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Heritage, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 17 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Early Observations on the Steamer Bengala (Formerly Named Mecca and Livorno) Sunk off Capo Rizzuto (Crotone, Italy) in 1889
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 891-914; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030049 (registering DOI) - 13 Aug 2020
Abstract
In the waters of the Calabrian Ionian Sea, off Isola di Capo Rizzuto (Crotone, Italy) and at a depth of 26–29 m, lies the wreck of Bengala, an iron screw-steamer foundered in 1889. She was built and launched in 1871 in Sunderland [...] Read more.
In the waters of the Calabrian Ionian Sea, off Isola di Capo Rizzuto (Crotone, Italy) and at a depth of 26–29 m, lies the wreck of Bengala, an iron screw-steamer foundered in 1889. She was built and launched in 1871 in Sunderland (Great Britain) in the yards of Iliff, Mounsey, and Co. (Sunderland), with the name of Mecca and her British owner was Mr. Ralph Milbanke Hudson Junior. In 1872 she was sold to the Lloyd Italiano company and was rechristened as Livorno. In 1876 her ownership changed once more and she became part of the fleet of the Genoese shipping company Rubattino and Co. with the name Bengala. The steamer was sold for the last time at the launch of the Navigazione Generale Italiana in 1881, one of the largest shipping companies in Europe. Until now, no scientific study has been dedicated to this topic and the few references in the literature are often incorrect. For this reason, in the pages that follow, a broad historical account of the events concerning the steamer is offered for the first time, linking them to the complex events of the Italian merchant navy of that period. This is followed by the analysis of underwater archaeological evidence, with a view to carrying out more detailed investigations in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Evaluation of Geospatial Semantic Web Frameworks for Cultural Heritage
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 875-890; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030048 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 132
Abstract
Recently, many Resource Description Framework (RDF) data generation tools have been developed to convert geospatial and non-geospatial data into RDF data. Furthermore, there are several interlinking frameworks that find semantically equivalent geospatial resources in related RDF data sources. However, many existing Linked Open [...] Read more.
Recently, many Resource Description Framework (RDF) data generation tools have been developed to convert geospatial and non-geospatial data into RDF data. Furthermore, there are several interlinking frameworks that find semantically equivalent geospatial resources in related RDF data sources. However, many existing Linked Open Data sources are currently sparsely interlinked. Also, many RDF generation and interlinking frameworks require a solid knowledge of Semantic Web and Geospatial Semantic Web concepts to successfully deploy them. This article comparatively evaluates features and functionality of the current state-of-the-art geospatial RDF generation tools and interlinking frameworks. This evaluation is specifically performed for cultural heritage researchers and professionals who have limited expertise in computer programming. Hence, a set of criteria has been defined to facilitate the selection of tools and frameworks. In addition, the article provides a methodology to generate geospatial cultural heritage RDF data and to interlink it with the related RDF data. This methodology uses a CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) ontology and interlinks the RDF data with DBpedia. Although this methodology has been developed for cultural heritage researchers and professionals, it may also be used by other domain professionals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Brightly Colored to Stay in the Dark. Revealing of the Polychromy of the Lot Sarcophagus in the Catacomb of San Sebastiano in Rome
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 858-874; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030047 - 27 Jul 2020
Viewed by 206
Abstract
The Lot Sarcophagus is one of the most relevant funerary sculptures of late antiquity (mid-4th century AC). Some of the remarkable aspects are the following (i) it is still preserved in situ; (ii) most of the carved scenes are rarities or unicum; (iii) [...] Read more.
The Lot Sarcophagus is one of the most relevant funerary sculptures of late antiquity (mid-4th century AC). Some of the remarkable aspects are the following (i) it is still preserved in situ; (ii) most of the carved scenes are rarities or unicum; (iii) not all the sculpture work has been completed, which allows us to analyse the executive process; (iv) many traces of polychromy have remained. This paper is focused on the characterization of the residual polychromy by using in-situ non-invasive techniques. Furthermore, few micro samples were taken, to be analysed in laboratory to study the composition of some deposits and to define if a preparatory layer was present under the coloured layer. The data showed that the very rich polychromy of the Lot Sarcophagus was made of Egyptian blue, yellow ochre, and three different types of red: two inorganics (red ochre and cinnabar), and one organic-based (madder lake). Furthermore, some decorations, completely vanished and no longer visible to the naked eye, have been rediscovered, also providing details on the construction phases. During the project, the 3D model of the sarcophagus was acquired, which afterwards was used to map the results of the diagnostic campaign. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geosciences for Cultural Heritage and Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterizing the Preservation Potential of Buried Marine Archaeological Sites
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 838-857; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030046 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 228
Abstract
The preservation potential of sediments from a submerged prehistoric site buried in a full marine environment was assessed using a combination of direct in situ measurements, measurements on extracted sediment cores and laboratory mesocosm experiments. The results show that first and foremost it [...] Read more.
The preservation potential of sediments from a submerged prehistoric site buried in a full marine environment was assessed using a combination of direct in situ measurements, measurements on extracted sediment cores and laboratory mesocosm experiments. The results show that first and foremost it is paramount to ascertain the state of preservation of the materials in the seabed—in this case wooden artifacts—that are to be preserved in situ. The results suggest that dissolved oxygen and sulfide are good parameters to measure in situ to assess the general oxidizing or reducing nature of the environment. If it is possible to take sediment core samples, it is similarly important to measure dissolved oxygen and hydrogen sulfide in the core and extract pore water to assess for sulfate content. Sediments should be characterized for particle size, water content (porosity) and organic content. In this way, we show that dissolved oxygen was rapidly depleted in the first few centimeters of sediment, thereafter sulfate reduction dominated the geochemical processes. Coarser sediment types with high porosity and low organic content have lower rates of organic material turnover, indicating better preservation conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Medieval Glassworks in the City of Ferrara (North Eastern Italy): The Case Study of Piazza Municipale
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 819-837; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030045 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Compositional and structural characterization was carried out on transparent glass fragments found in a brick rubbish pit discovered in basal floor of the ducal palace of Ferrara, during the excavation of Piazza Municipale. This study aims to identify raw materials and glass-working techniques [...] Read more.
Compositional and structural characterization was carried out on transparent glass fragments found in a brick rubbish pit discovered in basal floor of the ducal palace of Ferrara, during the excavation of Piazza Municipale. This study aims to identify raw materials and glass-working techniques through X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) quantitative chemical analyses and semi-quantitative Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations. The studied fragments were produced using siliceous-lime sands with natron as flux, and allowed us to better understand the production technologies in a historical period of great innovation for European glass art. The numerous findings of glass fragments discovered in brick underground cellars built for the specific purpose of household rubbish of wealthy complexes in Ferrara testify a consolidated system of separate discharge of solid waste into underground containers, which were closed and sealed once filled. The high volume of the finds indicates the absence of recycling of accumulated materials due to the well-being of the city. Compositional analysis confirmed the local production of glass shops in Ferrara during the late Middle Ages, characterized by differences with the glasses of the nearby city of Venice. Morphological analyses also defined the nature and relative abundance of the products, exploring the types and compositions of the Ferrara glass art. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geosciences for Cultural Heritage and Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Structural Health Monitoring in Historical Buildings: A Network Approach
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 796-818; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030044 - 16 Jul 2020
Viewed by 238
Abstract
Structural health monitoring (SHM) in historical buildings can be achieved through systems that rely on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Such systems have the ability to acquire information fast and reliably, making them ideal for SHM applications. Historical buildings, having been exposed to the [...] Read more.
Structural health monitoring (SHM) in historical buildings can be achieved through systems that rely on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Such systems have the ability to acquire information fast and reliably, making them ideal for SHM applications. Historical buildings, having been exposed to the wear of time, are especially sensitive to any kind of intervention. As a result, keeping them as intact as possible is a critical factor for their integrity. In the current work, a low-cost WSN system and a synchronization algorithm are developed in order to be employed for SHM of historical buildings. The synchronization of WSN-based SHM systems is critical for the collection of accurate information describing the building’s condition. The effectiveness of the assumed hardware and the synchronization algorithm were evaluated with two experiments. The first took place under laboratory conditions and its results showcase the algorithm’s accuracy of synchronization. The second experiment was conducted in a real-world environment. For that purpose, the Ionian Campus Testbed was chosen since it comprises buildings that are more than 200 years old. These buildings are appropriate since they were built with thick stone walls which help determine the system’s effectiveness under such conditions. The results derived from the second experiment showcase the effects of the packet transmission collision avoidance mechanism utilized by the assumed hardware. Finally, an estimation of the average clock skew required for accurate information gathering is derived, based on the materials comprising a historical building. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Late Roman Forest in the Delta of the River Po (Italy): Remote Sensing and 3D Maps Computation for Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 782-795; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030043 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 221
Abstract
Literary and historical sources provide information about Late Roman forests in the Delta of the River Po, in the district of Ferrara (Italy), between Vicus Aventiae (Voghenza), Sandalo, Gambulaga, Caput Gauri (Codigoro) and Castrum Cumiacli (Comacchio). Toponymy, archaeological excavations and geoarchaeological studies support [...] Read more.
Literary and historical sources provide information about Late Roman forests in the Delta of the River Po, in the district of Ferrara (Italy), between Vicus Aventiae (Voghenza), Sandalo, Gambulaga, Caput Gauri (Codigoro) and Castrum Cumiacli (Comacchio). Toponymy, archaeological excavations and geoarchaeological studies support the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of this land. In this work, after a brief examination of the ancient texts, we are going to introduce some new data concerning archaeobotanical evidence, detected by remote sensing in combination with direct surveys (on land and underwater). On the technical side, we are going to present a geomatic application for underwater measurements of ancient trunks related to discoveries in the palaeo-watercourses of the River Po (geomatic measurements, thanks to remote sensing surveys, allows us to have detailed length and diameters of trunks and trees, which are not always visible and detectable while diving) together with some satellite elevation measurement of the river banks and 3D map supported by geocomputation. Thanks to botanical data, we are able to illustrate the local context of the paleoenvironmental/archaeological sites, offering a reconstruction of the landscape and of the use of the wood. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Using KOCOA Military Terrain Analysis for the Assessment of Twentieth Century Battlefield Landscapes
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 753-781; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030042 - 13 Jul 2020
Viewed by 222
Abstract
Military terrain analysis serves as a tool to examine a battle commander’s view of a battlefield and permits to hindcast some of the rationale for actions taken. This can be augmented by physical evidence of the remains of the battle that still exist [...] Read more.
Military terrain analysis serves as a tool to examine a battle commander’s view of a battlefield and permits to hindcast some of the rationale for actions taken. This can be augmented by physical evidence of the remains of the battle that still exist in the cultural landscape. In the case of World War II-era battlefields, such terrain analysis has to take into account the influence of aerial warfare—the interrelationship between attacking aircraft and the siting of anti-aircraft guns. This paper examines these issues using the case example of the Japanese WWII-era base on Kiska in the Aleutian Islands (Alaska). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Haitian Archaeological Heritage: Understanding Its Loss and Paths to Future Preservation
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 733-752; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030041 - 11 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Haitian archaeological heritage is expressed through multiple traces of Amerindian cultures, enslaved African legacies, ruins of old colonial plantations and fortresses, and post-Haitian independence. Despite the existence of legal institutions engaged in the protection of this heritage, Haitian archaeological sites are becoming more [...] Read more.
Haitian archaeological heritage is expressed through multiple traces of Amerindian cultures, enslaved African legacies, ruins of old colonial plantations and fortresses, and post-Haitian independence. Despite the existence of legal institutions engaged in the protection of this heritage, Haitian archaeological sites are becoming more threatened because of looting, appropriation of spaces, and lands management, as well as natural hazards. This paper aims to explore the current state of archaeological heritage with the broader context of the politics of heritage in Haiti. We analyzed the conditions of archaeological sites from the northern region and addressed their place in official heritage practices. The results of this study revealed that most of the archaeological sites that reflect the complexity of Haitian history are not given much attention in the politics of heritage that prioritize the nationalistic and emblematic character of historic traces. This study highlighted the importance of a new approach that prioritizes multiple voices to address heritage matters for the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Thirty-Two Years of Integrating Archaeology and Heritage Management in Belize: A Brief History of the Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance (BVAR) Project’s Engagement with the Public
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 699-732; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030040 - 05 Jul 2020
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Since its inception in 1988, the Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance (BVAR) Project has had two major foci, that of cultural heritage management and archaeological research. While research has concentrated on excavation and survey, the heritage management focus of the project has included the [...] Read more.
Since its inception in 1988, the Belize Valley Archaeological Reconnaissance (BVAR) Project has had two major foci, that of cultural heritage management and archaeological research. While research has concentrated on excavation and survey, the heritage management focus of the project has included the preservation of ancient monuments, the integration of archaeology and tourism development, and cultural heritage education. In this paper, we provide a brief overview on the history of scientific investigations by the BVAR Project, highlighting the project’s dual heritage management and research goals. This background offers the basis in which to discuss the successes and challenges of the project’s efforts in cultural heritage management and public engagement, particularly in early conservation efforts, in its training and educational efforts, and its ongoing outreach activity. We emphasize the need to train Belizeans as professional archaeologists and conservators, to serve as the next generation of advocates for Belize’s heritage management. We offer some ideas on how research projects can make significant contributions to heritage education and preservation in the developing world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
The Contradictions of Engaged Archaeology at Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 682-698; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030039 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Engaged archaeology, like other forms of research, is replete with contradictions. Over the last several years, members of the Punta Laguna Archaeology Project—a community-based endeavor in Yucatan, Mexico—have encountered and sought to address several paradoxical questions. Do attempts to mitigate certain forms of [...] Read more.
Engaged archaeology, like other forms of research, is replete with contradictions. Over the last several years, members of the Punta Laguna Archaeology Project—a community-based endeavor in Yucatan, Mexico—have encountered and sought to address several paradoxical questions. Do attempts to mitigate certain forms of inequality unintentionally sustain other forms of inequality? Can the production of capital alleviate rather than exacerbate unequal social relationships? And, can Western social theories be marshalled to advocate for and increase Maya and other Indigenous perspectives in archaeology? This article examines these contradictory questions and analyzes them as potential sources of dialectical change. To conclude, the article suggests three new foci for engaged archaeology: intersectionality, control, and authoritative speech. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Enzymatic Activity as a Measure of Total Microbial Activity on Historical Stone
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 671-681; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030038 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 205
Abstract
Stones of historical monuments exposed to the open air deteriorate over the course of time depending on physical, chemical, and biological factors acting in co-association. Among the biological factors, microorganisms play a key role in the deterioration process of stones. Detecting the level [...] Read more.
Stones of historical monuments exposed to the open air deteriorate over the course of time depending on physical, chemical, and biological factors acting in co-association. Among the biological factors, microorganisms play a key role in the deterioration process of stones. Detecting the level of microbial activity on stones is an essential step in diagnostic and monitoring studies of stone biodeterioration, and aids in controlling the performance of treatments applied to the stones. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a practical and rapid method for the determination of microbial activity on historical stones and use this method on the Mount Nemrut monuments (MNMs) (Adiyaman, Turkey). For that purpose, the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method, frequently employed for soil environments, was adapted for the estimation and assessment of total microbial activity to understand whether microorganisms posed a potential risk for the biodeterioration of the limestones and sandstones of the MNMs. The traditional plate count method was also applied simultaneously to the same stone samples to compare and assist in the interpretation of the results of the FDA hydrolysis method, which relies on the quantitative determination of bacterial and fungal colonies in nutrient agar and malt extract agar medium, respectively. The results of the FDA hydrolysis and plate count methods showed consistency. The total microbial activity determined by the FDA hydrolysis method was low for both types of stone samples. In addition, the plate count method showed low bacterial and fungal counts on all of the samples. This revealed that microbial activity did not play an important role in the stone deterioration process on the MNMs, although different lichen species were frequently observed on both the sandstones and the limestones. Hence, further investigation must be undertaken for determination of their long-term behavior and effects on the stones of the MNMs. On the other hand, the results of the FDA hydrolysis and plate count methods showed correlation. Lower bacterial counts were observed when lower enzymatic activity was observed in the stone samples, and likewise, higher bacterial counts were observed when higher enzymatic activity was observed. Consequently, the application of the FDA hydrolysis method was determined to be reliable for the estimation of total microbial activity on historical stones. The method had obvious advantages in terms of its rapid measurement rate and sensitivity, even on small samples. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Collaborative Archaeology, Relational Memory, and Stakeholder Action at Three Henequen Haciendas in Yucatan, Mexico
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 649-670; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030037 - 02 Jul 2020
Viewed by 630
Abstract
In the Mexican state of Yucatán, the Industrial Revolution is intimately linked to the cultivation and commercialization of henequen (Agave fourcroydes). The second half of the nineteenth and the first decade of the twentieth century are most often referred to as [...] Read more.
In the Mexican state of Yucatán, the Industrial Revolution is intimately linked to the cultivation and commercialization of henequen (Agave fourcroydes). The second half of the nineteenth and the first decade of the twentieth century are most often referred to as the region’s Gilded Age. Some local families accrued immense wealth, while many peasants were essentially enslaved. The city of Mérida saw the construction of magnificent mansions, and the new port of Progreso was connected through thousands of kilometers of railroads. At the same time, the rural landscape experienced the foundation of countless new and the expansion of existing haciendas. In this article, we provide a comparison of the relational memory of local communities regarding three of these historical settlements: San Pedro Cholul, San Antonio Nohuayún, and San Antonio Sihó. We present the circumstances leading to the historical archaeology project at San Pedro and recount our efforts at involving its descendant community. In the face of the recent destruction of San Pedro’s core buildings, we end with a discussion about the potential fates of Yucatan’s henequen haciendas and a series of suggestions on how to safeguard related material remains, while allowing stakeholders to benefit from historic preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Community Engagement around the Maya Archaeological Site of Ceibal, Guatemala
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 637-648; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030036 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 271
Abstract
The Ceibal-Petexbatún Archaeological Project has built long-standing relationships in the area around Ceibal, Guatemala, particularly in the Q’eqchi’ Maya village of Las Pozas. Both Q’eqchi’ and ladino (non-indigenous) people in the region face serious, systemic problems, including a loss of access to land [...] Read more.
The Ceibal-Petexbatún Archaeological Project has built long-standing relationships in the area around Ceibal, Guatemala, particularly in the Q’eqchi’ Maya village of Las Pozas. Both Q’eqchi’ and ladino (non-indigenous) people in the region face serious, systemic problems, including a loss of access to land and an absence of economic opportunities. The ancient Maya sites in the area have been damaged by deforestation and looting. Project archaeologists seek to improve economic conditions in local communities while encouraging the preservation of cultural heritage. Here, we describe past microfinance and classroom outreach projects conducted in Las Pozas and discuss future initiatives that could make archaeological heritage more beneficial to multiple communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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Open AccessArticle
Solid Model Generation for Digitized Organic Bodies via T-Splines
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 606-636; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030035 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 219
Abstract
This paper presents a workflow for B-rep solid model generation of organic objects using T-splines constructed with quad-meshes. The aim is the creation of geometrically and topologically consistent B-rep solid models of heritage objects featuring organic shapes, which can be used in numerical [...] Read more.
This paper presents a workflow for B-rep solid model generation of organic objects using T-splines constructed with quad-meshes. The aim is the creation of geometrically and topologically consistent B-rep solid models of heritage objects featuring organic shapes, which can be used in numerical simulation based on meshless finite element analysis. Point clouds and closed triangular meshes are converted into B-rep solids with a multi-step procedure based on the preliminary extraction of quadrilateral meshes, which are used to produce T-splines. Evaluation of metric quality is carried out to quantify the difference between the final solid and input datasets. A coarse-to-fine approach can also be exploited by varying the quad-mesh resolution to preserve the level of details captured during the digitization process. Finally, meshless finite element analysis can be run with the produced solid bodies. Results for both simulated and real heritage objects are illustrated and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Use, Purpose, and Function—Letting the Artifacts Speak
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 587-605; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030034 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Archaeologists have likely collected, as a conservative estimate, billions of artifacts over the course of the history of fieldwork. We have classified chronologies and typologies of these, based on various formal and physical characteristics or ethno-historically known analogues, to give structure to our [...] Read more.
Archaeologists have likely collected, as a conservative estimate, billions of artifacts over the course of the history of fieldwork. We have classified chronologies and typologies of these, based on various formal and physical characteristics or ethno-historically known analogues, to give structure to our interpretations of the people that used them. The simple truth, nonetheless, is that we do not actually know how they were used or their intended purpose. We only make inferences—i.e., educated guesses based on the available evidence as we understand it—regarding their functions in the past and the historical behaviors they reflect. Since those inferences are so fundamental to the interpretations of archaeological materials, and the archaeological project as a whole, the way we understand materiality can significantly bias the stories we construct of the past. Recent work demonstrated seemingly contradictory evidence between attributed purpose or function versus confirmed use, however, which suggested that a basic premise of those inferences did not empirically hold to be true. In each case, the apparent contradiction was resolved by reassessing what use, purpose, and function truly mean and whether certain long-established functional categories of artifacts were in fact classifying by function. The resulting triangulation, presented here, narrows the scope on such implicit biases by addressing both empirical and conceptual aspects of artifacts. In anchoring each aspect of evaluation to an empirical body of data, we back ourselves away from our assumptions and interpretations so as to let the artifacts speak for themselves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Archaeological Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle
Addressing Problems beyond Heritage, Patrimony, and Representation:  Reflections on Twenty Years of Community Archaeology in the Southwestern Maya Lowlands
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 561-586; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030033 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 317
Abstract
Collaborative or community archaeology as a methodological approach has a long history and is becoming increasingly common in the Maya world. This article draws from the authors’ experiences on three distinct archaeological projects to discuss the benefits and obstacles we confronted while conducting [...] Read more.
Collaborative or community archaeology as a methodological approach has a long history and is becoming increasingly common in the Maya world. This article draws from the authors’ experiences on three distinct archaeological projects to discuss the benefits and obstacles we confronted while conducting collaborative research with contemporary Maya communities as well as lessons we learned that can increase the odds of a mutually beneficial partnership. After summarizing the history of the research projects and the expectations for and contributions of the scientific and community stakeholders, we propose several characteristics that were particularly helpful. These include the need for all parties to engage in sincere and sustained dialogue, to be flexible, and to take others in account when making any plans that affect them. Most importantly, we urge archaeologists to collaborate with community endeavors beyond those that are directly related to their research, offering a few examples of how archaeological skills, equipment, and social capital can be used to address a wide range of local concerns beyond patrimony and heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maya Anthropological Archaeology)
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