and Disease Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle Boldine Improves Kidney Damage in the Goldblatt 2K1C Model Avoiding the Increase in TGF-β
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 1864; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071864
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 15 June 2018 / Accepted: 19 June 2018 / Published: 25 June 2018
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Abstract
Boldine, a major aporphine alkaloid found in the Chilean boldo tree, is a potent antioxidant. Oxidative stress plays a detrimental role in the pathogenesis of kidney damage in renovascular hypertension (RVH). The activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is crucial to the development [...] Read more.
Boldine, a major aporphine alkaloid found in the Chilean boldo tree, is a potent antioxidant. Oxidative stress plays a detrimental role in the pathogenesis of kidney damage in renovascular hypertension (RVH). The activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is crucial to the development and progression of hypertensive renal damage and TGF-β is closely associated with the activation of RAS. In the present study, we assessed the effect of boldine on the progression of kidney disease using the 2K1C hypertension model and identifying mediators in the RAS, such as TGF-β, that could be modulated by this alkaloid. Toward this hypothesis, rats (n = 5/group) were treated with boldine (50 mg/kg/day, gavage) for six weeks after 2K1C surgery (pressure ≥ 180 mmHg). Kidney function was evaluated by measuring of proteinuria/creatininuria ratio (U prot/U Crea), oxidative stress (OS) by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The evolution of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was followed weekly. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Col III were used as markers of kidney damage; ED-1 and osteopontin (OPN) were used as markers of inflammation. We also explored the effect in RAS mediators, such as ACE-1 and TGF-β. Boldine treatment reduced the UProt/UCrea ratio, plasma TBARS, and slightly reduced SBP in 2K1C hypertensive rats, producing no effect in control animals. In 2K1C rats treated with boldine the levels of α-SMA, Col III, ED-1, and OPN were lower when compared to 2K1C rats. Boldine prevented the increase in ACE-1 and TGF-β in 2K1C rats, suggesting that boldine reduces kidney damage. These results suggest that boldine could potentially be used as a nutraceutic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Cancer and Disease Prevention)
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Review

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Open AccessReview An Overview on the Anticancer Activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem) in Gynecological Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123898
Received: 18 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 December 2018 / Published: 5 December 2018
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Abstract
In recent years, a wide range of studies have pointed out the importance of nutraceuticals as reservoirs of therapeutic compounds for several diseases, including cancer. This study is centered on the role of some nutraceuticals as anticancer agents and on their efficiency in [...] Read more.
In recent years, a wide range of studies have pointed out the importance of nutraceuticals as reservoirs of therapeutic compounds for several diseases, including cancer. This study is centered on the role of some nutraceuticals as anticancer agents and on their efficiency in the oncological gynecological field. Gynecological cancers include cervical, ovarian, and breast neoplasia and these are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the female population. Cervical neoplasia affects sexually active women aged between 30 and 40 years and is considered the second leading cause of death for women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association of this cancer with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, independent of any others risk factors. Ovarian cancer represents about 4% of all women’s cancers and breast neoplasia registers 52.8 new cases per 100,000 women annually. Since ancient times, herbal therapies have shown a wide range of beneficial effects and a high potential for safeguarding human health. Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a medicinal plant of Indian origin, a tree with more of 140 isolated compounds and at least 35 biologically active principles that have shown an important influence as tumor suppressors by interfering with the carcinogenesis process. Used for centuries in Asia as a natural remedy for cancer, neem compounds present in bark, leaves, flowers, and seed oil have been shown to possess properties such as chemopreventive capacity, apoptotic activities, immunomodulatory effects, and induction of p53-independent apoptosis. The current study is a systematic literature review based on the anticarcinogenic potential of neem compounds in gynecological cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals in Cancer and Disease Prevention)
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