Special Issue "Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies"

A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural Economics, Policies and Rural Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2022 | Viewed by 46780

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Timpanaro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
Interests: agriculture; food and environment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As is well known, agriculture and food production have been—for some time now—called upon to become more sustainable in the global context of rising population and living standards, climate change, and environmental degradation. According to existing literature, this can be done through the development of innovative ways and tools to reduce resource use, reduce material consumption and waste production, and reverse the trend of biodiversity loss, while ensuring that society is provided with sufficient, nutritious, sustainable, and affordable food. Such a general need, shared at international political level, is today overwhelmingly urgent due to the need to recover from the crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has accentuated the effects of degrowth. The North and South of the world need a new economic model more oriented toward equity, restructuring of production, and consumption models, sobriety combined with full employment and social security, as well as food security and local agriculture. This is perfectly in line with the importance of food and agriculture in achieving the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals, all directly or indirectly related to food, and in accelerating the transition to Agenda 2030.

In this general context, research and reflection contributions, developed in different territorial contexts, are well accepted:

  • Policies at different levels of decision making, both in order to capture orientations toward the creation of healthy and sustainable food environments and to characterize forms of integrated and shared responsibilities between civil society, businesses, policy makers, and producers aimed at dialogue and cooperation for the creation of sustainable development hubs;
  • Aspects of production that promote regenerative and agro-ecological agricultural practices and healthy and sustainable food systems; organizational and management changes brought about by the COVID-19 crisis; organizational and management changes aimed at achieving the Millennium Goals;
  • Agri-food supply chain and its orientation on health and sustainability, to analyze the level of involvement of the business system in change and to identify areas for improvement from field to table, also aiming at reducing food losses and waste; to analyze to what extent sustainability is an integral part of business strategies; to ensure the transparency of its processes throughout the supply chain; to strengthen regional and local supply chains to improve distribution, helping to guarantee the right to food;
  • Agri-food marketing, to analyze food needs, preferences, and cultures; the level of information on the economic, social, and environmental impacts of daily food choices; technological, digital, and geospatial solutions aimed at creating knowledge networks to exchange information on more sustainable choices and innovative solutions by farmers and producers; to promote training programs and awareness campaigns to make food production and consumption patterns healthier and more sustainable and to adopt more responsible food behavior to reduce the environmental, economic, and social impact of food waste.

Prof. Giuseppe Timpanaro
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agriculture is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Recovery from the crisis by COVID-19
  • Regenerative and agro-ecological agricultural practices
  • Sustainable agricultural practices to improve soil health and fertility, biodiversity, water savings, and nutrient densities in crops and reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • Global standards for food safety, nutrition and food quality
  • Protection of natural resources and ecosystems
  • Reduction of food loss and waste
  • Business strategies
  • Regional and local supply chains
  • Right to food, food security, and food sovereignty
  • Technological, digital, and geospatial solutions and agro-food blockchain
  • Data protection and regulation
  • Finance and investment that contribute to public health and reduce negative environmental externalities, increasing the resilience of land use
  • Protection of plants from pests and emerging diseases
  • Sustainable development hub
  • Labeling highlighting the interconnection between food, climate, environment, and social justice
  • Global resilience and actions addressing climate change
  • Analysis of consumption (theory and empirical applications)
  • analysis of commercial distribution
  • Marketing of agri-food products
  • Food security and food sovereignty
  • Local and sustainable supply chains
  • Bioregional whole systems design
  • Assessment of ecosystem services and profitability for farmers
  • Comparison between intensive and sustainable production models
  • Agri-food supply chain management
  • Food chain logistics and ICT

Published Papers (49 papers)

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Research

Article
Causality in Relation to Futures and Cash Prices in the Wheat Market
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060872 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 303
Abstract
Mutual interactions between the agricultural commodities futures market and the spot market are some of the most important relationships that can be observed between the financial market and the real economy. The process of the flow of price impulses between these markets has [...] Read more.
Mutual interactions between the agricultural commodities futures market and the spot market are some of the most important relationships that can be observed between the financial market and the real economy. The process of the flow of price impulses between these markets has long been of interest to researchers. It is important both for stock market investors and agricultural producers, as well as for decision-makers responsible for food policy. The studies conducted so far do not provide unambiguous answers about the strength and direction of flows of price impulses. This is one example of the need for continuous process monitoring. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the process of the flow of price impulses between the futures market and the wheat spot market. The study was carried out based on the US example. The futures prices from the CBOT exchange and the wheat producer price index were analyzed. The data covers the period between 01.2010 and 01.2022. The Granger causality test and the VAR model were used for the study. The results are in the minority, as a causal relationship was obtained from the spot market to the futures market, which is a less common result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Could Surplus Food in Blind Box Form Increase Consumers’ Purchase Intention?
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 864; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060864 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Surplus foods are fresh raw material of food that has not been processed, and a large number of surplus foods are discarded and wasted every day. As a new business model, a surplus food blind box can attract consumers to purchase to reduce [...] Read more.
Surplus foods are fresh raw material of food that has not been processed, and a large number of surplus foods are discarded and wasted every day. As a new business model, a surplus food blind box can attract consumers to purchase to reduce food waste. The main purpose of this study is to find out how to improve consumers’ degree of cognition of surplus food blind box to improve the purchase intention. Therefore, this study analyzes the relevant factors affecting consumers’ purchase intention of surplus food blind box, and through conceptualization and hypothesis verification, establishes a perceived model of consumers’ purchase intention of surplus food blind box that can be used for future research. The results can be used by relevant practitioners, consumers, governments, and researchers to reduce food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Investigating the Impact of International Markets on Imported and Exported Non-Cereal Crops in Bangladesh
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060833 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 506
Abstract
To maintain a sustainable market for major non-cereal crops in Bangladesh, the present study evaluated the asymmetric effect of the key macroeconomic variables on the imported and exported non-cereal crops. In this connection, this study evaluated the nonlinear interactions and co-movements between the [...] Read more.
To maintain a sustainable market for major non-cereal crops in Bangladesh, the present study evaluated the asymmetric effect of the key macroeconomic variables on the imported and exported non-cereal crops. In this connection, this study evaluated the nonlinear interactions and co-movements between the international market indicators such as the world prices, total trade amount, and gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) and the market prices of potato and rapeseed in Bangladesh. Using yearly data from 1988 to 2019, we used the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model to investigate both short- and long-term market dynamics concerning the positive and negative shocks in the macroeconomic variables on imported and exported non-cereal crops. First, the study identifies that during the period investigated, the world potato and rapeseed prices led to an increase in the Bangladesh potato and rapeseed prices when they are increasing. Second, we find that the changes in the trade volume only have an influence on the potato price, both in the long-run and short-run. Finally, our findings revealed that domestic rapeseed prices tend to decrease when the GDPPC increases. Our empirical findings imply that it is important for market participants of potato and rapeseed in Bangladesh to take into consideration the sensitivity of the above-mentioned variables when designing resource allocation decisions in the event of positive and negative effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Investment Decisions of Blockchain-Based Anti-Counterfeiting Traceability Services in a High-Quality Fresh Supply Chain of China
by
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060829 - 09 Jun 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
The application of a blockchain-based anti-counterfeiting traceability system (hereafter, blockchain-based ACTS) presents a positive effect on improving the unreliability of the freshness information. However, using a blockchain-based ACTS requires additional expenditures from chain members. Chain members want to know the investment conditions of [...] Read more.
The application of a blockchain-based anti-counterfeiting traceability system (hereafter, blockchain-based ACTS) presents a positive effect on improving the unreliability of the freshness information. However, using a blockchain-based ACTS requires additional expenditures from chain members. Chain members want to know the investment conditions of a blockchain-based ACTS and how to coordinate their supply chain. To solve these problems, a supply chain with one fresh producer and one retailer was chosen as the study subject. Afterwards, considering the unreliability of the freshness information, the demand function was revised. Then, the profit functions before and after adopting a blockchain-based ACTS were constructed, and then a price discount and revenue-sharing contract was put forward to coordinate the supply chain. Findings: With the growth of the unreliability coefficient of the freshness information, benefits to chain members in the proposed three situations would be reduced. Thus, we can know that after using a blockchain-based ACTS, if chain members want to gain more benefits, they should try their best to excavate the value of the blockchain-based ACTS and reduce the unreliability coefficient of the freshness information. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
The Brand–Land Identity of Etna Volcano Valley Wines: A Policy Delphi Study
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060811 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 395
Abstract
This is the first study on the brand–land link for quality wines with a strong identity produced in extreme territories using the Policy Delphi methodology. The objective of this study is to assess the existence of a relationship between the wine brand and [...] Read more.
This is the first study on the brand–land link for quality wines with a strong identity produced in extreme territories using the Policy Delphi methodology. The objective of this study is to assess the existence of a relationship between the wine brand and the territory of origin for wines produced in the Etna valley in Sicily (southern Italy). Awareness among producers and stakeholders of the recognizability of local wines by the market was investigated. Moreover, the forecasts/reliability, issues/importance, options/feasibility, and goals/desirability of development factors for wines with a brand–land link in the Etna valley were analyzed. The results were used to design a model of the value chain for wines with a brand–land identity which is generalizable to other wine regions. In this study, the policy Delphi method was adapted, consolidated, and improved for marketing studies in the agri-food sector. This adapted method can be replicated in other studies focusing on similar contexts. The findings provide insights into the characteristics (type and category) of development factors that add value to Etna Rosso DOC wine and provide interesting food for thought for wine-producing companies in other wine-growing areas with unique pedoclimatic characteristics that determine a strong brand–land link between wine and its territory or origin. Practical implications encompass new elements for winemakers, as well as for local decision-makers and stakeholders, for the formulation of more effective communication strategies and territorial revitalization strategies to enhance the competitiveness and appreciation of wines with strong geographical identity traits. To highlight these elements, a new theoretical model was designed that includes the experience of the territory and the product in the value chain of iconic wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Territorial Social Innovation and Alternative Food Networks: The Case of a New Farmers’ Cooperative on the Island of Ibiza (Spain)
by
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 748; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060748 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 425
Abstract
Social innovation is gaining attention as a perspective that stresses the relevance of transforming social relations to promote sustainable territorial development. This paper adopts the social innovation approach to examine Alternative Food Networks. The main aim of the study is to identify key [...] Read more.
Social innovation is gaining attention as a perspective that stresses the relevance of transforming social relations to promote sustainable territorial development. This paper adopts the social innovation approach to examine Alternative Food Networks. The main aim of the study is to identify key factors in the emergence and development of social innovation processes that give rise to new organisational formulas among farmers, which contribute to the coordination and efficiency of food supply in Alternative Food Networks. The article provides an original conceptual framework on territorial social innovation (TerriSI), which is empirically tested in a case study in Ibiza (Spain). Through a mixed methods approach, the study analyses the emergence and development of a new agricultural cooperative that involves producers participating in Alternative Food Networks in Ibiza. This is considered a socially innovative initiative since it comprises novel social reconfigurations within the local context. The findings underline key factors of territorial social innovation linked to the particular conditions of territories, triggers, leadership, coordination mechanisms, and the capacity to disseminate innovation through the territory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Diversified and Sustainable Business Strategy of Smallholder Farmers in the Suburbs of Taiwan
Agriculture 2022, 12(6), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12060740 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 349
Abstract
Taiwan’s smallholder farmers are transforming into a diversified business model to respond to the transformation of economic structures and the demand for sightseeing and recreation. On that account, it is urgent and valuable at the research level to develop diversified and sustainable business [...] Read more.
Taiwan’s smallholder farmers are transforming into a diversified business model to respond to the transformation of economic structures and the demand for sightseeing and recreation. On that account, it is urgent and valuable at the research level to develop diversified and sustainable business strategies and models for smallholder farmers. There are two goals in this study. First of all, the study formulated the indicators of diversified and sustainable business strategies for smallholder farmers in Taiwan’s suburbs. Second, the study measured the relevant weights of these indicators from the perspectives of experts. The qualitative and quantitative Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied in the study, with Taiwan’s agricultural experts being our main subjects to establish the indicators and models for diversified and sustainable business strategies based on their opinions. According to the research results, there were 6 criteria and 25 sub-criteria for smallholder farmers in terms of diversified and sustainable business strategies, among which, catering services topped other criteria; food health and safety outweighed other sub-criteria of diversified and sustainable business strategies for smallholder farmers. The greatest contribution of the study is the establishment of the indicators and models of diversified and sustainable strategies for smallholder farmers in Taiwan’s suburbs and the discovery that catering service can be an important orientation of diversified and sustainable business strategies for smallholder farmers in Taiwan’s suburbs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
The Pricing Strategy of the Agricultural Product Supply Chain with Farmer Cooperatives as the Core Enterprise
Agriculture 2022, 12(5), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12050732 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 496
Abstract
The pricing strategy of agricultural products not only affects the product demand and purchasing behavior of consumers, but also the income distribution of node enterprises and the overall profit of the agricultural supply chain. This paper studies the pricing strategy of the agricultural [...] Read more.
The pricing strategy of agricultural products not only affects the product demand and purchasing behavior of consumers, but also the income distribution of node enterprises and the overall profit of the agricultural supply chain. This paper studies the pricing strategy of the agricultural product supply chain with farmer cooperatives as the core enterprise. Considering the heterogeneous demand of consumers, this paper introduces the degree of agricultural product characteristics and establishes a dynamic pricing model for agricultural products under decentralized decision-making and centralized decision-making and designs a revenue sharing coordination contract. The results indicate that the overall profit of the supply chain obtained by pricing agricultural products through a decentralized decision-making model is lower than that created under centralized decision-making. Improving the degree of agricultural product’s characteristics and adopting the revenue sharing contract is conducive to the Pareto improvement of supply members. The relevant recommendations provide a reference for the product pricing strategy of this type of agricultural product supply chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Winners and Losers of the CAP’s Rural Development Policy in Poland
Agriculture 2022, 12(5), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12050676 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 1891
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify territorial clusters of Polish municipalities whose rural residents demonstrated higher or lower interest in the four programs of the CAP’s rural development policy compared to the country’s average interest. The clusters were identified on an [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to identify territorial clusters of Polish municipalities whose rural residents demonstrated higher or lower interest in the four programs of the CAP’s rural development policy compared to the country’s average interest. The clusters were identified on an aggregate basis and described with synthetic indexes of agriculture and rural development. The Moran’s global spatial autocorrelation coefficient was used to check for spatial autocorrelation. The results demonstrated that the support offered under the rural development programs covered by this analysis was higher in the regions with well-developed agricultural structures, while the areas with structural defects and the areas in need of development had lower-than-average levels of applications for all programs (regardless of their objectives). These findings call for a clear strategy to change the unfavorable structures in Polish agriculture. Otherwise, the regional development gaps in Polish agriculture will only deepen under these programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
The Digital Applications of “Agriculture 4.0”: Strategic Opportunity for the Development of the Italian Citrus Chain
Agriculture 2022, 12(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12030400 - 12 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1081
Abstract
Contemporary agriculture is increasingly oriented toward the synergistic adoption of technologies such as the Internet of Things, Internet of Farming, big data analytics, and blockchain to combine resource protection and economic, social, and environmental sustainability. In Italy, the market growth potential of “Agriculture [...] Read more.
Contemporary agriculture is increasingly oriented toward the synergistic adoption of technologies such as the Internet of Things, Internet of Farming, big data analytics, and blockchain to combine resource protection and economic, social, and environmental sustainability. In Italy, the market growth potential of “Agriculture 4.0” and “Farming 4.0” solutions is very high, but the adoption of the related technological innovations is still low. Italian companies are increasingly aware of the opportunities offered by the 4.0 paradigm, but there are still cultural and technological limits to the full development of the phenomenon. This research aims to contribute to knowledge that will improve the propensity of agricultural operators to adopt the digital solutions of “Agriculture 4.0” by demonstrating its potential, along with its limits. To this end, an integrated methodological approach was adopted, built with focus groups and multicriteria analysis, to define and assess the possible future scenarios resulting from the implementation of digital transformation. The results show an increased focus on solutions that allow the integration of new tools to support those already used in the business organization and at a sustainable cost. To enable the development of “Agriculture 4.0”, we propose that it is necessary to invest in training operators in the supply chain, and above all, raising awareness among farmers, who it is essential fully appreciate the potential benefits of the 4.0 revolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Communication
The Sustainability of Contract Farming with Specialized Suppliers to Modern Retailers: Insights from Vegetable Marketing in Indonesia
Agriculture 2022, 12(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12030380 - 09 Mar 2022
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Specialized suppliers to supermarkets in rural Java showed that smallholder farmers could engage in contract farming with the rise of retail modernization. This paper examines whether they have sustained contract farming with the recent decline of modernized stores. Our field survey, based on [...] Read more.
Specialized suppliers to supermarkets in rural Java showed that smallholder farmers could engage in contract farming with the rise of retail modernization. This paper examines whether they have sustained contract farming with the recent decline of modernized stores. Our field survey, based on cases reported by the World Bank in 2006, provides the following findings: (1) Some suppliers failed to sustain contract farming due to growers’ hold-up problems; (2) The suppliers could prevent contract breaching by either undertaking contract-specific investments to train growers or provide inputs. Moreover, they selected growers based on their social reputation to avoid contract breaching; (3) We found that farmers in breach of contract farming on the modern channel begin to arrange farmers’ groups by themselves and return to the traditional channel as a new type of intermediaries. This indicates an evolution of the traditional marketing channel with the supermarket revolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Agro-Environmental Practices and Business Performance in the Wine Sector
Agriculture 2022, 12(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12020239 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Wine production is directly related to the environmentally responsible production. In recent years, due to demands for an environmentally responsible wine production in the Republic of Serbia, wine producers have become aware of the environmental responsibilities and are taking measures to prevent environmental [...] Read more.
Wine production is directly related to the environmentally responsible production. In recent years, due to demands for an environmentally responsible wine production in the Republic of Serbia, wine producers have become aware of the environmental responsibilities and are taking measures to prevent environmental problems. The objective of this research was to investigate attitudes of winery owners/managers on business performance of the wineries concerning the environmental behavior and its disclosure. The research has been conducted in the period from July to the end of October 2021 on a sample of 330 small wineries in the Republic of Serbia. The data were processed in the Smart PLS software v.3.2.7. The findings show a positive connection between of both service and financial performance with an ethical environmental behavior and environmental disclosure. However, no positive connection between innovative performance and ethical environmental behavior or ethical environmental disclosure has been determined. The positive attitudes of managers on the environment influence the business performance of wineries and indirectly on environmental behavior and disclosure. The current study should contribute to the relevant literature, as it investigates not only firm behavior in the wine sector, but also the impact of firm performance on the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Food-Away-from-Home Expenditure in Mexico during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Micro-Econometric Analysis
Agriculture 2022, 12(2), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12020172 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 865
Abstract
Disruptive events such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have the potential to reshape even the most basic human systems and behaviors, including those related to food production, acquisition, and consumption. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of how the pandemic has [...] Read more.
Disruptive events such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have the potential to reshape even the most basic human systems and behaviors, including those related to food production, acquisition, and consumption. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of how the pandemic has changed the ratio of food-away-from-home (FAFH) expenditure to income in Mexico, as well as participation in this market. In 2020, household participation in FAFH expenditures declined in all income deciles and regions, but the impact on household shares is far from uniform. Using a detailed national database of household income and expenditures (N = 87,274), an Engel curve of the Working-Lesser functional form for FAFH including 19 independent variables was estimated using the Heckman method appropriate for censored response data. The results provide statistically significant estimates for income, which both increases the probability of participation in this expenditure and has a negative relationship with its budget share. The number of older adults and the exposure to food insecurity during the pandemic similarly limit participation and increase the budget share. In addition, remittances encourage participation and decrease the budget share. The corrected conditional income elasticity for FAFH is 0.4609; the sign and magnitude indicate that FAFH behaved as a necessary good in Mexico for the proportion of households that maintained spending during the lockdown conditions (about one-third of the sample). An increase or decrease in income will lead to a corresponding change in FAFH expenditure, but the change will be less than proportional. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Analysis on Regional Differences and Spatial Convergence of Digital Village Development Level: Theory and Evidence from China
Agriculture 2022, 12(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12020164 - 24 Jan 2022
Viewed by 801
Abstract
In the context of the rapid development of the global Internet, evaluating the digital village development level (DVI) in different regions is important for policy formulation and scientific research in the field of rural digital development. Based on the measurement of DVI using [...] Read more.
In the context of the rapid development of the global Internet, evaluating the digital village development level (DVI) in different regions is important for policy formulation and scientific research in the field of rural digital development. Based on the measurement of DVI using panel data of provinces from 2005 to 2018, we also explored the causes of DVI development differences using the Dagum Gini coefficient decomposition and spatial convergence method. The study found that: (1) During the whole sample period, the DVI in China and the four major regions showed a significant upward trend as a whole, with the highest in the eastern region and the lowest in the western region, but the development of DVI among different provinces showed regional non-equilibrium characteristics. (2) DVI has a typical agglomeration effect in the spatial and geographical distribution, and regional differences are the primary source of differences in DVI development in China, but the overall regional differences show a decreasing trend. (3) Except for the northeast region, σ-convergence exists in the other three regions; in addition, all regions have significant conditional β-convergence, but the convergence speed is significantly different. (4) Rural population density, industrial structure, and economic development level significantly affect DVI. Therefore, we suggest strengthening the inter-regional connection and element flow and realizing the improvement of the overall DVI of the region through cooperation and mutual assistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Market Assessment of Pear Varieties in Serbia Using Fuzzy CRADIS and CRITIC Methods
Agriculture 2022, 12(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12020139 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 481
Abstract
The research deals with the market assessment of pear varieties in Serbia. Market assessment represents the willingness of customers to consume a certain fruit or a certain variety. This research applies a market assessment of pear varieties based on expert decision making. Together [...] Read more.
The research deals with the market assessment of pear varieties in Serbia. Market assessment represents the willingness of customers to consume a certain fruit or a certain variety. This research applies a market assessment of pear varieties based on expert decision making. Together with the experts, the criteria and varieties of pears used in the research are determined. Ten criteria and six varieties of pears that are mostly grown in Serbia are used. Experts evaluated pear varieties based on linguistic values according to selected criteria. Based on these values, and using fuzzy logic, the weights of the criteria are first determined using the fuzzy CRITIC method (criteria importance through intercriteria correlation), and pear varieties are ranked using the fuzzy CRADIS method (compromise ranking of alternatives from distance to ideal solution). The obtained results show that the highest rated varieties are Konferans and Viljamovka, while the lowest rated variety is Šampionka. Sensitivity analysis confirms these results. The obtained results will help cultivators and fruit vendors to choose those varieties that will achieve the best market results. This study is conducted to provide guidelines for the use of fuzzy methods in marketing assessment in fruit growing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Development of African Swine Fever in Poland
Agriculture 2022, 12(1), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12010119 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 588
Abstract
African swine fever (ASF) is a major problem in the production of live pigs in many EU countries. The aim of this research is to identify the causes and effects of this disease in Poland. The study used data from various institutions in [...] Read more.
African swine fever (ASF) is a major problem in the production of live pigs in many EU countries. The aim of this research is to identify the causes and effects of this disease in Poland. The study used data from various institutions in Poland and from the EU Animal Diseases Information System (ADIS). Within the range of causes for ASF development, we considered the transmission of the ASF virus by wild boars and human activity. The article presents the number and distribution of ASF cases in wild boars, and the outbreaks of ASF in domestic pigs, in the years 2014–2020. The relationship between these variables was determined with a rectilinear regression analysis. The analysis of data for poviats where ASF cases in wild boards and ASF outbreaks in domestic pigs have been reported shows a certain periodicity of ASF occurrence in the country. This research shows that, despite the actions taken by veterinary services, hunting associations and the involvement of state administration bodies, the disease spreads rapidly. The occurrence of ASF outbreaks in domestic pigs concerns both small and large scale farms. However, due to the fragmented nature of pig farming in Poland, ASF is more prevalent in smaller holdings. Among the main reasons for the development of this disease in the country are the insufficient bio-insurance coverage of pig holdings, and the presence of the virus in the wild boar population. The process of ridding the country of the ASF virus is long and costly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Factors Affecting Consumers’ Purchasing of Suboptimal Foods during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Agriculture 2022, 12(1), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12010099 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, global food production and transportation have been largely impacted. Meanwhile, consumers have purchased and stockpiled large quantities of foods due to panic in the early stage of the pandemic, which has resulted in a lot of [...] Read more.
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, global food production and transportation have been largely impacted. Meanwhile, consumers have purchased and stockpiled large quantities of foods due to panic in the early stage of the pandemic, which has resulted in a lot of uneaten, expired foods and has reduced the varieties of foods available in the markets. Due to the lower prices, some consumers have chosen to buy those foods with an earlier production time or inferior quality (suboptimal foods), and the purchase rate of suboptimal foods has increased. Therefore, this study investigated consumer behavior during the pandemic as the research focus, explored the main dimensions that affect consumers’ purchasing of suboptimal foods during the COVID-19 pandemic, tested their correlations, and proposed suggestions for improvement. The results of this study showed that the impacts of Perceived Benefits on Attitude Toward Behavior, Perceived Behavioral Control, and Subject Norm rank 1st, 2nd, and 3rd in importance, respectively, which are all higher than the related impact of Environmental Concerns. For consumers, the most important thing is whether suboptimal foods have consumption motivation for them, which is also the most direct way to make consumers feel the value of suboptimal foods. Furthermore, for consumers, while the environmentally friendly attributes of suboptimal foods are less perceptible than the economic motivations, they still have considerable influence on consumers, and this is even more prominent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many families have experienced a shock to their income during the pandemic, and consumers are more sensitive and concerned about commodity prices, which also makes lower-priced and more abundant suboptimal foods more popular. However, in the long term, suboptimal foods can have a positive impact on reducing food waste and protecting the environment. When consumers realize this, they will be more motivated to purchase and try suboptimal foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Supporting the Bidding Decisions of Smallholder Farmers in Public Calls in Brazil
Agriculture 2022, 12(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12010048 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 456
Abstract
In Brazil, the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) seeks to contribute to the socio-economic development of smallholder farmers, prioritizing them in supplying their products for preparing daily meals in public schools. However, farmers face challenges in determining which school calls to bid for [...] Read more.
In Brazil, the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) seeks to contribute to the socio-economic development of smallholder farmers, prioritizing them in supplying their products for preparing daily meals in public schools. However, farmers face challenges in determining which school calls to bid for and the potential benefits from their participation, due to the multiple quantitative and qualitative decision criteria involved. This paper presents a novel Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)-based method for bidding priority setting, to support the decision making. The model was applied for a case study in Brazil. The academic contribution lies in the innovation of using a Double-Frontier Slack-Based Measure (SBM) DEA model for Hierarchical Network systems, i.e., applied to multiple levels and followed by a tie-breaking method. The practical contribution lies in the decision support of farmers by presenting the results at three levels, the first of which is a ranking by the town or urban cluster priority, the second by the school, and the third by the products. Thus, using the rankings of calls, farmers can make informed decisions regarding the feasibility of bidding for each PNAE public call. At the same time, the objective rankings can alleviate friction and conflict within co-operatives during the decision-making process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
The Competitiveness of Agriculture in EU Member States According to the Competitiveness Pyramid Model
Agriculture 2022, 12(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12010028 - 28 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 542
Abstract
Agriculture in the European Union is highly differentiated, and one of the objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy is to improve agricultural competitiveness. Therefore, surveys regarding the competitiveness of agriculture and grouping countries of the European Union (EU) according to similar characteristics of [...] Read more.
Agriculture in the European Union is highly differentiated, and one of the objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy is to improve agricultural competitiveness. Therefore, surveys regarding the competitiveness of agriculture and grouping countries of the European Union (EU) according to similar characteristics of agriculture are very valuable. They help make strategic decisions concerning the agricultural sector. This paper aims to evaluate the agricultural competitiveness of EU member states in 2010–2019. Data used is derived from the Eurostat and FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network). The study employed a competitiveness pyramid model based on two groups of factors–competitiveness sources (bottom of the pyramid) and competitiveness effects. Partial components allocated to the groups mentioned above of factors were used to calculate a synthetic measure to determine the level of agricultural competitiveness in respective countries. The studies revealed that EU agriculture varies both in terms of resources and relationships between production factors, as well as the efficiency of their utilization. A clear difference in the level of competitiveness occurred between old and new member states, although some new countries ranked relatively high in terms of competitiveness sources (Czechia and Poland). Belgium scored highest for the synthetic measure of agricultural competitiveness in 2010–2019, and Cyprus had the lowest. It was demonstrated that human resources were of utmost importance in the structure of competitiveness sources. In turn, the average holding area determined the management conditions to the highest extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Competitiveness of the EU Agri-Food Sector on the US Market: Worth Reviving Transatlantic Trade?
Agriculture 2022, 12(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture12010023 - 26 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
The systematically strengthening role of emerging economies has become a factor strongly determining the overall trade policy of the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA), as well as their bilateral relations. One of the initiatives aiming at the strengthening [...] Read more.
The systematically strengthening role of emerging economies has become a factor strongly determining the overall trade policy of the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA), as well as their bilateral relations. One of the initiatives aiming at the strengthening of economic ties within the transatlantic partnership, as a consequence promoting stabilization of the positions of the EU and the USA in the world economy, was related with negotiations concerning the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. The EU-USA trade talks were suspended at the end of 2016; however, the establishment of the EU-USA free trade area might be a breakthrough in the transatlantic relations, while the conclusion of this agreement would significantly determine the competitive position of the agri-food sector of these two economies, both in their bilateral relations and in world trade. In view of the above, the aim of this paper is to estimate the competitive position of the EU agri-food sector in transatlantic trade considering the conclusion of the agreement establishing the EU-USA free trade area. For this purpose, Widodo’s method of mapping products on the target market was applied. Results from the conducted analyses suggest that from 2010–2020 comparative advantages gained by the EU on the US market were sources of an advantageous export specialization. In view of the forecasted dynamic increase in agri-food export from the EU to the USA caused by possible liberalization of bilateral trade, the relatively strong competitive position of the EU on the American market might be maintained or even strengthened. However, such a situation would be determined by the regulatory cooperation progressing with the reduction of tariffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Stability and Social Sustainability of Farm Household Income in Poland in 2003–2020
Agriculture 2021, 11(12), 1296; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11121296 - 20 Dec 2021
Viewed by 795
Abstract
This article analyses the available income of farmer households in Poland in 2003–2020 in the context of their level, variability, and differentiation. The income situation of farmers was analysed from the intra-sectoral perspective and the inter-sectoral perspective by comparing the average monthly available [...] Read more.
This article analyses the available income of farmer households in Poland in 2003–2020 in the context of their level, variability, and differentiation. The income situation of farmers was analysed from the intra-sectoral perspective and the inter-sectoral perspective by comparing the average monthly available income per capita of farmer households to the income of employees and total households. The research aimed to assess the stability of farmers’ incomes against the background of comparative groups and to assess their social sustainability. We understand farmers’ income parity relative to other socio-professional groups and a similar level of intra-sectoral differentiation. The source of empirical materials was the cyclical statistics of the Central Statistical Office prepared as part of the Household Budget Surveys, published in the years 2004–2021. It was found that despite a significant increase in the real income of farmers’ households in Poland over the studied years, the income disparity of farmers relative to other socio-occupational groups persisted. However, the income gap of farmers in relation to workers from the non-agricultural sector decreased from 35.1% in 2003 to an average of 15.7% in 2004–2020, which is largely due to the support for agriculture from the CAP funds. Compared to the analysed groups, the income of farmers’ households is characterised by the most significant instability and greater diversification. These results indicate a persistent deficit in the social sustainability of farmers’ household income in Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
How COVID-19 Affects Agricultural Food Sales: Based on the Perspective of China’s Agricultural Listed Companies’ Financial Statements
Agriculture 2021, 11(12), 1285; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11121285 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 924
Abstract
Agricultural food is generally regarded as the basis of “national security” by most countries. Through marketing strategies, promoting the sales of agri-food products in the context of a pandemic is of great significance to national food security and economic growth. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Agricultural food is generally regarded as the basis of “national security” by most countries. Through marketing strategies, promoting the sales of agri-food products in the context of a pandemic is of great significance to national food security and economic growth. The purpose of our study is to understand how the COVID-19 crisis affects the sales of agri-food products as well as the organizational and management changes it brings. By understanding those points above, we can address the problem and policy challenges to better promote the recovery of the agri-food sector from the effects caused by COVID-19. The demand is today overwhelmingly urgent. Based on the data of China’s agricultural-listed companies from 2015 to 2020, this study adopted the perspective of financial statements and conducted empirical analysis through the translog revenue function, and the results showed that the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the sales of agri-food products, and the sales of agri-food products by large agricultural companies have fallen more than those of small- and medium-sized ones. Based on the results of the study, the government can consider the policy of providing financial support and temporary subsidies to agri-food enterprises during the pandemic, while agri-food enterprises actively practice digital marketing to reduce the adverse impact of COVID-19 on agri-food sales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Farmers’ Perception of Entrepreneurial Success: Evidence from the Greek Reality
Agriculture 2021, 11(12), 1192; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11121192 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 530
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the perceptions of Greeks-farmers regarding success and to investigate the factors that are considered as indicators to explain, predict, and determine perceptional entrepreneurial success. This research focuses on existing agricultural enterprises as more than 400 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the perceptions of Greeks-farmers regarding success and to investigate the factors that are considered as indicators to explain, predict, and determine perceptional entrepreneurial success. This research focuses on existing agricultural enterprises as more than 400 randomly selected agricultural enterprises compose the survey’s sample. The main research method is through structured questionnaires. A series of multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the data. A stepwise procedure was used to identify the relevant variable and the significant ones were identified based on the ‘F’ test. The results of a discriminant analysis indicate that seven predictors (internal LOC, pull motivation, push motivation, internal funding, innovativeness, entrepreneurial capacity, and educational background) have a significant impact on the dependent variable “perceived entrepreneurial success”. Pull motivation is the most important variable to discriminate the groups. The value of this study lies in the fact that it is an original attempt to assess the parameters that could explain the perceived entrepreneurial success of agripreneurs; a focus that is lacking in previous studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Food and Consumer Attitude(s): An Overview of the Most Relevant Documents
Agriculture 2021, 11(12), 1183; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11121183 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 693
Abstract
Food markets have, at least, two dimensions. One is related to supply, where food marketing, for example, plays a determinant role, namely to promote healthy and balanced consumption. The other dimension is associated with demand, where it is important to understand and bring [...] Read more.
Food markets have, at least, two dimensions. One is related to supply, where food marketing, for example, plays a determinant role, namely to promote healthy and balanced consumption. The other dimension is associated with demand, where it is important to understand and bring insights about consumer attitudes, because they have implications on patterns of food consumption. In this framework, the main objective of this research is to suggest an alternative approach for conducting systematic reviews based on bibliometric analysis and implement it on topics about food and consumer attitudes. For this purpose, the most important bibliographic items (authors, sources, organizations, countries and documents) were identified and later the most relevant documents were reviewed. In addition, 908 documents were selected on 11 December 2020 from the Web of Science Core Collection, for the topics “food” and “consumer attitude*”, and analyzed through bibliometric analysis with the support of the VOSviewer and Gephi software. These documents were also benchmarked with those available in the Scopus scientific database. The approach presented here made it possible to highlight the main insights from the scientific literature related to consumer attitudes to food and bring about further contributions to a literature review supported by bibliometric analysis. This proposal may be known as MB2MBA2 (Methodology Based on Benchmarking of Metadata, from scientific databases, and Bibliometric Assessment and Analysis). This systematic review highlights that organic foods, food neophobia, climate change, marketing strategies and interrelationships between motivations–consumer attitudes–perceptions–purchase intentions–purchase decisions (MAPID) deserved special attention. In addition, MAPID interactions are impacted, among other dimensions, by labelling, branding and trust in the information provided. Future research should further address impacts on consumer attitudes towards food, such as those related to climate-smart agriculture, food 4.0, food security and protection, and climate change and malnutrition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Research on Government Subsidy Strategies for the Development of Agricultural Products E-Commerce
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111152 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 774
Abstract
In many countries, the governments support the development of local agriculture through subsidization. Subsidizing the sales of agricultural products through E-commerce channels is a way to support the development of agriculture in China. This study aims to develop a profit model and apply [...] Read more.
In many countries, the governments support the development of local agriculture through subsidization. Subsidizing the sales of agricultural products through E-commerce channels is a way to support the development of agriculture in China. This study aims to develop a profit model and apply Stackelberg game theory to determine which type of subsidies and decision-making can provide the maximum benefits for agricultural products E-commerce supply chains. The results indicate that for both centralized decisions and decentralized decisions, the subsidizing to the agricultural cooperative is better than the subsidizing to consumers and no subsidization. The sales volume, preservation level, sales efforts, and overall profit of the agricultural products E-commerce supply chain are significantly higher. It suggests that the government should play a leading role to support the development of agricultural products E-commerce. This study contributes to agricultural research by developing a profit model to examine the effects of different government subsidy strategies on each member of the agricultural online shopping supply chain. Recommendations are provided for agricultural cooperatives, E-commerce platforms, and the government to improve the quality and sales of agricultural products through online shopping channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Choices in Sustainable Food Consumption: How Spanish Low Intake Organic Consumers Behave
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111125 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The consumption of organic products has consistently increased over the last decades, covering increasingly diversified consumers, both in the characteristics and the reasons associated with consumption. This heterogeneity evidences the need to examine in depth the reasons for the purchase and consumption of [...] Read more.
The consumption of organic products has consistently increased over the last decades, covering increasingly diversified consumers, both in the characteristics and the reasons associated with consumption. This heterogeneity evidences the need to examine in depth the reasons for the purchase and consumption of these products. The core aim of this study is related to the motivational drivers of organic consumption. The survey included 250 respondents from Andalusia (Spain) who completed an online questionnaire and personal interviews. A convenience sampling method was applied, and the best-worst scaling method allowed us to analyze ten attributes of organic purchasing behavior. Health benefits and environmental impact are the key attributes explaining the consumption of organic products. To deeply understand organic consumer motivations, we studied the influence of six classification variables over the studied attributes. Applying ordinal regressions, we found that having children under 18 at home and a consumer’s academic level contribute in a relevant way to explain the valorization of the health benefits attribute. Also, the place to purchase organic food and academic level correlates with the valuation of GMOs in food. Andalusia is one of the largest European regions for organic production but with minor relevance in consumption. Nevertheless, despite this apparent paradox, the results of the present study point to a consumer profile very similar to other European countries with consolidated organic consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Factors Influencing Technical Efficiency in the EU Dairy Farms
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111114 - 09 Nov 2021
Viewed by 497
Abstract
This paper aims to analyse the technical efficiency (TE) of dairy farms and find its determinants. To accomplish this problem, the Stochastic Frontier Analysis was applied. The data were obtained from the Farm Accountancy Data Network database for dairy farms (TF15-45—Specialist dairying) for [...] Read more.
This paper aims to analyse the technical efficiency (TE) of dairy farms and find its determinants. To accomplish this problem, the Stochastic Frontier Analysis was applied. The data were obtained from the Farm Accountancy Data Network database for dairy farms (TF15-45—Specialist dairying) for 2004–2019. Dairy farms were divided into four clusters according to their physical size (number of livestock units per farm) and economic size (standard output per farm). The largest farms by physical and economic size are located in Denmark and Cyprus. The smallest, in comparison, are in Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Austria, Poland, Romania, and Slovenia. Farms in the EU are relatively technically efficient, i.e., they use their resources efficiently to produce maximum output (production). However, they have the potential to achieve better economic results and be more competitive, as the size of farms’ is not fully optimised. The abolition of the milk quota can be considered a factor in improving technical efficiency, as the indicator is higher after the abolition. New and old member states have almost comparable technical efficiency levels (the p-value of the t-test is 0.463), with old members having slightly higher level TE. Subsidies have contradictory effects on TE. Farm efficiency with higher subsidies per cow is higher for farms with €51–100/cow. However, as subsidies increase, TE decreases. Only the group of farms with the highest subsidies has a higher TE. More diversified farms are more technically efficient than specialised farms. Milk yield did not influence the analysed indicator. The analysis results can serve the stakeholders as a tool for modelling future agricultural policy, as the European farms are very heterogenous and show different conditions and economic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Determinants of Farmers’ Confidence in Agricultural Production Recovery during the Early Phases of the COVID-19 Pandemic in China
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1075; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111075 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted the agricultural supply chain, export of agricultural products, and overall food security. However, minimal exploration has been attempted of farmers’ confidence in agricultural production recovery after the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study intends to explore the determinants [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted the agricultural supply chain, export of agricultural products, and overall food security. However, minimal exploration has been attempted of farmers’ confidence in agricultural production recovery after the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this study intends to explore the determinants of farmers’ confidence in agricultural production recovery in China during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. More specifically, we analyzed the relationship between risk expectation and social support on the farmers’ confidence in agricultural production recovery by using the ordered probit model. Cross-sectional survey data were collected from February to March 2020 from 458 farm households in the 7 provinces of China to produce the findings. We found that the risk expectation of farmers had a significant negative impact on farmers’ confidence in agricultural production recovery. Social support seemingly had a significant positive impact on the farmers’ confidence in agricultural production recovery, and could play a supportive role in moderating the relationship between risk expectation and farmers’ confidence in recovery. However, social support alleviates the adverse effect of risk expectation on farmers’ confidence in agricultural production recovery to a certain extent. In addition, there were intergenerational differences in the effects of risk expectation and social support on farmers’ confidence in agricultural production recovery. These results imply that policies establishing the risk early warning mechanisms for agricultural production and strengthening the social support from governments and financial institutions are likely to significantly impact agricultural development in the post-COVID-19 era. The formal and informal risk minimization mechanisms should extend their support to vulnerable sectors such as agribusiness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Factors Influencing Wine Purchasing by Generation Y and Older Cohorts on the Serbian Wine Market
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111054 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
This research investigates current preferences in wine purchase patterns and factors that affect the online purchase of wine by Generation Y and older cohorts in the Republic of Serbia. Our research utilizes descriptive statistics, chi-squared tests, the Mann–Whitney nonparametric test, and binary logistic [...] Read more.
This research investigates current preferences in wine purchase patterns and factors that affect the online purchase of wine by Generation Y and older cohorts in the Republic of Serbia. Our research utilizes descriptive statistics, chi-squared tests, the Mann–Whitney nonparametric test, and binary logistic regression. The results indicate that wine purchasing is conducted on an occasional basis—mostly monthly and weekly—with a tendency to buy wine throughout the whole year. The older cohort has a more pronounced rank, compared to Generation Y, regarding WTP for wines with a specific geographical origin and local wines. Although Generation Y and the older cohort have no habit of buying wine online, the information on geographical origin represents the most important online information related to online purchase intention. The strongest influence on online wine purchasing among members of the older cohort is a link that connects producers with consumers to allow the latter to obtain additional information and send remarks, suggestions, and/or praise, as well as a link to the winemakers’ association website, and the very significant influence of female gender. The strongest influence on online wine purchasing in Generation Y is the information on geographical origin. Female gender and income are also very significant. As wine consumption in the Republic of Serbia is gradually increasing, a growing interest in online wine purchases is expected. Our findings can provide useful information for building profiles of online wine consumers, depending on age cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Consumers’ Attitude towards Sustainable Food Consumption during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Romania
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11111050 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1187
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic affected consumers’ behavior worldwide. This paper aims to analyze consumers’ sustainable food behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research was based on an online survey during May–October 2020 among 859 Romanian consumers. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were employed [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic affected consumers’ behavior worldwide. This paper aims to analyze consumers’ sustainable food behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research was based on an online survey during May–October 2020 among 859 Romanian consumers. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were employed to group the consumers based on their behavior. Furthermore, the binary-logistic regression was used to identify the socio-demographic profile of the identified groups. Based on the cluster analysis, the consumers were grouped into three main groups: indifferent, pro-environment protection, and health concerned. The results indicate a positive attitude towards sustainable food behavior. Consumers’ attitude towards sustainable food choice is mainly influenced by age and education level. The study offers valuable information for future public policy and marketing campaign regarding sustainable food behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
Article
Household Labour Migration and Farmers’ Access to Productive Agricultural Services: A Case Study from Chinese Provinces
Agriculture 2021, 11(10), 976; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11100976 - 09 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 672
Abstract
Household labour migration experiences may have a staggering impact within developing countries, especially in dynamic societies like China, where labour migration is obvious. The present study’s objective is to investigate whether household labour migration contributes to the probability of farmers’ access to productive [...] Read more.
Household labour migration experiences may have a staggering impact within developing countries, especially in dynamic societies like China, where labour migration is obvious. The present study’s objective is to investigate whether household labour migration contributes to the probability of farmers’ access to productive agricultural services. The study’s empirical setup is comprised of household survey data of 541 farmers in Shaanxi, Henan, and Sichuan provinces. The study proposes a counterfactual model to evaluate the average processing effect of an urban migrant with the help of the endogenous transformation of the Probit model. The results show that labour migration for work directly affects farmers’ access to productive agricultural services and indirectly affects farmers’ access to productive agricultural services through three channels: labour input, land transfers, and planting structure adjustments. The study further confirms that labour migration for work has a significant heterogeneity in the probability of obtaining productive agricultural services for farmers with or without non-agricultural income. Simultaneously, the labour migration area for work has significant heterogeneity in the probability of farmer households’ access to productive agricultural services. The government should extend support towards productive agriculture services. Agricultural demonstration services and on-hand training of migrant labour should be highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Magnitude, Causes and Scope for Reducing Food Losses in the Baking and Confectionery Industry—A Multi-Method Approach
Agriculture 2021, 11(10), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11100936 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1033
Abstract
Reducing food wastage is one of the challenges in achieving global food security and transforming current food systems. Since human nutrition is closely dependent on cereal production, research was undertaken aimed at understanding the food losses in the baking and confectionery industry (BCI) [...] Read more.
Reducing food wastage is one of the challenges in achieving global food security and transforming current food systems. Since human nutrition is closely dependent on cereal production, research was undertaken aimed at understanding the food losses in the baking and confectionery industry (BCI) in Poland, in particular at determining the volume, reasons and ways of reducing losses, identifying possibly all of the reasons for losses in BCI using the Ishikawa 5M + 1E diagram and determining the level of significance and probability of risk of food losses in the analysed sector. Two research methods were used. Quantitative data were collected using the mass balance method from five businesses that served as case studies. Qualitative data were collected through individual in-depth interviews with 17 industry experts. The companies’ average daily losses ranged from 0.8 to 6.4 tons, representing 9.7 to 14.4% of production volume, including 10.4–13.4% of bread losses and 6.8–24.4% of fresh pastry losses. The highest losses were generated by transport departments and these were exclusively retail returns. Following the Ishikawa concept, 31 primary and 94 secondary reasons for food losses were identified. Using the probability of loss risk, a toolkit for loss prevention and mitigation across all departments within businesses (raw materials magazine, production section, final product magazine and final product transport) and a set of horizontal tools were identified, including specialised training for employees and activities in several areas, e.g., technical status and production technology, organisation and planning, logistics and sales and cooperation with retail. This study, conducted in Poland, offers valuable results for developing programmes and strategies to prevent and manage food losses in BCI. Many of the solutions proposed in both toolkits can bring economic benefits without involving additional high costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Application of Fuzzy Delphi Technique Approach in Sustainable Inheritance of Rural Cooking Techniques and Innovative Business Strategies Modeling
Agriculture 2021, 11(10), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11100924 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 762
Abstract
Transformation and sustainable development must be undertaken in accordance with the trends of the times, which presents challenges to rural areas worldwide. In addition to preserving rural food specialties and presenting them in new ways to attract consumers, these areas must link farmers’ [...] Read more.
Transformation and sustainable development must be undertaken in accordance with the trends of the times, which presents challenges to rural areas worldwide. In addition to preserving rural food specialties and presenting them in new ways to attract consumers, these areas must link farmers’ production, processing, sales, and management. It is imperative to sustainably pass on rural foods and theircooking techniques and integrate them into innovative business strategies so that delicious rural foods can be sold on the consumer market, boosting rural economies and their development. The main objective of this research was to conduct indicator modeling and empirical analysis for the sustainable inheritance of Taiwan’s rural cooking techniques and the development of innovative marketing strategies. The Fuzzy Delphi Technique was used as the main research method to select agricultural experts and rural household economy organizations for indicator modeling and empirical analysis. The results of the research indicate that agricultural experts believe that market operation is the primary developmental focus of cultural inheritance and innovation, whereas household economy organizations believe that education, training, promotion, and development are the primary developmental focuses. The greatest contribution and innovation of this research are the findings that culinary education and training, organized by the farmers’ association, can sustainably pass on traditional rural cooking techniques, and the process of incorporating local ingredients into commercial gourmet food should also consider aspects of the economic and marketing strategies of market operation, facilitating the sustainable inheritance of unique, traditional, local, and rural food culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Village Environment, Capital Endowment, and Farmers’ Participation in E-Commerce Sales Behavior: A Demand Observable Bivariate Probit Model Approach
Agriculture 2021, 11(9), 868; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11090868 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
With the recent developments in widespread internet usage and digital technology, an ultimate worldwide transformation in information and communications technology has occurred. Especially, how people engage in the virtual market for buying and selling goods has changed dramatically, which flourished the playground of [...] Read more.
With the recent developments in widespread internet usage and digital technology, an ultimate worldwide transformation in information and communications technology has occurred. Especially, how people engage in the virtual market for buying and selling goods has changed dramatically, which flourished the playground of electronic commerce (EC). Interestingly, it has become crucial to create an ample opportunity for farmers to utilize a more comprehensive market range for selling their products. However, farmers participating in e-commerce sales platforms may be interrupted by various internal and external factors. Therefore, the study’s primary goal is to evaluate the impacts of various external and internal factors on shaping farmers’ behavior in participating in e-commerce sales platforms. The study utilized a demand observable bivariate Probit model to analyze the village environment and capital endowment effects to craft the findings. The study utilized micro-survey data from 686 households in the leading kiwifruit-producing area as the empirical setup. The findings illustrated that the village environment is the main factor that restricts farmers’ e-commerce sales behavior, among which the infrastructure and policy environments have a significant contribution to farmers’ e-commerce sales intention and behavior. However, the effect of capital endowment on farmers’ e-commerce selling behavior has been found as significant. The village environment significantly affects both large- and small-scale farmers, and the capital endowment has a higher binding effect on small-scale farmers. Therefore, the paper suggests that improving the village environment for e-commerce development and laying the foundation for e-commerce development should be fostered. A differentiated incentive mechanism to improve the capital endowment of farmers should be constructed. A well-structured capital endowment triggering small farmers to capture the benefits of e-commerce sales should be imposed. The government should extend the support of the agricultural demonstration zone to facilitate practical training among the smallholder farmers. The formal and informal risk-sharing and financial institutions should prioritize building infrastructure to support farmers’ short- and long-term investments. Farmers should realize the importance of e-commerce for integrating the agricultural value chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Measurement of Investment Potential and Spatial Distribution of Arable Land among Countries within the “Belt and Road Initiative”
Agriculture 2021, 11(9), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11090848 - 05 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
The belt and road initiative (BRI) is a mutual development approach projected by China, which delivers exceptional opportunities for multi-phased communication and cooperation across Asia, Africa, and Europe. It opens ample opportunities for China to easily invest in overseas arable land. Based on [...] Read more.
The belt and road initiative (BRI) is a mutual development approach projected by China, which delivers exceptional opportunities for multi-phased communication and cooperation across Asia, Africa, and Europe. It opens ample opportunities for China to easily invest in overseas arable land. Based on the macro data of 119 countries in 2010 and 2016 before and after the BRI, the study comprehensively uses fuzzy C-means clustering and the entropy method to evaluate the potential of arable land investment from four dimensions, which existing literature has not fully grasped. Moreover, the study uses the exploratory spatial data analysis methods (ESDA), kernel density estimation, and trend surface analysis to study the spatial pattern characteristics. The results show that: (i) there are noticeable regional differences in the investment potential of arable land in BRI countries. Asian countries, led by Kazakhstan and Indonesia, and African Unions, led by Ethiopia, South Africa, and Tanzania, generally have higher investment potential. However, South America and European countries are relatively lower. (ii) Resource endowment and production conditions significantly impact overseas arable land investment potential. Asia and Africa have advantages in resource endowment and production conditions, while European countries generally have better economic and political environments. (iii) From the perspective of time evolution, the investment potential in 2016 is generally higher than in 2010, and the negative correlation and dispersion are lower than in 2010. Based on these findings, it is recommended that Chinese enterprises should comprehensively consider the differences in resource endowments and agricultural development levels in various countries, optimize investment layout, and reduce investment risks. Chinese companies should collaborate with host nations on modernization and promote the long-term viability of arable land investments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Facts and Myths about GM Food—The Case of Poland
Agriculture 2021, 11(8), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11080791 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1849
Abstract
The importance of biotechnology for the global economy is growing, including developments in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMO), which have revolutionized the cultivation of several major food crops. Despite the many benefits from introducing genetic modifications to crops, the Polish society [...] Read more.
The importance of biotechnology for the global economy is growing, including developments in the field of genetically modified organisms (GMO), which have revolutionized the cultivation of several major food crops. Despite the many benefits from introducing genetic modifications to crops, the Polish society shows a strong distrust towards GMO-based food. The negative attitude of the society towards genetically modified (GM) food could be considered irrational. It is not supported by adequate knowledge and is based on fears, despite the fact that there is no scientific evidence of threats of GM products towards the environment, health, or human life. Details of these perceptions were revealed within Polish society from surveys of three groups of respondents: consumers, students, farmers. Data from the surveys have been compared with the answers to the same questions by five biotechnology experts from Polish academic institutions. A general observation from the analysis of the survey results and past studies quoted in the literature review is that the level of understanding and acceptance of GMO technologies is still low in Polish society, and, to a large extent, is based on stereotypes rather than on scientific knowledge. They show broad support for the general benefits of GMOs, which does not vary between the three groups of respondents surveyed, but noticeably differs with the experts’ views. GMOs have allies, but also opponents who have their own beliefs shaped largely by unreliable information disseminated through the Internet and social media. Providing more reliable targeted information on GMOs based on scientific evidence can have an important role in changing polarized attitudes towards GM food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
An Italian Explorative Study of Willingness to Pay for a New Functional Pasta Featuring Opuntia ficus indica
Agriculture 2021, 11(8), 701; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11080701 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
Opuntia ficus indica is a source of vitamins and minerals, and recently, it has been used as ingredient to make a new functional pasta. Italy produces the highest amount of pasta in the world and it is also the second-highest producer of opuntia [...] Read more.
Opuntia ficus indica is a source of vitamins and minerals, and recently, it has been used as ingredient to make a new functional pasta. Italy produces the highest amount of pasta in the world and it is also the second-highest producer of opuntia globally. This study sought to identify the consumer willingness to pay for pasta featuring Opuntia ficus indica and to understand what factors influence their choice. This study is the first in food research to analyze consumers’ willingness to pay for a new functional pasta featuring Opuntia ficus indica. Data were collected by using a web-based survey; the sample was composed of 342 consumers and an ordered logistic regression model was applied. The findings showed that the educational and higher income levels of respondents play important roles in the willingness to pay for functional pasta. Moreover, the healthy and nutritional features of functional pasta together with the respondents’ willingness to eat it, their curiosity towards this new food and their need to get more information about functional pasta should improve consumers’ willingness to pay for it. The findings should be useful for firms to draw marketing strategies considering the positive consumers’ attitude toward the use of Opuntia ficus indica in pasta production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
Article
An Analysis of Mushroom Consumption in Hungary in the International Context
Agriculture 2021, 11(7), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11070677 - 18 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1387
Abstract
It is hardly an exaggeration to state that producing and consuming mushrooms may provide an answer to several of the challenges facing mankind. This research is related to the UN sustainable development goals relative to different issues. First of all, mushroom production uses [...] Read more.
It is hardly an exaggeration to state that producing and consuming mushrooms may provide an answer to several of the challenges facing mankind. This research is related to the UN sustainable development goals relative to different issues. First of all, mushroom production uses agricultural and industrial byproducts as inputs and being labor intensive contributes to the job and income creation for undereducated people in less developed areas. In addition, as mushrooms have high protein content and they are a suitable alternative for meat for populations with a diet lacking in variety; at the same time, they also have the potential for food connoisseurs and consumers who make conscious and educated choices to improve their diet by using healthful and environmentally friendly methods. The nutritional value of mushrooms means that consumption could be an important supplementary therapy for several illnesses. The key issue of sector development is the increasing demand. In order to address this, investigation and research related to consumer behavior is needed. The aim of this research was to explore the dimensions of Hungarian mushroom consumer behavior and to segment Hungarian consumers. An online questionnaire survey was conducted between December 2019 and February 2020 and the final sample of 1768 respondents was considered for the purposes of analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify groups of correlating variables describing mushroom consumption. The authors identified four dimensions of Hungarian mushroom consumer behavior: (1) medicinal and functional properties, (2) consumption for enjoyment, (3) supplementary food source, and (4) negative assessment of the product range. Using cluster analysis, three consumer groups were identified: (1) health-conscious consumers, (2) indifferent consumers, and (3) average consumers. The research results indicated that consumers’ sociodemographic characteristics (age, educational level, marital status, and place of residence) have a significant impact on mushroom consumption behavior. The results of this paper can have implications for policy makers and business management in diversifying their production and selecting marketing tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Choice of Modern Food Distribution Channels and Its Welfare Effects: Empirical Evidence from Taiwan
Agriculture 2021, 11(6), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060499 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
The determinants and/or economic effects of modern food distribution channels have attracted much attention in previous research. Studies on the welfare consequences of modern channel options, however, have been sparse. Based on a broader definition of modern food distribution channels including midstream processors [...] Read more.
The determinants and/or economic effects of modern food distribution channels have attracted much attention in previous research. Studies on the welfare consequences of modern channel options, however, have been sparse. Based on a broader definition of modern food distribution channels including midstream processors and downstream retailers (supermarkets, hypermarkets, brand-named retailers), this study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by exploring the distributional implications of farm households’ choice of modern food distribution channels using a large and unique farm household dataset in Taiwan. Making use of the two-step control function approach, we identify the effect of modern food distribution options on farm households’ profitability. The results reveal selling farm produce to modern food distributors does not produce a positive differential compared to the traditional outlets. Another dimension of farm household welfare affected by the choice of modern food distribution channel is income inequality. We apply the Lerman and Yitzhaki decomposition approach to gain a better understanding of the effect of the marketing channel option on the overall distribution of farm household income. The Gini decomposition of different income sources indicates that the choice of modern food distribution channels results in an inequality-equalizing effect among the farm households in Taiwan, suggesting the inclusion of smallholder farmers in the modern food distribution channels improves the overall welfare of the rural society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Evaluating the Impacts of Smallholder Farmer’s Participation in Modern Agricultural Value Chain Tactics for Facilitating Poverty Alleviation—A Case Study of Kiwifruit Industry in Shaanxi, China
Agriculture 2021, 11(5), 462; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11050462 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
Market-based initiatives like agriculture value chain (AVC) are becoming progressively pervasive to support smallholder rural farmers and assist them in entering larger market interventions and providing a pathway of enhancing their socioeconomic well-being. Moreover, it may also foster staggering effects towards the post-era [...] Read more.
Market-based initiatives like agriculture value chain (AVC) are becoming progressively pervasive to support smallholder rural farmers and assist them in entering larger market interventions and providing a pathway of enhancing their socioeconomic well-being. Moreover, it may also foster staggering effects towards the post-era poverty alleviation in rural areas and possessed a significant theoretical and practical influence for modern agricultural development. The prime objective of the study is to explore the effects of smallholder farmers’ participation in the agricultural value chain for availing rural development and poverty alleviation. Specifically, we have crafted the assessment employing pre-production (improved fertilizers usage), in-production (modern preservation technology), and post-production (supply chain) participation and interventions of smallholder farmers. The empirical data has been collected from a micro survey dataset of 623 kiwifruit farmers from July to September in Shaanxi, China. We have employed propensity score matching (PSM), probit, and OLS models to explore the multidimensional poverty reduction impact and heterogeneity of farmers’ participation in the agricultural value chain. The results show that the total number of poor farmers who have experienced one-dimensional and two-dimensional poverty is relatively high (66.3%). We also find that farmers’ participation in agricultural value chain activities has a significant poverty reduction effect. The multidimensional poverty level of farmers using improved fertilizer, organizational acquisition, and using storage technology (compared with non-participating farmers) decreased by 30.1%, 46.5%, and 25.0%, respectively. The multidimensional poverty reduction degree of male farmers using improved fertilizer and participating in the organizational acquisition is greater than that of women. The multidimensional poverty reduction degree of female farmers using storage and fresh-keeping technology has a greater impact than the males using storage and improved storage technology. Government should widely promote the value chain in the form of pre-harvest, production, and post-harvest technology. The public–private partnership should also be strengthened for availing innovative technologies and infrastructure development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
Article
Marketing of Vegetable Seeds: Practice and Behavioral Inclinations of Vegetable Seed Sellers and Farmers in Selected Areas of Bangladesh
Agriculture 2021, 11(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040364 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
This research was based on a survey conducted in Bangladesh in three major seed-producing divisions, viz., Dhaka, Mymensingh, and Chittagong. Descriptive data was gathered by randomly selecting 100 peasants and 100 rural retailers for in-depth interviews. The general accounting approach was also used [...] Read more.
This research was based on a survey conducted in Bangladesh in three major seed-producing divisions, viz., Dhaka, Mymensingh, and Chittagong. Descriptive data was gathered by randomly selecting 100 peasants and 100 rural retailers for in-depth interviews. The general accounting approach was also used to assess profit and loss. The objective of the study was to analyze the marketing tendencies of vegetable seed farmers and sellers. The results showed a lack of market information, poor institutions and arrangements, poor marketing infrastructures, transportation system, and high and unfair profit margin distribution among the value chain actors with little share to the farmers in the vegetable seed market. These findings are indicators of poor marketing efficiency and thereby suboptimal operation of the seed marketing system. The significant determinants of market supply of vegetable seeds were found to be the average current price, age, the total size of land, farmers’ experience, sex, number of oxen, and access to market information. The determinants of demand for vegetable seeds—family size, purchase frequency, the average current price, income level, average expenditure on food and purchasing, profit or loss of vegetable seed farming—were found to be significant in the study. According to the findings of this report, vegetable seed sector in Bangladesh needs more government support, especially in terms of marketing policies in order to improve the current state of vegetable seed farming. Vegetable seed farming was not profitable due to a lack of technology and knowledge, as well as a lack of funding. With the existing status of infrastructure, the presence of middlemen is unavoidable. As a result, farmers have no alternative but to follow the orders of the middlemen, resulting in seed quality problems. Hence, the results are indicative of the measures that should be taken for production, market infrastructure, arrangements, and institutions to improve the functioning of the seed marketing system. It also proposes a vegetable seed distribution channel through which a cooperative community would serve as a collecting hub for a more efficient marketing scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
The Role of the Start-Up Aid for Young Farmers in the Adoption of Innovative Agricultural Activities: The Case of Aloe Vera
Agriculture 2021, 11(4), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040349 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
The poor generational renewal has been identified as a key issue for the EU policy that undermines the restructuring of the agricultural sector and the revitalisation of rural areas. The start-up aid for young farmers is one of the main EU-driven policy measures [...] Read more.
The poor generational renewal has been identified as a key issue for the EU policy that undermines the restructuring of the agricultural sector and the revitalisation of rural areas. The start-up aid for young farmers is one of the main EU-driven policy measures that try to mitigate this trend, by facilitating the initial investment of young newcomers in agriculture. At the same time, innovative crops with appealing characteristics are proposed as promising alternatives with high socioeconomic and low environmental impacts. Recently, a draft new call of the start-up aid for young farmers measure has been set under public consultation in Greece, which significantly alters the requirements and the level of support of the beneficiaries, compared to the previous one. The aim of this study is to explore the consequences of this change to the desirability to invest in the organic aloe vera crop, one of the leading innovating crops in Greece. In this study, taking into consideration the embedded risk and uncertainty, we utilise a stochastic version of the Net Present Value (NPV) analysis, a common discount cash flows method to detect the desirability of an investment. Results indicate that the potential alteration of the start-up aid for young farmers deteriorates the desirability of this investment and thus prevents farmers from its adoption. The analysis provides useful insights by highlighting risk factors and the possible impacts of policy measures on the desirability of innovative crops; thus, it can be useful both for investors and policymakers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Is Futurization the Culprit for the Violent Fluctuation in China’s Apple Spot Price?
Agriculture 2021, 11(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040342 - 12 Apr 2021
Viewed by 858
Abstract
China aims to utilize the futures market to stabilize agricultural product price fluctuation by quantifying the effects of risk transfer and price discovery. However, the role of futurization has been questioned and even posited as the cause of drastic fluctuations in spot market [...] Read more.
China aims to utilize the futures market to stabilize agricultural product price fluctuation by quantifying the effects of risk transfer and price discovery. However, the role of futurization has been questioned and even posited as the cause of drastic fluctuations in spot market prices. This research aims to clarify the impact of futurization on the price fluctuation of agricultural products and to provide policy reference for the development of the agricultural futures market through the research. Here, we examine the spot price data for apples and use Interrupted time-series analysis (ITSA) and GARCH models to estimate the impact of apple futures on the volatility of spot prices. Our findings demonstrate that the launch of China’s apple futures did not increase the volatility of apple spot prices; that is, futurization was not the cause of skyrocketing apple spot prices. In the long term, our results suggest that futures will help reduce the volatility of apple spot prices and that the introduction of futures will ultimately reduce the price volatility of agricultural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Targeting Youths’ Intentions to Avoid Food Waste: Segmenting for Better Policymaking
Agriculture 2021, 11(4), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11040284 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
Food waste is a global challenge that raises many questions about the reasons and prevalence of this phenomenon in all sectors of the economy. The youth is regarded as a consumer group, which is the most prone to food waste. This paper aims [...] Read more.
Food waste is a global challenge that raises many questions about the reasons and prevalence of this phenomenon in all sectors of the economy. The youth is regarded as a consumer group, which is the most prone to food waste. This paper aims to understand their food waste intentions to support tailored policies for policymakers, retailers, and other market actors. We applied the extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to find the relevant variables that affect the youth’s intention not to waste food. Besides creating a general model, we divided the sample into segments differing in respondents’ intentions to avoid food waste and specific socioeconomic characteristics. The data confirm significant differences between young women and men from urban and rural areas. Each of the segments was characterized by specific latent variables, influencing the intentions to avoid food waste. This segmentation allowed for developing policy recommendations that were tailored to each segment. It is a unique approach to differentiate the youth to unveil their specific food-waste intentions. Based on the above, we conclude that segmenting is a useful approach to the general TPB model, allowing for interesting insights. A fine segmentation is also a milestone to develop tailored policies, interventions, and communication on food waste reduction in rural and urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Assessing Sustainability of Organic Livestock Farming in Sicily: A Case Study Using the FAO SAFA Framework
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030274 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and pollutants, soil erosion and groundwater pollution are some of the negative aspects blamed on livestock farming, so their level of sustainability needs to be assessed, taking into account the territory in which they operate. The research focuses on [...] Read more.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and pollutants, soil erosion and groundwater pollution are some of the negative aspects blamed on livestock farming, so their level of sustainability needs to be assessed, taking into account the territory in which they operate. The research focuses on the assessment of sustainability performance in the four dimensions of good governance: environmental integrity, economic resilience and social well-being, considered by the ‘‘Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems’’ (SAFA) tool developed by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of applying this methodology is to highlight the sustainability dimensions in which the ten analyzed farms are weakest and the ones in which they show the most strength, in order to provide farmers a tool to understand the criticalities on which to intervene. The farms considered follow the principles of agroecology and organic farming, which are decisive in the pursuit of sustainable development. The overall results show a satisfactory level of sustainability with high prospects for improvement, in line with the EU commitments undertaken in the Green Deal and the Millennium Development Goals. Livestock farms must, therefore, be encouraged and accompanied with targeted technical assistance strategies and appropriate agroecological protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Evaluating the Financial Health of Agricultural Enterprises in the Conditions of the Slovak Republic Using Bankruptcy Models
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030242 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 862
Abstract
Under the influence of the change in the overall economic environment, the problem of measuring the performance of a company and its financial health is also changing. At present, every agricultural company is exposed to a number of internal as well as external [...] Read more.
Under the influence of the change in the overall economic environment, the problem of measuring the performance of a company and its financial health is also changing. At present, every agricultural company is exposed to a number of internal as well as external risks, the failure of which can lead to potential bankruptcy. It is a known fact that the risks in agriculture are significantly greater than those in other sectors of the national economy. Proper diagnosis of critical aspects and measuring the development of individual financial indicators of agricultural holdings are basic prerequisites for eliminating these risks and maintaining, as well as increasing, their competitiveness. Among the key tools for measuring the financial situation of a company are bankruptcy models, three of which have been used (Altman model, Taffler model, and Bonity index). The aim of this study was to identify the comprehensive financial health of 469 agricultural enterprises in the Slovak Republic using the three above-mentioned bankruptcy models in 2016. The obtained results were verified using the Kruskal–Wallis test, Levene test, or Moran index. Altman’s model indicated potential future problems of businesses and agricultural cooperatives. Using the Bonity index, the neutral situation was assessed (the financial health could be regarded as neither insufficient nor optimal). Taffler model offered contradicted results and does not expect the occurrence of problems soon. In the study, we also verified the assumption of the dependence of financial health of companies on the legal form and territorial division, which was confirmed to be insignificant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Modeling Profitability in the Jamaican Coffee Industry
Agriculture 2021, 11(2), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11020121 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1456
Abstract
It is well known that producers of agricultural products do not able to capture most of the value from what they grow. As such, it is important for producers to be attuned to the various factors that impact the viability of their products. [...] Read more.
It is well known that producers of agricultural products do not able to capture most of the value from what they grow. As such, it is important for producers to be attuned to the various factors that impact the viability of their products. One such potential avenue for coffee producers is developing a strong awareness of profitability across their respective geographic regions. This research presents a fine-scale geospatial profitability model for coffee production using the test case of the Jamaican Coffee Industry, a sector which once guaranteed profitability but now presents variable (often losing) returns for many producers, this research presents a cost-surface model for coffee production in the island of Jamaica. Results indicated large scale profitability in the 2016–2017 coffee year but limited profitability in the 2019–2019 coffee year, highlighting the important role of revenue fluctuation in island-wide profitability. Results underscore importance of scenario planning in the coffee production cycle. By understanding the spatial properties of profitability producers will obtain better decision-making insight for production and management decisions in the coffee industry around the world. The geospatial profitability model establishes a baseline approach that can be accessed by industry stakeholders of varying technological capacities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Direct Measurement of Mass and Economic Harvest and Post-Harvest Losses in Spanish Persimmon Primary Production
Agriculture 2020, 10(12), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10120581 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2227
Abstract
Globally, one in every three produced kilograms is wasted at some point along the entire agri-food chain. Unfortunately, knowledge about losses and waste is not equally distributed along the food chain. In fact, in some stages the primary data required to properly estimate [...] Read more.
Globally, one in every three produced kilograms is wasted at some point along the entire agri-food chain. Unfortunately, knowledge about losses and waste is not equally distributed along the food chain. In fact, in some stages the primary data required to properly estimate the magnitude of the problem are lacking. This is especially true for agricultural production, for which studies that have used on-site measurements are scarce. The present study analyses the mass losses and unpaid share that occur during the harvest process and persimmon storage in warehouses in the Valencia region, Spain. The study was carried out using on-site measurements and primary data from the harvest and storage phases. Losses were also classified according to their causes. The total mass and economic losses were estimated as either 29.5% for the total produced volume or 38.5% for the number of finally commercialised kilograms. This work aims to highlight the complex problem in primary production with the mass and economic losses that farmers bear and to show the potential of loss reduction measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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Article
Milk Market Integration between Poland and the EU Countries
Agriculture 2020, 10(11), 561; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110561 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
Milk is one of the most essential agricultural products in the EU. One of the major milk producers in the EU is Poland. Polish farmers account for supplying 8% of the total EU production. Nevertheless, Polish milk prices differ from the prices recorded [...] Read more.
Milk is one of the most essential agricultural products in the EU. One of the major milk producers in the EU is Poland. Polish farmers account for supplying 8% of the total EU production. Nevertheless, Polish milk prices differ from the prices recorded in its western neighbors. The aim of the article has been to evaluate the dynamics of the relationships between milk prices in Poland and in the EU countries. To develop it, the monthly raw milk prices, covering the period January 2005 through December 2018, were applied. The calculations were made for the entire selected period as well as for two sub-periods: 2005–2011 and 2012–2018. The results were used to confirm the milk market integration between Poland and the EU countries. Besides, it must be noted that the relations increased considerably since 2012. The EU countries which have recorded the greatest impact on the prices in Poland are Germany, Ireland, France and Slovakia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Food Marketing, Economics and Policies)
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