Next Article in Journal
Small Multispectral UAV Sensor and Its Image Fusion Capability in Cultural Heritage Applications
Next Article in Special Issue
The Implication of Vision and Colour in Cultural Heritage
Previous Article in Journal
Physical–Mechanical and Mineralogical Properties of Fired Bricks of the Archaeological Site of Harran, Turkey
Previous Article in Special Issue
Investigation of the Pigments and Glassy Matrix of Painted Enamelled Qing Dynasty Chinese Porcelains by Noninvasive On-Site Raman Microspectrometry
Open AccessArticle

Exploring the Dzi Bead with Synchrotron Light: XRD, XRF Imaging and μ-XANES Analysis

1
Department of Chemistry, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON N6A 5B7, Canada
2
Canadian Light Source, 44 Innovation Boulevard, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Heritage 2020, 3(3), 1035-1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030056
Received: 16 August 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 15 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage)
The origin of Dzi beads, also called “tian zhu”, has always been a mystery. These beads come in a variety of patterns, shapes and sizes. They have cultural and heritage significance in Tibet and areas surrounding the Himalayas. The most recognized beads are those with the “eye” pattern. They are said to ward off evil spirits. Due to their reputation, the demand for Dzi beads has increased in Asia. Herein, we report a study of a Dzi bead with a three-eye pattern using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and imaging techniques. This is a novel area for Dzi bead research using X-rays from a synchrotron light source to determine the chemical composition of the bead, if the pattern is natural or man-made or if the bead is genuine or a replica. These techniques revealed the bead to be composed of agate (silicon dioxide). An interesting feature on the bead’s surface was the etched rings, which were observed to contain regular copper hot spots on their circumference. Our results suggest that the Dzi bead was genuine and started out as an earth-formed agate, with the pattern crafted. View Full-Text
Keywords: Dzi bead; agate; X-ray diffraction; X-ray fluorescence; X-ray absorption near edge structure; X-ray imaging Dzi bead; agate; X-ray diffraction; X-ray fluorescence; X-ray absorption near edge structure; X-ray imaging
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Reinhardt, A.; Feng, R.; Xiao, Q.; Hu, Y.; Sham, T.-K. Exploring the Dzi Bead with Synchrotron Light: XRD, XRF Imaging and μ-XANES Analysis. Heritage 2020, 3, 1035-1045. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030056

AMA Style

Reinhardt A, Feng R, Xiao Q, Hu Y, Sham T-K. Exploring the Dzi Bead with Synchrotron Light: XRD, XRF Imaging and μ-XANES Analysis. Heritage. 2020; 3(3):1035-1045. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030056

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reinhardt, Averie; Feng, Renfei; Xiao, Qunfeng; Hu, Yongfeng; Sham, Tsun-Kong. 2020. "Exploring the Dzi Bead with Synchrotron Light: XRD, XRF Imaging and μ-XANES Analysis" Heritage 3, no. 3: 1035-1045. https://doi.org/10.3390/heritage3030056

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop