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Eng, Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Intersections are crash black spots on roadway networks as they experience a higher crash frequency and injury severity. This study aimed to identify the roadway geometric elements, intersection characteristics, and environmental conditions impacting crash injury severity at intersections. The study explored the role of pavement friction (skid resistance) in intersection safety. The findings will help in planning better safety management plans for roadway intersections. View this paper
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23 pages, 7939 KiB  
Article
Geomechanical Feasibility Analysis of Salt Cavern Gas Storage Construction in Sanshui Basin, Guangdong Province
by Haitao Li, Qiqi Wanyan, Guosheng Ding, Kang Li, Yanxia Kou, Song Bai, Lina Ran, Jianan Wu and Jingen Deng
Eng 2022, 3(4), 709-731; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040048 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2402
Abstract
Salt cavern gas storage has become the key project of current and future underground gas storage (UGS) facilities construction due to their efficient peak-shaving and supply assurance capacities. The Sanshui Basin in Guangdong Province, China, is rich in salt resources and has high-purity [...] Read more.
Salt cavern gas storage has become the key project of current and future underground gas storage (UGS) facilities construction due to their efficient peak-shaving and supply assurance capacities. The Sanshui Basin in Guangdong Province, China, is rich in salt resources and has high-purity salt rock, which is a potential area for the construction of salt cavern underground gas storage. To speed up the large-scale construction of underground gas storage in China and promote the sustainable development of the natural gas market, it is very necessary to analyze the geomechanics of the target salt layer and study the feasibility of gas storage construction. Based on comprehensive experiments of rock mechanics and thermodynamics, the strength, creep and temperature-sensitive mechanical properties of the target rock in Sanshui Basin were studied. Then, according to the geological conditions of Sanshui salt formation, a three-dimensional geological model was established to analyze the stability of salt cavern gas storage under the injection-production operation. The results show that the average tensile strength and uniaxial compressive strength of salt rock are 1.51 MPa and 26.04 MPa, respectively, showing lower strength. However, under triaxial compression, the compressive strength of salt rock increases significantly, and there is no obvious shear failure phenomenon observed. Moreover, after the peak strength, the salt rock still has a large bearing capacity. In addition, under the confining pressure of 30 MPa, the strength of salt rock decreases by 8.3% at a temperature of 60 °C compared with that at room temperature, indicating that the temperature has a low, modest effect on the mechanical properties of salt rock. The stability analysis shows that, under an injection-production operating pressure of 10–23 MPa, the displacement, plastic zone range and volume convergence rate of single cavity and cavity group are small, and the cavity shows good stability. Overall, the target salt formation in Sanshui Basin, Guangdong Province, presents a good geomechanical condition suitable for the construction of underground salt cavern gas storage. This study can provide a reference for the development and design of salt cavern UGS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GeoEnergy Science and Engineering)
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16 pages, 8127 KiB  
Article
Real-Time Human Authentication System Based on Iris Recognition
by Huma Hafeez, Muhammad Naeem Zafar, Ch Asad Abbas, Hassan Elahi and Muhammad Osama Ali
Eng 2022, 3(4), 693-708; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040047 - 15 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3568
Abstract
Biometrics deals with the recognition of humans based on their unique physical characteristics. It can be based on face identification, iris, fingerprint and DNA. In this paper, we have considered the iris as a source of biometric verification as it is the unique [...] Read more.
Biometrics deals with the recognition of humans based on their unique physical characteristics. It can be based on face identification, iris, fingerprint and DNA. In this paper, we have considered the iris as a source of biometric verification as it is the unique part of eye which can never be altered, and it remains the same throughout the life of an individual. We have proposed the improved iris recognition system including image registration as a main step as well as the edge detection method for feature extraction. The PCA-based method is also proposed as an independent iris recognition method based on a similarity score. Experiments conducted using our own developed database demonstrate that the first proposed system reduced the computation time to 6.56 sec, and it improved the accuracy to 99.73, while the PCA-based method has less accuracy than this system does. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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16 pages, 4635 KiB  
Article
On the “Thixotropic” Behavior of Fresh Cement Pastes
by Youssef El Bitouri and Nathalie Azéma
Eng 2022, 3(4), 677-692; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040046 - 14 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2048
Abstract
Thixotropic behavior describes a time-dependent rheological behavior characterized by reversible changes. Fresh cementitious materials often require thixotropic behavior to ensure sufficient workability and proper casting without vibration. Non-thixotropic behavior induces a workability loss. Cementitious materials cannot be considered as an ideal thixotropic material [...] Read more.
Thixotropic behavior describes a time-dependent rheological behavior characterized by reversible changes. Fresh cementitious materials often require thixotropic behavior to ensure sufficient workability and proper casting without vibration. Non-thixotropic behavior induces a workability loss. Cementitious materials cannot be considered as an ideal thixotropic material due to cement hydration, which leads to irreversible changes. However, in some cases, cement paste may demonstrate thixotropic behavior during the dormant period of cement hydration. The aim of this work is to propose an approach able to quantify the contribution of cement hydration during the dormant period and to examine the conditions under which the cement paste may display thixotropic behavior. The proposed approach consists of a succession of stress growth procedures that allow the static yield stress to be measured. For an inert material, such as a calcite suspension, the structural build-up is due to the flocculation induced by attractive Van der Waals forces. This structural build-up is reversible. For cement paste, there is a significant increase in the static yield stress due to cement hydration. The addition of superplasticizer allows the thixotropic behavior to be maintained during the first hours due to its retarding effect. However, an increase in the superplasticizer dosage leads to a decrease in the magnitude of the Van der Waals forces, which can erase the thixotropic behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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15 pages, 3190 KiB  
Article
Is Decentralized Anaerobic Digestion a Solution? Analyzing Biogas Production and Residential Energy Demand
by Marcos Ellacuriaga, Rubén González and Xiomar Gómez
Eng 2022, 3(4), 662-676; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040045 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
The answer to covering the energy demand of society by increasing the share of renewables must come from the conjunction of several technologies. A preliminary study on the feasibility of anaerobic digestion in residential housing and buildings was carried out, considering a mix [...] Read more.
The answer to covering the energy demand of society by increasing the share of renewables must come from the conjunction of several technologies. A preliminary study on the feasibility of anaerobic digestion in residential housing and buildings was carried out, considering a mix of novel and traditional technologies. Different scenarios were evaluated for developed and developing countries, considering small communities and single housing configurations. Anaerobic digestion produces biogas to be used for cooking or heat production, thus aiding in covering the energy demand of residents. There are several aspects still pending a solution regarding medium and small-scale digestion applications under a decentralized waste configuration. The increase in reactor productivity is essential, but social aspects must be considered as well to prevent nuisance caused by offensive odors and legal responsibilities when community digesters create inconvenience to neighbors. Results indicated that using anaerobic digestion to treat residential food and garden waste under a decentralized configuration could scarcely cover 5.8% of the domestic heating demand for highly populated residential urban areas. This value may be increased if assumptions of maximum methane yields are considered, reaching up to 17%. Biological processes may be integrated into a mixed energy production approach, but higher yields are needed to make it realistic. Factors regarding levelized energy production costs are to be carefully considered. Large-scale systems are intrinsically more efficient than small-scale devices, thus making it crucial to establish a critical equilibrium between public acceptance and the scale of technology application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development)
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16 pages, 668 KiB  
Review
A Review of Torque Ripple Reduction Design Methods for Radial Flux PM Motors
by Sergio I. Suriano-Sánchez, Mario Ponce-Silva, Víctor H. Olivares-Peregrino and Susana E. De León-Aldaco
Eng 2022, 3(4), 646-661; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040044 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2988
Abstract
Nowadays the efficient use of energy is a major issue in applications such as electric vehicles. However, there are some phenomena that affect electric vehicle performance. One of those phenomena is the torque ripple of electric motors, which interferes with traction and the [...] Read more.
Nowadays the efficient use of energy is a major issue in applications such as electric vehicles. However, there are some phenomena that affect electric vehicle performance. One of those phenomena is the torque ripple of electric motors, which interferes with traction and the suspension system (causing vibration that stresses this system), and it can also introduce electric current harmonics into the battery, reducing its life, since torque ripple is partly a consequence of non-sinusoidal back EMF. For those reasons this is a topic worth investigating. The torque ripple of permanent magnets (PM) motors can be reduced in design or through control. Since control techniques have been reviewed and design methods have not, this paper presents a comparison of several design techniques to reduce torque ripple by different approaches and categorize them to show the characteristics of each group. A discussion is then made about the advantages and disadvantages of the designs, in general, as well as some comments about the missing, but important information, in the papers, such as the effects on efficiency. The study shows that a combination of methods provide the best results, although it complicates fabrication and suggests that this is a promising line of future investigation on torque ripple reduction methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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11 pages, 5906 KiB  
Article
Rutting Performance of Nano-Silica-Modified C320 Bitumen
by Nuha S. Mashaan
Eng 2022, 3(4), 635-645; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040043 - 9 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Nanomaterials exhibit novel properties and profound attributes as an additive in asphalt binder modification. However, the application of nano-silica in asphalt binders and mixture modification is still limited, and further research is required. Along these lines, in this work, nano-silica with a content [...] Read more.
Nanomaterials exhibit novel properties and profound attributes as an additive in asphalt binder modification. However, the application of nano-silica in asphalt binders and mixture modification is still limited, and further research is required. Along these lines, in this work, nano-silica with a content from 2% to 8% and an increment of 2% was utilized in modifying the bitumen binder type C320, which is considered the most conventional type of bitumen used in Western Australia road asphalt mixtures. Various tests were performed to assess their properties, including complex shear modulus, penetration, softening point, and multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR) test. The extracted results revealed an increase in the strength and stiffness properties by lowering the penetration, improving the softening point, and increasing the complex shear modulus of all the nano-silica-modified bitumen samples. Interestingly, much of the content of nano-silica leads to higher rutting resistance. However, the rutting resistance was affected by the size of the nano-silica coated with the silane coupling agent. The ideal sample of nano-silica-modified C320 was determined as NS-15 nm (NS-A), which can improve the rutting resistance by about 7.1 kPa. In the current study, the results of the penetration and softening point using 6–8% of NS-A resulted in a relatively significant improvement of up to 45% in comparison with the non-modified binders. Nevertheless, the rutting resistance of the modified asphalt mixtures needs to be further investigated in the future to elaborate on the impact of nano-silica as modified binders on the mechanical properties of Australian asphalt mixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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15 pages, 2300 KiB  
Article
Methods of Creating Information Databases for Vegetation Fire Behavior Prediction
by Aleksandra Volokitina, Tatiana Sofronova and Mikhail Korets
Eng 2022, 3(4), 620-634; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040042 - 6 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Methods of creating information databases for predicting the behavior of vegetation fires are analyzed. A brief description is given of the developed classification of vegetation fuels (VF), which is based on long-term fundamental pyrological research conducted in various regions of Russia. Examples of [...] Read more.
Methods of creating information databases for predicting the behavior of vegetation fires are analyzed. A brief description is given of the developed classification of vegetation fuels (VF), which is based on long-term fundamental pyrological research conducted in various regions of Russia. Examples of information databases have been created. The results of using the developed software for making VF maps based on forest inventory data in GIS and for fire behavior prediction are presented. Successful retrospective software performance tests have been carried out using the data of 125 wildfires in plain conditions and 10 wildfires in mountain conditions. A field performance test of the software is planned on active wildfires in the most fire-prone region of Siberia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
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24 pages, 7097 KiB  
Article
Infrared Spectroscopy for the Quality Control of a Granular Tebuthiuron Formulation
by Joel B. Johnson, Hugh Farquhar, Mansel Ismay and Mani Naiker
Eng 2022, 3(4), 596-619; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040041 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Tebuthiuron is a selective herbicide for woody species and is commonly manufactured and sold as a granular formulation. This project investigated the use of infrared spectroscopy for the quality analysis of tebuthiuron granules, specifically the prediction of moisture content and tebuthiuron content. A [...] Read more.
Tebuthiuron is a selective herbicide for woody species and is commonly manufactured and sold as a granular formulation. This project investigated the use of infrared spectroscopy for the quality analysis of tebuthiuron granules, specifically the prediction of moisture content and tebuthiuron content. A comparison of different methods showed that near-infrared spectroscopy showed better results than mid-infrared spectroscopy, while a handheld NIR instrument (MicroNIR) showed slightly improved results over a benchtop NIR instrument (Antaris II FT-NIR Analyzer). The best-performing models gave an R2CV of 0.92 and RMSECV of 0.83% w/w for moisture content, and R2CV of 0.50 and RMSECV of 7.5 mg/g for tebuthiuron content. This analytical technique could be used to optimise the manufacturing process and reduce the costs of post-manufacturing quality assurance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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23 pages, 4352 KiB  
Review
Fundamentals of Climatology for Engineers: Lecture Note
by Shiblu Sarker
Eng 2022, 3(4), 573-595; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040040 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4925
Abstract
The study of climatology serves as a foundation for students who wish to specialize in water resources, hydrology, or environmental engineering. Climatology is the study of long-term average weather patterns. It is a distinct field of study from meteorology and is subdivided into [...] Read more.
The study of climatology serves as a foundation for students who wish to specialize in water resources, hydrology, or environmental engineering. Climatology is the study of long-term average weather patterns. It is a distinct field of study from meteorology and is subdivided into a number of subfields. In order to predict the future hydrologic and hydraulic scenarios, knowledge of climatology is essential. In other words, climatology allows us to determine the likelihood of snowfall and hail, the amount of solar thermal radiation that can reach a specific location, etc. Climatology focuses frequently on how the climate has changed over time and how these changes have affected people and events. The primary objective of this technical note is to acquaint and encourage engineers with the basics of the climate and its processes so that they can understand the climatic impact on water resource systems as beginners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
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19 pages, 5326 KiB  
Review
All-Purpose Nano- and Microcontainers: A Review of the New Engineering Possibilities
by George Kordas
Eng 2022, 3(4), 554-572; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040039 - 30 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1416
Abstract
Recently, a subcategory of nanotechnology—nano-, and microcontainers—has developed rapidly, with unexpected results. By nano- and microcontainers, we mean hollow spherical structures whose shells can be organic or inorganic. These containers can be filled with substances released when given an excitation, and fulfill their [...] Read more.
Recently, a subcategory of nanotechnology—nano-, and microcontainers—has developed rapidly, with unexpected results. By nano- and microcontainers, we mean hollow spherical structures whose shells can be organic or inorganic. These containers can be filled with substances released when given an excitation, and fulfill their missions of corrosion healing, cancer therapy, cement healing, antifouling, etc. This review summarizes the scattered innovative technology that has beneficial effects on improving people’s lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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13 pages, 6235 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Color Anomaly Detection in Multispectral Images for Synthetic Aperture Sensing
by Francis Seits, Indrajit Kurmi and Oliver Bimber
Eng 2022, 3(4), 541-553; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040038 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1973
Abstract
In this article, we evaluate unsupervised anomaly detection methods in multispectral images obtained with a wavelength-independent synthetic aperture sensing technique called Airborne Optical Sectioning (AOS). With a focus on search and rescue missions that apply drones to locate missing or injured persons in [...] Read more.
In this article, we evaluate unsupervised anomaly detection methods in multispectral images obtained with a wavelength-independent synthetic aperture sensing technique called Airborne Optical Sectioning (AOS). With a focus on search and rescue missions that apply drones to locate missing or injured persons in dense forest and require real-time operation, we evaluate the runtime vs. quality of these methods. Furthermore, we show that color anomaly detection methods that normally operate in the visual range always benefit from an additional far infrared (thermal) channel. We also show that, even without additional thermal bands, the choice of color space in the visual range already has an impact on the detection results. Color spaces such as HSV and HLS have the potential to outperform the widely used RGB color space, especially when color anomaly detection is used for forest-like environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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18 pages, 1227 KiB  
Article
Dispersive Optical Solitons for Stochastic Fokas-Lenells Equation With Multiplicative White Noise
by Elsayed M. E. Zayed, Mahmoud El-Horbaty, Mohamed E. M. Alngar and Mona El-Shater
Eng 2022, 3(4), 523-540; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040037 - 28 Nov 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1322
Abstract
For the first time, we study the Fokas–Lenells equation in polarization preserving fibers with multiplicative white noise in Itô sense. Four integration algorithms are applied, namely, the method of modified simple equation (MMSE), the method of sine-cosine (MSC), the method of Jacobi elliptic [...] Read more.
For the first time, we study the Fokas–Lenells equation in polarization preserving fibers with multiplicative white noise in Itô sense. Four integration algorithms are applied, namely, the method of modified simple equation (MMSE), the method of sine-cosine (MSC), the method of Jacobi elliptic equation (MJEE) and ansatze involving hyperbolic functions. Jacobi-elliptic function solutions, bright, dark, singular, combo dark-bright and combo bright-dark solitons are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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19 pages, 1295 KiB  
Article
A Novel Method for Controlling Crud Deposition in Nuclear Reactors Using Optimization Algorithms and Deep Neural Network Based Surrogate Models
by Brian Andersen, Jason Hou, Andrew Godfrey and Dave Kropaczek
Eng 2022, 3(4), 504-522; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040036 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
This work presents the use of a high-fidelity neural network surrogate model within a Modular Optimization Framework for treatment of crud deposition as a constraint within light-water reactor core loading pattern optimization. The neural network was utilized for the treatment of crud constraints [...] Read more.
This work presents the use of a high-fidelity neural network surrogate model within a Modular Optimization Framework for treatment of crud deposition as a constraint within light-water reactor core loading pattern optimization. The neural network was utilized for the treatment of crud constraints within the context of an advanced genetic algorithm applied to the core design problem. This proof-of-concept study shows that loading pattern optimization aided by a neural network surrogate model can optimize the manner in which crud distributes within a nuclear reactor without impacting operational parameters such as enrichment or cycle length. Several analysis methods were investigated. Analysis found that the surrogate model and genetic algorithm successfully minimized the deviation from a uniform crud distribution against a population of solutions from a reference optimization in which the crud distribution was not optimized. Strong evidence is presented that shows boron deposition in crud can be optimized through the loading pattern. This proof-of-concept study shows that the methods employed provide a powerful tool for mitigating the effects of crud deposition in nuclear reactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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16 pages, 2183 KiB  
Article
Techno-Economic Assessment of an Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) Biorefinery in the Context of Circular Bioeconomy
by Yannis Mouzakitis and Emmanuel D. Adamides
Eng 2022, 3(4), 488-503; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040035 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2151
Abstract
The concept of biorefinery constitutes a significant contributing factor to the emerging transition toward a sustainable bioeconomy. In such a context, replacing oil and petrochemicals by biomass may involve several feedstocks, platforms, processes, technologies, as well as final products. This paper concentrates on [...] Read more.
The concept of biorefinery constitutes a significant contributing factor to the emerging transition toward a sustainable bioeconomy. In such a context, replacing oil and petrochemicals by biomass may involve several feedstocks, platforms, processes, technologies, as well as final products. This paper concentrates on the complex process of transferring the concept of biorefinery from laboratory to industry, and sheds light on the techno-economic and complexity management dimensions involved in this endeavor. Toward this end, adopting a systems perspective, the paper presents a structured and comprehensive framework, comprising the definition of the transformation process, business model development, techno-economic assessment, as well as strategic positioning and viability assessment, which may be employed to facilitate the engineering at large and launch a biorefining venture in a circular bioeconomy context. The framework is applied in the context of a biorefinery plant in a specific region in southern Greece, which is based on the valorization of olive mill wastewater (a ‘strong’ and quite common industrial waste in the Mediterranean basin), and produces biopolymers (PHAs) and bioenergy (H2). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bioengineering Approaches for Biopolymers and Composites)
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12 pages, 5050 KiB  
Review
How to Predict Premature Multiphase Steel Cracks during Edge Flangeability
by Lucas Salomao Peres, João Henrique C. Souza and Gilmar Ferreira Batalha
Eng 2022, 3(4), 476-487; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040034 - 17 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
The present paper makes a critical review based on the literature and presents examples of experiments developed by the authors, showing how the hole expansion ratio test (HERT) could be useful to understand and avoid premature cracks caused by flanging operations in sheet [...] Read more.
The present paper makes a critical review based on the literature and presents examples of experiments developed by the authors, showing how the hole expansion ratio test (HERT) could be useful to understand and avoid premature cracks caused by flanging operations in sheet metal parts made of advanced high-strength steels. An approach based on damage theory was evaluated along with the mechanical tests necessary to understand the phenomenon, the influence of the trimming process, and the correlation between experimental mechanical testing and simulations. The procedures presented in this work allow for the prediction of edge cracks, often verified after flanging steps during the stamping process, allowing for reductions in tooling costs and setup loops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue REPER Recent Materials Engineering Performances)
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9 pages, 3958 KiB  
Article
A Novel Planar Power Divider/Combiner for Wideband High-Power Applications
by Hamed Tadayon, Mansoor Dashti Ardakani, Reza Karimian, Shahrokh Ahmadi and Mona Zaghloul
Eng 2022, 3(4), 467-475; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040033 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
This manuscript presents a novel wideband power divider with high power handling capability. The power handling capacity of the power divider is increased through the use of grounded 50 ohm loads. The full circuit analysis of a single section of the proposed structure [...] Read more.
This manuscript presents a novel wideband power divider with high power handling capability. The power handling capacity of the power divider is increased through the use of grounded 50 ohm loads. The full circuit analysis of a single section of the proposed structure is presented utilizing even and odd modes and ABCD matrices. The final designed sections are cascaded and extended to achieve a high bandwidth response for the target of X-band. The structure was designed and optimized with the method of moments based on ADS software and simulated in HFSS for 3D full-wave analysis. A prototype module was fabricated and measured for experimental validation. The simulation results were confirmed by through measurements for the frequency band of 7–12 GHz (more than 52% fractional bandwidth). A divider such as the proposed one has a significantly higher power handling capacity than Wilkinson, as well as a wider frequency bandwidth than Gysel power dividers. As a wideband high-power power divider, the proposed device is ideal for high-data rate radar or satellite applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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28 pages, 6801 KiB  
Article
Interference Mitigation for GNSS Receivers Using FFT Excision Filtering Implemented on an FPGA
by Tasneem Yousif and Paul Blunt
Eng 2022, 3(4), 439-466; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040032 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2929
Abstract
GNSS receivers process signals with very low received power levels (<−160 dBW) and, therefore GNSS signals are susceptible to interference. Interference mitigation algorithms have become common in GNSS receiver designs in both professional and mass-market applications to combat both unintentional and intentional (jamming) [...] Read more.
GNSS receivers process signals with very low received power levels (<−160 dBW) and, therefore GNSS signals are susceptible to interference. Interference mitigation algorithms have become common in GNSS receiver designs in both professional and mass-market applications to combat both unintentional and intentional (jamming) interference. Interference excision filters using fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) have been proposed in the past as a powerful method of interference mitigation. However, the hardware implementations of this algorithm mostly limited their use to military GNSS receivers where greater power and resources were available. Novel implementation of existing FPGA technology should make interference mitigation feasible with limited hardware resources. This paper details the practicalities of implementing excision filters on currently available FPGAs trading off the achievable performance against the required hardware resources. The hardware implementation of the FFT excision mitigation algorithm is validated with the GNSS software receiver. The results indicate that the desired performance of the developed algorithm has achieved the expectations and can provide significant improvement on mitigation techniques in current GNSS receiver hardware. Two hardware implementation designs (fixed-point and float-point data type format) are developed and compared to achieve the optimal design that can provide the best performance (C/No) with the possible minimum hardware resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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15 pages, 1535 KiB  
Article
Maximum Power Point Tracking Implementation under Partial Shading Conditions Using Low-Cost Photovoltaic Emulator
by Mostafa Ahmed, Ibrahim Harbi, Ralph Kennel and Mohamed Abdelrahem
Eng 2022, 3(4), 424-438; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040031 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a pivotal objective for photovoltaic (PV) systems. To test various MPPT techniques, a reliable and effective PV emulator is required. Therefore, this article proposes a low-cost PV emulator for partial shading conditions, in which a cascaded structure [...] Read more.
Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a pivotal objective for photovoltaic (PV) systems. To test various MPPT techniques, a reliable and effective PV emulator is required. Therefore, this article proposes a low-cost PV emulator for partial shading conditions, in which a cascaded structure of a DC power source with a resistor is constructed to generate the multiple peaks of the power-voltage (P-V) curve. The proposed structure is simple and modular. Consequently, it can be extended to obtain several peaks in the P-V characteristics to emulate more complex partial shading conditions. The partial shading occurrence over the PV source (PV array) causes a significant power loss production from the PV system. To increase the PV system’s efficiency, optimization techniques are employed to harness the global power. Accordingly, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique is used to track the global peak. Furthermore, the conventional perturb and observe (P&O) method is applied for comparison and investigation. The proposed PV emulation system is validated under different operating conditions using simulation and experimental hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
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12 pages, 440 KiB  
Article
Investigating The Impact of Roadway Characteristics on Intersection Crash Severity
by Mostafa Sharafeldin, Ahmed Farid and Khaled Ksaibati
Eng 2022, 3(4), 412-423; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040030 - 8 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Intersections are commonly recognized as crash hot spots on roadway networks. Therefore, intersection safety is a major concern for transportation professionals. Identifying and quantifying the impact of crash contributing factors is crucial to planning and implementing the appropriate countermeasures. This study covered the [...] Read more.
Intersections are commonly recognized as crash hot spots on roadway networks. Therefore, intersection safety is a major concern for transportation professionals. Identifying and quantifying the impact of crash contributing factors is crucial to planning and implementing the appropriate countermeasures. This study covered the analysis of nine years of intersection crash records in the State of Wyoming to identify the contributing factors to crash injury severity at intersections. The study involved the investigation of the influence of roadway (intersection) and environmental characteristics on crash injury severity. The results demonstrated that several parameters related to intersection attributes (pavement friction; urban location; roadway functional classification; guardrails; right shoulder width) and two environmental conditions (road surface condition and lighting) influence the injury severity of intersection crashes. This study identified the significant roadway characteristics influencing crash severity and explored the key role of pavement friction, which is a commonly omitted variable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Eng 2022)
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12 pages, 2489 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of CuAl-, CoAl-, and CuCoAl-Catalysts from Layered Hydroxides for Furfural Hydrogenation
by Liudmila N. Stepanova, Roman M. Mironenko, Elena O. Kobzar, Natalia N. Leont’eva, Tatiana I. Gulyaeva, Anastasia V. Vasilevich, Aleksandra N. Serkova, Aleksei N. Salanov and Aleksandr V. Lavrenov
Eng 2022, 3(4), 400-411; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040029 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1521
Abstract
Catalysts based on CuAl-, CoAl-, and CuCoAl-layered hydroxides with M2+/Al = 2 and Cu/Co = 1 molar ratio were obtained. The effect of amount of cobalt on the structural properties, morphology, surface cations distribution, oxide phase formation, thermal stability of the [...] Read more.
Catalysts based on CuAl-, CoAl-, and CuCoAl-layered hydroxides with M2+/Al = 2 and Cu/Co = 1 molar ratio were obtained. The effect of amount of cobalt on the structural properties, morphology, surface cations distribution, oxide phase formation, thermal stability of the samples and reduction of metals from them was studied. The effect of reaction conditions (temperature, time, pressure, solvent) and conditions of preliminary treatment of catalysts on their catalytic properties in furfural hydrogenation was established. High selectivity to furfuryl alcohol was observed for all the samples irrespective of pretreatment and reaction conditions. The synergetic effect in furfural hydrogenation between Co and Cu in the CuCoAlOx catalysts was revealed when ethanol is used as a solvent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Engineering for Sustainable Development)
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13 pages, 4881 KiB  
Article
Actions for the Conservation and Restoration of the Dunes and Wetlands in the Salinas of San Pedro del Pinatar: LIFE-Salinas Project (Murcia, Southeast of Spain)
by Gustavo A. Ballesteros-Pelegrín, Ramón García-Marín, Daniel Ibarra-Marinas, Jorge Sánchez-Balibrea, Francisco Belmonte-Serrato, Antonio Zamora-López, Julio Francisco Fernández-Ramos and Nerea Martínez-Arnal
Eng 2022, 3(4), 387-399; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng3040028 - 28 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1566
Abstract
The LIFE SALINAS project, co-financed by the European Union, aims for the conservation and improvement of the protected area named the Regional Park of Las Salinas and Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar (Region of Murcia, Spain). The main objectives are, among others, [...] Read more.
The LIFE SALINAS project, co-financed by the European Union, aims for the conservation and improvement of the protected area named the Regional Park of Las Salinas and Arenales de San Pedro del Pinatar (Region of Murcia, Spain). The main objectives are, among others, to stop the erosion of the dunes in front of a 500 m long beach and to expand the breeding habitat of aquatic birds. Between the dune and the beach, a barrier was placed to protect the dune from the effects of storms. The dunes were fenced, placed with sand traps and revegetation was carried out with native species in the most degraded areas. Within the salt pans, 1800 m of new sandy dikes were built to separate the salt ponds. The results have been the recovery of the dune ecosystem and the increase in the population of nesting aquatic birds and other species, as well as an increase in the quality and production of salt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical, Civil and Environmental Engineering)
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