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Environ. Sci. Proc., 2021, BERF3 2021

The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum

Sydney, Australia | 1 December 2021

Volume Editors:
Philip Oldfield, University of New South Wales, Australia
Samad M. E. Sepasgozar, University of New South Wales, Australia

Number of Papers: 24
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Cover Story (view full-size image): This volume of Proceedings gathers papers presented at the School of Built Environment,the 3rd University of NSW (UNSW) Built Environment Research Forum (BERF#3), which was held as an online event on [...] Read more.
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2 pages, 173 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Colonialism on Spatial Transformation: A Socio-Spatial Analysis of the Outdoor Transitional Spaces of Sri Lankan House
by Deepthie Perera
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012001 - 2 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Sri Lanka, under the British from the early 19th century to 1948, saw a rapid growth in urban areas and the emergence of metropolitan bourgeoisie. Increasing demand for housing was met through housing schemes and private houses on smaller plots. Previous colonials, the [...] Read more.
Sri Lanka, under the British from the early 19th century to 1948, saw a rapid growth in urban areas and the emergence of metropolitan bourgeoisie. Increasing demand for housing was met through housing schemes and private houses on smaller plots. Previous colonials, the Portuguese and the Dutch, adapted and continued the traditional house forms where outdoor transitional spaces such as verandas and courtyards remained as an integral part responding to climate and socio-cultural needs. However, the British period saw the advent of two noteworthy types of housing—a smaller re-adapted traditional house and an imported version of an all-enclosed house. This study evaluates the shift in socio-spatial role of the outdoor transitional spaces of single-unit houses from pre-colonial time up to independence using graphical analysis of the plan form combined with interviews on use of space. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
5 pages, 578 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Cost-Saving through Pre-Cooling: A Case Study of Sydney
by Shayan Naderi, Simon Heslop, Dong Chen, Iain MacGill and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012002 - 9 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Air conditioning is responsible for a considerable proportion of households’ electricity bills. During summer afternoons when households usually run their air conditioners, the retail time-of-use electricity tariffs are highest, and there is a peak demand in the electricity network. Pre-cooling is a method [...] Read more.
Air conditioning is responsible for a considerable proportion of households’ electricity bills. During summer afternoons when households usually run their air conditioners, the retail time-of-use electricity tariffs are highest, and there is a peak demand in the electricity network. Pre-cooling is a method to shift air conditioning demand from peak hours to hours with lower demand and cheaper electricity tariffs. In this research, the pre-cooling potential of nine different types of residential housing in Sydney constructed with different star ratings and construction weights is evaluated. Star rating is the method to represent the annual heating and cooling requirements of buildings in Australia. Results highlight that pre-cooling produces cost saving for most of the days in 6-star and 8-star buildings. For 2-star buildings, pre-cooling sometimes leads to higher electricity costs. Moreover, pre-cooling improves thermal comfort, especially in 2-star light and medium weight buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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6 pages, 685 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Examining the Transition towards the Supply of Sustainable Apartments in Australia: A Design Perspective
by Gloria Pignatta and Kushani Semasinghe
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012003 - 10 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1207
Abstract
The built environment in Australia accounts for about 25% of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), where only the multi-unit residential buildings account for a quarter of these emissions. Moving towards sustainable constructions and green buildings can help in reducing GHG emissions and their [...] Read more.
The built environment in Australia accounts for about 25% of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), where only the multi-unit residential buildings account for a quarter of these emissions. Moving towards sustainable constructions and green buildings can help in reducing GHG emissions and their negative effects. In this context, integrating Circular Economy (CE) principles into buildings’ projects can further help in reducing the environmental impact of the building stock. The purpose of this research is to explore the embracing of CE in the apartment industry. Personal experiences and perspectives of 5 stakeholders from Vitoria and NSW involving sustainable new and retrofit apartment buildings are investigated by drawing on the results of the semi-structured interview. Results underlined barriers and opportunities for designing sustainable apartments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 3654 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Simulating the Impact of Solar Energy on Pyramid and Stair Urban Blocks
by Gloria Pignatta, Haniya Javed, Mehrangiz Mastoori, Seyede Najme Sharifi, Naga Venkata Sai Kumar Manapragada and Cinzia Buratti
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012004 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Developing countries such as Iran are rapidly expanding, putting pressure on non-renewable energy resources. The building sector takes a major share of the total energy consumption of the country and is projected to increase further, resulting in the call for strategies to reduce [...] Read more.
Developing countries such as Iran are rapidly expanding, putting pressure on non-renewable energy resources. The building sector takes a major share of the total energy consumption of the country and is projected to increase further, resulting in the call for strategies to reduce energy use by improving the thermal performance of buildings. This study addresses the compelling need to provide optimum design guidelines for future apartment buildings in the city of Shiraz by investigating two urban cluster typologies, stair and pyramid, arranged in five orientations. The results showcase the ideal combination of 155° for the Pyramid typology, which contributes the least to the annual energy loads of the buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 455 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
4E Advancement of Heat Recovery during Hot Seasons for a Building Integrated Photovoltaic Thermal (BIPV/T) System
by Ali Sohani, Shayan Naderi and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012005 - 15 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
In conventional building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPV/T) systems, heat is only recovered during cold seasons. However, no recovery takes place in hot seasons. Therefore, this study comes up with an answer to the question “how much improvement in the amount of annual recovered [...] Read more.
In conventional building integrated photovoltaic thermal (BIPV/T) systems, heat is only recovered during cold seasons. However, no recovery takes place in hot seasons. Therefore, this study comes up with an answer to the question “how much improvement in the amount of annual recovered heat (ANRH), average exergy efficiency (AAEE), and CO2 saving (ACDS), as well as payback period (PBP), is achieved when heat recovery is done in hot seasons?”. These are representatives of energy, exergy, environmental and economic (4E) aspects, respectively. The results show a 135.6%, 1.8% and 123.0% enhancement in the ANRH, AAEE and ACDS, respectively, while PBP decreases from 6.10 to 3.94 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 587 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Investigating the Relative Importance of Spatial and Environmental Factors on Energy Consumption in the Residential Sectors Using GIS (Case Study: Kerman)
by Atefeh Sajadian, Saeid Niazmardi, Meysam Argany, Reza Arababadi and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012006 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1301
Abstract
A large number of factors affect the energy consumption of a building. These factors can be categorized into building-related and space-related factors. The purpose of this study was to use the geospatial information system (GIS) to estimate and analyze the relative importance of [...] Read more.
A large number of factors affect the energy consumption of a building. These factors can be categorized into building-related and space-related factors. The purpose of this study was to use the geospatial information system (GIS) to estimate and analyze the relative importance of factors within either group to model the gas and electricity consumption of several randomly selected residential buildings in the city of Kerman, Iran. The considered building-related factors were age, area, and price of the building, and the space-related factors were elevation, vegetation cover, and land surface temperature. The results showed that the area, elevation, and vegetation cover were the most important factors for gas consumption, while the age of the building and the land surface temperature affected the electricity consumption more than others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 597 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Study of Mould Growth Using HAMT EnergyPlus Simulation Method in Warm and Humid Climate of Mangalore, India
by Shoumik Desai, Naga Venkata Sai Kumar Manapragada and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012007 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Most of the southern Indian cities are in the warm and humid coastal belt where the summer and winter mean temperature varies between 25 and 35 °C and 20 and 30 °C, respectively, with mean relative humidity, responsible for mould growth in buildings, [...] Read more.
Most of the southern Indian cities are in the warm and humid coastal belt where the summer and winter mean temperature varies between 25 and 35 °C and 20 and 30 °C, respectively, with mean relative humidity, responsible for mould growth in buildings, ranging as high as 70–90% across the year. This paper focuses on identifying the mould growth index (MGI) using Heat and Mass Transfer analysis in EnergyPlus (v-9.3) for an autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) wall assembly in the warm–humid climate of Mangalore. It is found that AAC has an annual mean MGI of 3.5, and that key drivers for mould growth are surface temperature and surface humidity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 1062 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
An Investigation of Digital Technology Implementation in Off-Site Construction with a Focus on Efficiency Improvement
by Mudan Wang, Cynthia Changxin Wang, Samad Sepasgozar and Sisi Zlatanova
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012008 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1548
Abstract
Digital technologies are supposed to be used to obtain higher efficiency and quality in off-site construction. This research is an on-going thesis project and aims to identify the challenges and expectations of digital technologies’ implementation in off-site construction, and also aims to develop [...] Read more.
Digital technologies are supposed to be used to obtain higher efficiency and quality in off-site construction. This research is an on-going thesis project and aims to identify the challenges and expectations of digital technologies’ implementation in off-site construction, and also aims to develop a practical application for promoting one of the promising digital technologies. Mixed research methods are conducted in Chinese off-site construction projects, including a set of semi-structured interviews, observation and site experimentation. The major challenges and expectations of digital technology implementation are presented. Specifically, laser scanning technology is expected to be used to check the installation quality of prefabricated wall panels, and it has been validated as practical and efficient in a case study. Further research will be more focused on validating the robustness of using the laser scanning approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 343 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Theoretical Considerations about Energy Transition in Luxembourg
by Ali Arababadi, Stephan Leyer, Reza Arababadi and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012009 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
The energy transition is a certain phenomenon in the future which as of yet has no agreed definition. It involves a shift in the dominant ‘rules of the game’—a transformation of established technologies and societal practices and movement from one dynamic equilibrium to [...] Read more.
The energy transition is a certain phenomenon in the future which as of yet has no agreed definition. It involves a shift in the dominant ‘rules of the game’—a transformation of established technologies and societal practices and movement from one dynamic equilibrium to another, typically stretching over several generations. The study aims to explore some salient features of this transition that Luxembourg will face using a theoretical approach. The study was limited to the transportation sector, residential sector, and public dimension. it has been shown how the availability of different contextual factors in Luxembourg will raise the need for new pathways to move towards this transition. The alternative pathways have been argued, too. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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5 pages, 4202 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Risk-Informed Digital Twin (RDT) for the Decarbonization of the Built Environment: The Australian Residential Context
by Gloria Pignatta and Umberto Alibrandi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012010 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
Urban communities are complex systems. According to the holistic perspective of the systems thinking theory, the “whole is not the sum of its parts, but rather is a product of the parts’ interactions”. This systems-thinking approach is commonly applied to analyse urban systems [...] Read more.
Urban communities are complex systems. According to the holistic perspective of the systems thinking theory, the “whole is not the sum of its parts, but rather is a product of the parts’ interactions”. This systems-thinking approach is commonly applied to analyse urban systems and developments. This study introduces the Risk-informed Digital Building Twin (RDBT) based on the Risk-informed Digital Twin (RDT), a novel digitalization technology incorporating an integrated multi-dimensional multi-stakeholders decision-making system under uncertainty. In the RDBT, energy-efficient, resilient, and sustainable systems/subsystems of civil engineering can be considered at the scale of the single building to assess different needs. Monitored data are critical to performing comprehensive near real-time lifecycle holistic analyses through the framework of Sustainable and Resilient Based Engineering. An apartment building located in Sydney, Australia, has been selected for future deployment of the RDBT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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5 pages, 4315 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Can Geopolymer Materials Be Optimized for Sustainable Building Envelope Applications? A Preliminary Development and Characterization Study
by Gloria Pignatta, Vincent Wong, Pramod Koshy and Charles Christopher Sorrell
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012011 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1100
Abstract
The materials used in the construction industry have a fundamental role in the development and achievement of low-carbon structures. This research aims to develop and characterize innovative and affordable renewable materials that can meet these low carbon requirements for building envelopes and internal [...] Read more.
The materials used in the construction industry have a fundamental role in the development and achievement of low-carbon structures. This research aims to develop and characterize innovative and affordable renewable materials that can meet these low carbon requirements for building envelopes and internal element applications. These materials are geopolymers, which are being researched for fire-resistance, nuclear storage, and cement-based structural applications. Geopolymers are commonly fabricated from high-volume waste materials (e.g., fly ash and blast furnace slag) that are stored in landfill and tailings ponds and have the capacity to facilitate the transition toward a more sustainable and energy-efficient built environment while contributing to the circular economy in the building sector. Two geopolymers, a reference and a prototype, were fabricated and characterized in-lab for their thermal and optical properties to assess their performance for use as building envelope materials. Preliminary results suggest that the prototype has potential for use in green, lightweight building applications. Further optimization of the geopolymers’ thermal and optical performances will open new opportunities for the use of this material in buildings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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5 pages, 963 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Size Optimization of a Grid-Connected Solar–Wind Hybrid System in Net Zero Energy Buildings: A Case Study
by Elaheh Sadeghi Bakhtiar, Afshin Naeimi, Ali Behbahaninia and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012012 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
This study proposes a hybrid renewable energy system consisting of photovoltaic panels and a wind turbine to supply the total or part of the demand of a grid-connected residential building and presents the optimal system size using a genetic algorithm. Wind speed, solar [...] Read more.
This study proposes a hybrid renewable energy system consisting of photovoltaic panels and a wind turbine to supply the total or part of the demand of a grid-connected residential building and presents the optimal system size using a genetic algorithm. Wind speed, solar irradiance, and electricity demand are monitored in 15 min intervals over a year. It is found that the optimal values for PV panels’ area, rated power of the wind turbine, and the tower height are 148.5 m2, 1.5 kW, and 20 m, respectively. These optimal values lead to a total system cost of EUR 42,218 over 20 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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8 pages, 1835 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
BIM Applications in Waste and Demolition Management in Circular Economy Concept
by Yihan Hai, Liming Yang and Samad Sepasgozar
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012013 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
Although BIM has been used for many different purposes in construction, there are still some areas that can be improved by extending the application of BIM. One of the emerging concepts in the literature is the circular economy (CE). The CE aims to [...] Read more.
Although BIM has been used for many different purposes in construction, there are still some areas that can be improved by extending the application of BIM. One of the emerging concepts in the literature is the circular economy (CE). The CE aims to minimize waste, recover resources and reduce pollution and emissions, generally by reusing, sharing, repairing, and recycling input resources. However, the increasing amount of construction waste reflects that CE is not well adopted in the construction field yet. The study aims to investigate how BIM enables circularity in the construction sector, mainly focusing on the trend for BIM applications in the implementation of the CE concept including waste and demolition management in the construction context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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5 pages, 684 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Enabling Decision-Making Analytics for Collaborative Information Exchanges of Digital Precinct Models
by Otto Newhouse, Hoon Han and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012014 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 964
Abstract
This research identifies patterns of conflicting interorganisational information exchange requirements in precinct modelling and simulation (M&S) depending on the interaction and expertise of the collaborating actors. Internationally surveying leading experts, it extends multicriteria decision analysis with partitioning matrices of superposed orders from the [...] Read more.
This research identifies patterns of conflicting interorganisational information exchange requirements in precinct modelling and simulation (M&S) depending on the interaction and expertise of the collaborating actors. Internationally surveying leading experts, it extends multicriteria decision analysis with partitioning matrices of superposed orders from the eigenvectors of comparative datasets. The results are applied to real-world industry tasks and exchanges established for building M&S to combine and reuse them as models for precinct assets including energy infrastructure and also for supporting modular information exchanges between digital precinct models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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5 pages, 1717 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Analysis of Nano Silica Aerogel Based Glazing Effect on the Solar Heat Gain and Cooling Load in a School under Different Climatic Conditions
by Cinzia Buratti, Elisa Belloni, Francesca Merli, Mehrangiz Mastoori, Seyede Najme Sharifi and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012015 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Demand for energy-efficient school buildings, which form a major part of public buildings, is growing in Iran. Window insulation is required to reduce the amount of energy wasted through openings. This study investigates the effect of double-glazing with aerogel insulation compared to a [...] Read more.
Demand for energy-efficient school buildings, which form a major part of public buildings, is growing in Iran. Window insulation is required to reduce the amount of energy wasted through openings. This study investigates the effect of double-glazing with aerogel insulation compared to a 3 mm glazing pane and a double-glazing window in terms of solar gain and cooling load. The case studies are primary schools in Yazd (hot-dry climate), Bushehr (hot-humid climate), and Zanjan (cold climate). Numerical simulations of a two-story school are performed to calculate solar gain and cooling load. The use of the aerogel glazing system in Yazd resulted in a reduction of 73% of the solar gain and about 33% of cooling loads compared to a simple glazing window; if compared to a double-glazing standard window, the reductions are of about 56% and 16%, respectively for solar gains and cooling consumptions. Also, the use of aerogel glazing in Bushehr allows a reduction of about 64% in terms of solar gain and 27% for cooling when compared to simple glazing. By using the aerogel in Zanjan school the solar gain decreased by about 62% and cooling loads of about 22% when compared to a single layer of glazing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 365 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Spatial Provocateur—Questioning the Status Quo
by Farnaz Fattahi
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012016 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 922
Abstract
The continuous challenges that society faces, from civic inequality to intensifying ecological problems, require a responsive contextualisation of the social environment. Responding to existing issues, the Spatial Provocateur challenges evolving matters by creating disruptive intervention scenarios and provocative narratives through choreographing immersive experiences [...] Read more.
The continuous challenges that society faces, from civic inequality to intensifying ecological problems, require a responsive contextualisation of the social environment. Responding to existing issues, the Spatial Provocateur challenges evolving matters by creating disruptive intervention scenarios and provocative narratives through choreographing immersive experiences of collective interaction. This research seeks to ground the notion of the Spatial Provocateur in expanding the social role of architecture. This research investigates the role of the Spatial Provocateur, which is increasingly becoming significant in finding alternative forms of spatial expressions to address evolving social matters and raise questions in response to collective concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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5 pages, 1139 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
From the Urbanism of Metabolism to Sydney/Tokyo Waterfronts Regeneration (2019–2022)
by Raffaele Pernice
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012017 - 28 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Focusing on the forgotten lessons and potential legacy of the urban projects proposed by the Japanese avant-garde architectural movement of Metabolism, which emerged in the 1960s, and on the critical and comparative study of large-scale waterfront regeneration and design in Tokyo and Sydney, [...] Read more.
Focusing on the forgotten lessons and potential legacy of the urban projects proposed by the Japanese avant-garde architectural movement of Metabolism, which emerged in the 1960s, and on the critical and comparative study of large-scale waterfront regeneration and design in Tokyo and Sydney, two education and research projects were initiated at UNSW-School of the Built Environment in 2019 and 2021, with the aim of looking at the future of the city in an age of climate change, global warming and rising sea levels. Structured around a variety of international workshops, joint design studios, collaborative archive and documentary reviews, multi-disciplinary seminars, and international symposia, with the participation of national and international academics and scholars, both research projects are currently in progress, with the support of competitive research grants from the Japan Foundation, the Australia–Japan Foundation (AJF), the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), and other internal grants from the Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture (ADA) at UNSW Sydney. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 809 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Measuring Virtual Reality (VR) Technology Application and Adoption in Chinese Construction Risk Management
by Wei Du, Samad M. E. Sepasgozar and Juan Sebastian Garzon Romero
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012018 - 28 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1581
Abstract
In recent years, the improvement of risk management and the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) training process has become a hot topic. Virtual Reality (VR) technology is an efficient method to improve training efficiency and reduce accidents. Previous studies have validated its feasibility [...] Read more.
In recent years, the improvement of risk management and the Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) training process has become a hot topic. Virtual Reality (VR) technology is an efficient method to improve training efficiency and reduce accidents. Previous studies have validated its feasibility and usefulness in the construction industry. However, there is currently a lack of research on the adoption of VR technology in the Chinese construction industry. The present work explores the current applications of VR and the model for possible adoption by the Chinese construction companies using a mixed research methodology. Furthermore, this research has quantified the relationships between each adoption variable in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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5 pages, 562 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
City Digital Twin Concepts: A Vision for Community Participation
by Fathima Nishara Abdeen and Samad M. E. Sepasgozar
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012019 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
Community participation is seen as a means of improving the effectiveness of planning to benefit the people by empowering the people. However, a novel approach to enable community participation during the planning stage of smart city infrastructure projects is lacking. Hence, the study [...] Read more.
Community participation is seen as a means of improving the effectiveness of planning to benefit the people by empowering the people. However, a novel approach to enable community participation during the planning stage of smart city infrastructure projects is lacking. Hence, the study presents an approach through the Smart City Digital Twin (SCDT) to support community participation during the planning stage of smart city infrastructure provision. The proposed system architecture comprises five key layers, namely: (a) an acquisition layer, (b) a transmission layer, (c) a digital modeling and data complementary layer, (d) a data/model integration layer, and (e) an application layer. The components of the architecture allow the SCDT to automatically re-create and predict the appearance of infrastructure after community feedback. Volunteered geographic information supported by an agent-based model empowers the process. Unlike other platforms, the architecture of the SCDT is developed to be open to the public. It can be utilized initially in the planning stage and continue throughout the construction stage of infrastructure development. Further, the SCDT would support urban planners, policymakers, and developers to make decisions by considering public needs, perceptions, attitudes, and interests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 767 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Development of a Sustainable Industrial Byproduct Based Seawater and Sea Sand Ultra-High Performance Concrete
by Shameer Saleh, Xiao-Ling Zhao and Ehab Hamed
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012020 - 9 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
This study investigates the feasibility of establishing an environmentally sustainable ultra-high performance concrete from seawater and sea sand (SWSS-UHPC) which utilizes industrial byproducts (i.e., ground slag and silica fume) by partially substituting ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Several SWSS-UHPC trial mixes were prepared with [...] Read more.
This study investigates the feasibility of establishing an environmentally sustainable ultra-high performance concrete from seawater and sea sand (SWSS-UHPC) which utilizes industrial byproducts (i.e., ground slag and silica fume) by partially substituting ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Several SWSS-UHPC trial mixes were prepared with varying cement substitution ratio and water-to-binder ratio to reach desired cube compressive strength and workability. A maximum of 50% OPC was successfully replaced by 37.5% slag and 12.5% silica fume without sacrificing the strength and workability. Finally, influences of vibration during molding and thermal curing were evaluated by comparing identical mixes prepared with and without these treatments. Results suggest that locally available marine resources and high volume of industrial byproducts can be incorporated in UHPC fabrication without any special treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 202 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Mental Health Conditions among Young Construction Workers: A Systematic Narrative Review
by Samuel Frimpong, Riza Yosia Sunindijo and Cynthia Changxin Wang
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012021 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1914
Abstract
This paper presents the results of a systematic narrative review on the mental health of young construction workers. By means of a thematic analysis of fifteen studies, two themes of mental health conditions were identified: (1) behavioural and emotional problems and (2) substance [...] Read more.
This paper presents the results of a systematic narrative review on the mental health of young construction workers. By means of a thematic analysis of fifteen studies, two themes of mental health conditions were identified: (1) behavioural and emotional problems and (2) substance use disorders. Most of the studies reviewed focused on male manual workers in construction industries of the global north. Additionally, all studies had examined only the negative aspects of mental health. This review highlights the need for future research to focus on positive mental health and the case of the global south. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
5 pages, 1194 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Evaluating the Impact of Shading Devices, Glazing Systems, and Building Orientation on the Energy Consumption in Educational Spaces
by Cinzia Buratti, Elisa Belloni, Francesca Merli, Mehrangiz Mastoori, Seyede Najme Sharifi and Gloria Pignatta
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012022 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1261
Abstract
This paper focused on the impact of the external shading devices, the optimal orientation, and the installation of Low-E glazing systems on the energy requirements in a typical elementary school building for the hot–dry climate of Shiraz, a city located in the south [...] Read more.
This paper focused on the impact of the external shading devices, the optimal orientation, and the installation of Low-E glazing systems on the energy requirements in a typical elementary school building for the hot–dry climate of Shiraz, a city located in the south of Iran. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the parameters on the optimal design in terms of their thermal performance, and in addition, to specify the parameter with the greatest outcome in the energy consumption decline of a prototype school in Shiraz. The results indicated that the modified design can significantly reduce the annual energy loads of the school building up to 29%. Moreover, a comparative analysis among the three mentioned items showed that the shading device is more effective than the other two, which use simple horizontal and vertical shading devices in the northern and southern faces in order to decrease about 20% of the energy consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 496 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Multi-Scale Modelling of Particulate Composite
by Abdalla Elbana, Amar Khennane, Safat Al-Deen and Muhammad Talha Junaid
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012023 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
The proposed study aims to investigate the micromechanical behavior of a reinforced polymer matrix with fly ash cenospheres. This study involves utilizing random sequential adsorption (RSA) theory to describe the distribution of the cenosphere particles in the polymer matrix at the microscale level, [...] Read more.
The proposed study aims to investigate the micromechanical behavior of a reinforced polymer matrix with fly ash cenospheres. This study involves utilizing random sequential adsorption (RSA) theory to describe the distribution of the cenosphere particles in the polymer matrix at the microscale level, and to develop a finite element (FE) model based on volume representative element (RVE) theory that represents the microstructure of the composite. The FE model is then to be validated by conducting laboratory experiments. The validated FE model will be used for virtual testing to explore and develop cenosphere composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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4 pages, 187 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Methodology for an Automated Three-Dimensional Heathland Assessment Workflow in Support of Bushfire Behaviour Modelling
by Nina Homainejad, Sisi Zlatanova, Norbert Pfeifer and Samad M. E. Sepasgozar
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2021, 12(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2021012024 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Bushfires are an intrinsic part of Australia, especially in the Blue Mountains (11,400 km2), New South Wales (NSW). This region is dominated by fire-prone vegetation, such as heathland. Heathlands occupy a small portion of the Blue Mountains, less than 2%, but [...] Read more.
Bushfires are an intrinsic part of Australia, especially in the Blue Mountains (11,400 km2), New South Wales (NSW). This region is dominated by fire-prone vegetation, such as heathland. Heathlands occupy a small portion of the Blue Mountains, less than 2%, but are highly combustible and can transition surface to crown fire. Three-dimensional vegetation models are essential for effective bushfire behaviour modelling and efficient bushfire combat. Therefore, this paper outlines the motivation for an automated three-dimensional heathland model and the workflow for implementing this model in support of bushfire behaviour modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of The 3rd Built Environment Research Forum)
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